Ann S. (Ann Sophia) Stephens.

Pictorial history of the war for the union : a complete and reliable history of the war from its commencement to its close...together with a complete chronological analysis of the war (Volume 1) online

. (page 1 of 51)
Online LibraryAnn S. (Ann Sophia) StephensPictorial history of the war for the union : a complete and reliable history of the war from its commencement to its close...together with a complete chronological analysis of the war (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 51)
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I... •' Pi,r »..'.r.O.\S I
1043 1, 1

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of

New Yorlc.


printer & Stcreotspcr,
No. 20 North William St.


HE most difficult task, perhaps, known to liteiature, is
to write a history of events as they transpire — to arrange
facts before the hand of time has given them just posi-
tion and importance. In writing a history of the Civil
War which is now raging in the land — the most gigantic
and stupendous rebellion yet known to the world — the
magnitude of the task, and the difficulties that present
themselves, challenge a degree of moral courage almost
equal to that physical bravery which has been so con-
spicuous in the war. But if an honest intention to be just — a thorough desire
for trath, and a determination to discard all personal prejudices, can produce
a faithful history, this work lias a right to claim acceptance.

The political history of a nation, when it merges Into armed strife, is gMi-
erally a record of prejudices and of passion : .civil war is the result. In this
work the author deals not with causes, but with the terrible events that spring
out of th^ ; avoiding so far as possible the threatening clouds of political
dissension that preceded and still follow the tempest. Time, which will clear
irp obscurities and remove passion, and the intellect of a great statesman, are
necessary, before the political and military history of this war can be fittingly

In this book there is a positive rejection of those i^artizan dissensions which
^ have burst asunder the sacred ties of the greatest nation on earth, and deluged
t the soil trodden by millions of happy men with the blood of as brave a sol-

rdiery as ever drew breath. This history of the War for the Union is written
for no faction — no party — no combination of men, but for the people of every


portion of the Union. Political passions die — History lives ; and in an enlight-
ened age like this, it must be written in simple truth, or the clear-sighted
generations that follow us will detect the sophistry and falsehood. Impartial
history demands honest facts. The opinions of an historian are but the
assumptions of one mind attempting to control multitudes. The author's
duty is to give details, allowing the intelligent reader to draw his own conclu-
sions unembarrassed by obtrusive opinions, which are in all cases liable to be
influenced by prejudices.

The History of the "War for the Union is a record of stupendous events
which have given grandeur to the American arms and sorrow to every good
American heart. Taking up the thread of events where the political history
of the nation left them on the fourth of March, eighteen hundred and sixty-
one, the author has followed the ensanguined track, giving to every battle-field
its place, and every heroic act its record. The sources of information in which
the work has found its existence, have been aiithentic reports from the War
Department, the official statements of commandants on the battle-field, and
the many thrilling and graphic descriptions furnished by eye-witnesses.

In giving due credit to those persons who have aided her in the rapid com-
pletion of her first volume, the author acknowledges her great obligation to
Wm. Oland Bourne, Esq., who has devoted much time to the work, and
whose ample collection of material for history has been freely used in its pre-
paration ; and to J. J. Golder, Esq., whose research and clear judgment in
sifting truth from error, arranging facts, and superintending the work in its
progress through the press, has enabled her to place it before the j)ublic in less
than three mouths from its commencement. To Mr. Golder's critical care the
reader is indebted for the compact and excellent Chronology attached to this
volume, in which all the historical events of the war are placed in their order
of succession.

In the mechanical and artistic execution of the work, the publisher has
evinced an enthusiasm which corresjponds nobly with the great subject of the
history, and has been even lavish in pictorial embellishments. These have
been all drawn and engraved expressly for this work, at great cost ; aSd in the
truthfulness and beauty of their execution, add to the high reputation already
attained by the artists, Messrs. Waters and Son.

New York, OcUler 1, 1863. ANN S. STEPHENS.



Introduction 7

Inauguration of President Lincoln 17

The coming tenipest^The national forbearance — Mustering of rebel troops^
EtForts for conciliation — The Border States — South Carolina — Investment of Fort
Sumter— The Star of the West — Gen. Beauregard.

