faith against injustice ; right against wrong.
Mr. Dipnarrain Singh seconded, and Mr. G. A.
Natesan supported. Mr. Natesan has made this
question his own, and he spoke eloquently out of a
full heart and a mir.
stored with facts. Mr. Malik
Girdharilal, Mr. Iswara Saran, Pandit Dey Eattfm,
and Messrs. C. R. Xaidu and Lutchman Panday
followed. Then Mr. H. S. L. Polak, the delegate
from the Transvaal, spoke, urging India to sympathise
with and to support the men who were suffering for
India's honour. Mr. Surendranath Bannerji called
for monetary help, and a collection was made amid
great enthusiasm; Rs. 15,000 were soon collected,
500 HOW INDIA WEOUGHT FOR FREEDOM
and in half an hour another Rs. 3,000 wei'e added.
The Resolution was formally cai^ied.
Mr. A. Choudhuri moved Resolution X, calling for
the repeal of the Regulations giving the power to
deport and to keep in prison persons without trial.
Mr. H. S. Dixit seconded, and Mr. A. S. Krishna Rao
supported the Resolution, and it was carried.
Resolution XI, on opening the higher grades in the
Army to Indians, was moved by Mr. Senathi Raja,
seconded by Sardar Gurmukh Singh, and carried.
Lala Sangam Lai moved Resolution XII, which ask-
ed for a Commission to enquire into the results of the
laws restricting alienation of land, as grave dissatis-
faction was being caused by their operation in the
Panjab. He traced the history of the Panjab in
relation to the large class of yeomen proprietors
there, and showed how the causes which were working
elsewhere in India to impoverish the agriculturists
were also operating in the Panjab, and the land
legislation was based on a mistaken idea. Lala
Bhana Ram seconded, and Mr. Mathra Das, Lala Ram,
Sardar Mehr Singh Chawla, and Mr. B. Y, Vidwans
all supported, and the Resolution was carried,
Mr. N. M. Samarth moved Resolution XIII on the
Public Service, noting that Lord Morley had repudiat-
ed Lord Curzon's translation of the Proclamation of
1858, for, in the Royal Message of 1908, he said that
the Proclamation aimed at " obliterating all distinc-
tions of race ". Rai Bahadur Khandu Bai Desai
seconded, Dr. Ranjit Singh spoke for the Medical
Service, and the Resolution was carried.
THE TWENTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 50l
Resolution XIV was moved by Mr. Peter Paul
Pillai, and dealt with the high prices of food-stuffs,
and asked for a Commission of Enquiry. Professor
V. Gr. Kale seconded, and it was supported by
Mr. Wacha and Pandit Grovind Sahai Sharma, and
The President moved from the Chair Resolution
XV on the Swadeshi Movement ; XVI on Education;
XVII on