Fortifications in Charleston Harbor 25

The iron floating battery — Cummings Point battery — Castle Pinckney.
Bombardment of Fort Sumter 28

Storming of Fort Sumter, viewed from the land — Naval expedition for the relief
of Fort Sumter.

The Nation's Response 40

Startling effect of the news of the attack on Sumter— The President's Proclama-
tion — Departure of troops for Washington — Enthusiasm of the people — Their
devotion to the national Union — Large contributions to aid the Government.

Reinforcement of Fort Pickens 46

The harbor of Pensacola — Forts McRae and Barrancas — Description of Fort
Pickens — Its investment by rebel troops under Gen. Bragg — The Federal fleet in
the harbor — Successful landing of troops and supplies.

Burning of Harper's Ferry Arsenal 49

Through Baltimore , 59

Arrival of the Massachusetts Sixth, Col. Jones, in Baltimore — Blockade of the
streets — Attack by the mob — Defence of the military — Terrible results — The regi-
mental band — The city authorities — Intense excitement of the citizens — Penn-
sylvania troops — Mayor Brown and Marshal Kane.

Military Occupation of Annapolis, Md 61

The Eighth Massachusetts and the Seventh New York — Gen. Butler — Gov. Hicks
— the frigate Constitution — the Naval Academy — March to the Junction.

Maryland 66

Efforts of secessionists to involve the State in rebellion — Patriotic devotion of
loyal citizens — Gov. Hicks — The State Legislature — Gen. Butler in Maryland — Gen.
Cadwallader — The liabeas cor'pus act — Chief-Justice Taney.

Destruction of Gosport Navy Yard. 73

The State of the Nation before its Troops entered Virginia 76

Response of the Governors of Maryland, Delaware, North Carolina, Kentucky, and
Missouri, to the President's Proclamation — The position of Virginia — The Con-
federate Congress, at Montgomery — Jefferson Davis — The Confederate army — Let-
ters of Marque — Postal communication — Tennessee and Arkansas — Border States
Convention — Position of Missouri.

Occupation of Alexandria, Ya 83

Assassination of Col. Ellsworth — The Marshall House — J. W. Jackson — Brownell
Sketch of Ellsworth — Defection of Gen. Lee — Lieut. Tompkins' scout to Fairfax
Court House.

Battle of Great Bethel 88

Death of Major Winthrop and Lieut. Greble.
The Ambuscade at Vienna, Va 91



Review at Washington. 93

Advance of the Grand Army 94

Position of the belligerent forces — Gen. McDowell — Gen. Patterson — Gen. Johnston
— Gen. Beauregard — Advance to Fairfax and Centreville— Battle of Blackburn's

The Battle of Bull Run 98

The Federal Commanders and the movements of their forces — The engagement —
Arrival of rebel reinforcements — The climax and the retreat — The battle on the
left wing— The battle-tield at night.

Western Virginia 129

Battle of Phillipi, Va. 131

Destruction of Railroad Property • 133

Gen. McClellan in Western Virginia. 133

Battle of Scareytown 134

Battle of Rich Mountain 135

Battle of Carrick's Ford 137

Gen. Rosecrans and Col. Lander — Gen. Morris — Capt. Benham — Defeat of the

rebel forces and death of Gen. Garnett.

The West ' • 141

Missouri 143

Capture of Camp Jackson .,. : 144

Decisive action of Capt. Lyon — Gen. Frost — The Missouri liegislature — Gov. Jack-
son — Gen. Harney — Gen. Price — Gen. L^yon appoiiited to command the Department.

Cair© 150

Battle of Booneville 151

Battle of Carthage > 152

Battle of Monroe, Mo. 154

Guerrilla Bands in Missouri 155

Gen. Pope in Northern Missouri — State Convention at Jefferson City — Gen. Fre-
mont at St. Louis — Invasion of the State by Gens. Pillow and Jefi'. Thompaon —
Address of the State Convention.

Battle of Dug Springs •. 156

Skirmish at Athens, Mo 157

Battle of Wilson's Creek 159

Gen. Lyon at Springfield — Gens. Price and McCulloch — Critical position of the
Federal army — The battle — The death of Gen Lyon — Retreat of the Union army.

Kentucky 164

The neutrality of the State — Position of Gov. Magoffin — Gen. Buckner — Gen. Mc-
Clellan — The State Legislature— Decisive Union measures.

The Occupation of Paducah 168

Rebel troops ordered to withdraw from Kentucky — Attempt to form a revolution-
ary government in the State — Military movements of the rebels in Kentucky — The
loyal State government.

Naval Oi^erations 175

The Expedition to Cape Hatteras 177

Capture of Forts Hatteras and Clark 180

Western Virginia 182

Surprise at Cross Lanes , . . . . l53

Battle of Camifex Ferry 18S

Battle of Cheat Mountain Pasa 186



Engagement at Chapmansville • 188

Reconnoissance at Green Brier, Western Virginia 190

Defence of Lexington, Mo 193

The Federal forces for the defence of the town — Col. Mulligan and the Chicago
brigade — CcjIs. Marshall and Peabody — ^Advance of Gen. Price's army — The in-
vestment — The attack — Bravery of the Federal garrison — Their endurance and
privations — The surrender.

Attack on Santa Rosa Island, Fla f . . . 199

Battle of Ball's Bluflf, Va 200

Position of the Federal forces on the Potomac — Gen. Stone — Col. Baker — The pro-
posed reconnoissance — Transportation of the troops — The topography of the Vir-
ginia shore — The engagement — Death of Col. Baker — Defeat of the Federal troops
— Disastrous retreat — Gens. McClellan and Banks at Edwards Ferry— Sketch of
Col. Baker.

Battle at Camp Wild Cat, Ky 210

Battle of Romney, Va 212

Battle. of Frederickton, Mo 213

Charge of Fremont's Body-Guard at Springfield, Mo 217

The Department of Missouri 220

General review of the Department — Gen. Lyon — Get/ Fremont — His proclamation
and its modification by the President — Organization of the Federal forces — Their
advance — Negotiations with Gen. Price — Gen. Fremont removed— Appointment of
Gen. Hunter — Retreat of the Federal army — The disloyal Legislature — Adrance
of the rebel forces — Recruiting — Gen. Halleck.

The Stone Fleet 225

Battle of Camp Alleghany, Western Virginia 228

Battle of Munfordsville, Ky 230

Capture of Rebel Recritits at Milford, Mo 232

Battle of Dranesville, Va 288

Expedition to Ship Island 241

Engagement at Mount Zion, Mo 242

Arkansas and the Indians 243

Bombardment at Fort Pickens 245

Rout of Gen. Marsliall at Paiutsville, Ky 247

Battle of Middle Creek, Ky 248

Battle of Silver Creek, Mo 251

Battle of Mill Spring, Ky 255

Investment of Fort Pulaski, Ga 262

New Mexico and Arizona 266

Battle of Valvende, KM 267

Battle of Apache Canon 270

Fight at Blooming Gap, Va 273

East Tennessee under Confederate rule 275

The loyalty and devotion of the people — Despotism of the rebel leaders— Parson
Brownlow — Sufferings of the Unionists — General ZollicoflFer^Andrew Johnson —
Horace Maynard — Bridge-burning.

Capture of Fort Henry, Tenn 281

Gen. Grant's army — Gen. C. F. Smith — Com. Foote and the naval flotilla — Sailing
of the expedition — Names of the vessels and officers — The attack and surrender
— The rebel camp — Advance of the national gunboats up the Tennessee river.

The Bumside Expedition 290

Sailing of the expedition from Hampton Roads — Com. Goldsborough — The naval
forces — Gen. Burnside and the troops — Severe storm- -The fleet at Hatteras Inlet.



Capture of Roanoke Island 292

Evacuation of Bowling Green, Ky 396

Capture of Fort Donelson 298

Advance of the Federal land and naval forces from Fort Henry and Cairo — Descrip-
tion of Fort Donelson — The naval attack — Retreat of the gunboats— The army —
The land attack — The severity of the engagement — Sufferings of the Federal sol-
diers — Their courage and endurance — Protracted defence — The surrender.

The Occupation of Nashville 317

Fort Clinch and Fernandina, Fla 321

The Merriiuac and the Monitor 323

Capture of Jacksonville, Fla 330

Occupation of Columbus, Ky 333

Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark 334

Battle of Newbern, N. C 343

Capture of New Madrid, Mo 351

Island No. 10 '. 356

Capture of Island No. 10 and the Rebel army ... 358

Battle of Winchester, Va. . . .V 363

Position of Gen. Shield's command — The rebel force under Gen, Jackson — Plans
of the Confederate leaders — Strategy of Gen. Shields — Attack by Gen. Jackson —
The rebels reinforced — Bravery of the Federal troops — Charge of Gen. Tyler's
brigade — Defeat of the rebels.

Battle of Pittsburg Landing 367

Topography of the country — Corinth — Pittsburg — Savannah— Position of the Fed-
eral troops — The rebel army and its commanders — The battle of Sunday, March
8 — Hurlbut's division — McClernand's division — Desperate hand-to-hand fighting —
Perilous position of the national troops — Wallace's division.

Gen. Sherman's Reconnoissance toward Corinth 403

Occupation of Huntsville, Ala 404

Capture of Fort Pulaski, Ga 408

Battle of South Mills, N. C 414

Capture of Fort Macon 418

Siege of Yorktown, Va 424

Retreat of the rebel army from Centreyille and Manassas, toward Richmond — Ad-
vance of Gen. McClellan's army — Events of March, 1862 — The Federal army at
Old Point— Advance toward Yorktown — The Investment^Ofiensive and defensive
operations— Labors and sufferings of the Federal soldiers.

Battle of Lee's Mills, Va 437

Capture of New Orleans 439

Bombardment of Forts Jackson and St. Philip — The Federal fleet— The mortar
boats — Corns. Farragut, Porter, and Bailey — Stupendous naval engagement — The
surrender of the forts — The occupation of New Orleans — Capt. Bailey — Gen. Lov-
ell — J. T. Monroe — Pierre Soule— Gen. Butler.

The Evacuation of Yorktown 448

The Battle of Williamsburg, Va 450

Advance of Gen. Stoneman's cavalry from Torktown — Gen. Hooker's division —
Gen. Kearney — Gen. Sumner — Gens. Smith and Couch— Gen. Hooker's attack and
protracted contest with superior numbers — Gen. Heintzelman — Gen. Hancock's
brilliant charge — Arrival of Gen. McClellan — Retreat of the rebels.

Battle of West Point, Va 463

Chronology 465



President Lincoln and his Cabinet 2

Illustrated Title 3

Initial Letter, with Battle Illustrations '7

The Capitol, at Washington 17

Fort Sumter 21

Bombardment of Fort Sumter 29

Attack on the Massachusetts Sixth in Baltimore 53

Assassination of Col, Ellsworth 86

Map of Virginia and Maryland, west of WASinNOTON. 96

" " " east " 97

Brilliant Charge on a rebel Battery at Bull Run 108

Closing Engagement at Bull Ritn 115

Battle of Rich Mountain 136

Map of the Mississippi River, Section 5 148

" " " " " 6 149

Death of Gen. Lyon 162

Map of the Mississippi River, Section 2 166

" " " " " 3 167

Map of Atlantic Coast from Fortress Monroe to Fort Macoit 178

The Battle of Lexington, Mo 191

The Death of Col. Baker, at Ball's Bluff 206

Pe.sperate Charge of Fremont's Body-Guard, at SpaiNGFiELD, Mo 219

Map of the Mississippi River, Section 1 221

Battle of Mill Spring 260

Bombard-ment of Fort Henry 279

Map of the Mississippi River, Section 4 289

Attack on Fort Donelson, by the Gunbo-ats 299

Surrender of Fort Donelson ."..299

Map of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers, <feo 305

Birds' -eye View of Hampton Roads, Va 323

Cavalry Charge at the Battle of Pea Ridge 339

Battle of Newbern, N. C 343

Map of the Mississippi River, Section 7 352

" " " " " 8 353

Bombardment of Island No. 10 359

B^TONET Charge at the Battle of Winchester 365


Battle of Pittsburg Landing 337




Map of Virginia, Southern Section 422

" .*. 423

Map of the Mississippi River, Section 21 430

Bombardment of Forts Jackeon and St. Philip 439

Map of the Mississippi River, Section 20 446


Battle of Williamsbukg, Va 465

Rebel Cavalry Charge at the Battle of Williamsburg, Va 460



Anderson, Robert, Brig.-Gen 253

Banks, Nathaniel P., Maj.-Gen 405

Bates, Edward, Attorney-Gen 2

Blair, Montgomeky, Postmastbs-Gen 2

Bdrnside, Ambrosb'E,, Maj.-Gen 67

Buttekfield, Dan., Maj.-Gen 15

Butlee, Benj. F., Maj.-Gen ; 67

BuBLL, Don Carlos, Ma.j.-Gen 21 5

Casey, Silas, Brig. -Gen 15

Couch, Darius N., Maj.-Gen 15

Corcoran, Michael, Brig. -Gen 253

Chase, Salmon P., Sec. of Treasury 2

Clay, Cassius M., Maj.-Gen S15

Dix, John A"., Maj.-Gen 405

Doubleday, Abner, Brig.-Gen 253

Duryee, Abeam, Brig.-Gen 253

Dupont, S. F., Rear-Admiral 271

Ellsworth, Elmer E., Col 315

Farragut, D. G., Rear-Admiral. . . . 173

Foote, D. G., Rear-Admiral 173

Fremont, John C, M.\j.-Gen 315

Franklin, Wm. B., Maj.-Gen 271

Goldsborough, L. M., Rear-Admiral 173

Grant, Ulysses S., Maj.-Gen 215

Halleck, Henry W., Maj.-Gen 233

Hancock, Winfield S., Brig.-Gen 15

Hamlin, Hannibal, V. Pres. of U. S 2

Hooker, Joseph, Maj.-Gen 253

Heintzelman, Saml. P., Maj.-Gen 67

Hunter, David, Maj.-Gsn 315

Kenly, J. R., Brig.-Gen 315

Kelley, Brig.-Gen 15

Kearney, Philip, Maj.-Gen 253

Lander, Fred. W.. Brig.-Gen 258


Lyon, Nathaniel, Brig.-Gen 315

Lincoln, Abraham, Pres. U. S 2

Mavsfield, J. K. F., Brig.-Gen 15

McCook, Alex. McD., Brig.-Gen 315

McClellan, Geo. B., Maj.-Gen 197

McDowell, Irwin, Maj.-Gen 405

McCall, Geo. A., Maj.-Gen 67

McClernand, John A., Maj.-Gen 271

Pope, John, Maj.-Gen 21p

Porter, D. D., Rear-Admiral. . . 173

Reno, Jesse L., Maj.-Gen 271

Rosecrans, W. S., Brig. -Gen 15

Richardson, Israel B., Brig.-Gen 15

Sickles, Daniel E., Maj.-Gen 405

Sedgwick, Maj.-Gen 315

Sprague, Wm., Gov. op R.I 253

Stringham, S. H., Rear-Admiral 173

Stevens, Isaac I., Brig.-Gen 15

Schurtz, Carl, Brig.-Gen 15

Shields, James, Brig.-Gen 405

Smith, Caleb B., Sec. of the Interior. . . 2

Seward, Wm. H., Sec. op State 2

Stanton, Edwin M., Sec. of War 2

Sigel, Franz, Maj.-Gen 215

Scott, Winfield, Lieut.-Gen 127

ViELE, E. L., Brig.-Gen , 253

Wallace, Lewis, Maj.-Gen 215

Wool, John E., Maj.-Gen B7

Welles, Gideon, Sec. of Navy 2

Winthrop, Theodore, Maj 253

Wilkes, Charles, Com 271

Weber, Max, Brig.-Gen 313

Wadbworth, James S., Brig.-Gen 315


Oxv the 4th of March, 1861, when Abraham Lincoln took the inau-
gural oath in front of the National Capitol, his footprints iipon the mar-
ble marked the great and terrible epoch in the history of our govern-
ment. The scene was imbued with a grandeur undiscovered and with-
out acknowledgment from the thousands and thousands of freemen
who crowded and surged like an ocean at his feet.

An old man, bowed both by responsibility and years, stood by his side,
then and there to render up his august position over a great country,
at the very moment strugghng with the first throes of civil war. How
weary he had become, and how gladly he laid down the burden of his
power, no heart save his own can tell. But the darkness and the thun-
ders of coming strife followed alike James Buchanan m his retirement
and Abraham Lincoln into the thorny splendors of the White House.
Solemn and very sad were these two men as they stood for a brief space
before the people. The splendor of power brought no happiness either
m the giving or receiving. No two men upon the face of the ear h
ever stood before a people in an attitude so imposmg, so frnaght with
terrible events. When they shook hands peace veiled her face, and
shuddering, shrunk away into the shadows which have darkened around
her closer and thicker, till she is now buried so deep benea"^ the gath-
ered death-palls that no one can tell where she is hidden. For months
and even years she had been threatened by factions, disturbed by reck-
less speech and still more reckless pens, but now, behind all these, war-
2 ^^'^^


cries swelled, and bayonets glistened in the distance, bloodless as yet,
but threatening storms of crimson rain.

There, itpon the verge of this coming tempest, the two Presiderfts
parted, one for the solitude of a peaceful home, the other outward
bound into the wild turmoil of contesting thoughts and heroic deeds.
As I have said, no one fully reahzed the coming terror, or thought how
easy a thing it is for a war of passions to verge into a war of blood.
Still the signs of the last three months had been pamfully ominous.
The strife of opinions and claslj of factions, which had been waxmg
deeper and stronger between the North and the South, concentrated
after Lincoln's election, and the heart of the nation was almost rent in
twain before he took the inaugural oath. When he stood up, the cen-
tral figure of the imposing picture presented to the nation on the fourth
of March, a southern government had already been organized at Mont-
gomeiy, and Jefferson Davis had been sworn in as its president, while
the men who had abandoned their seats in the United States Senate
now held place in the Confederate Cabinet.

Between the time of President Lincoln's election and his inaugura-
tion, five States had followed the lead of South Carolina and declared
themselves out of the Union. One by one the represen^tives of these
States had left Congress, some in sullen silence, others eloquent with
passion and sophistry.

The nation saw all this, but would not comprehend the imminence of
its danger. At a New England dinner, given in New York, December
22d, 1860, one of the most astute statesmen of the country had prophe-
sied, in words that amounted to a promise, that sixty days would be
sufficient time in which to tranquilize all this turbulent discontent, and
the people believed him; but the sixty days had long since passed,
and instead of peace a Confederate government had planted itself on
the Alabama river ; secession flags floated over more than one of our
forts, and another fort in Charleston harbor had only been preserved
by the forethought and bravery of Major Anderson, who was then en-
gu'dled by hostUe batteries, and half-starving from lack of supplies. Li
the North also the spirit of sedition was abroad. Southern travellers
still lingered in our great cities, and conspiracies grew up like night-
shade in the dark — conspiracies that threatened not only the govern-
ment, but the very life of its elected President.

Even on his way to the Capitol Lincoln had been called from his bed
at Harrisburg and hurried forward to Washington in the night, thus,
without a shadow of doubt, escaping the assassination that awaited him
in Baltimore. Still so blind were the people, and so resolute to believe
that nothing serious could result from a rebellion that had been pre-
ceded by so much bravado, that even the President's preservation from

Online LibraryAnn S. (Ann Sophia) StephensPictorial history of the war for the union : a complete and reliable history of the war from its commencement to its close...together with a complete chronological analysis of the war (Volume 1) → online text (page 1 of 51)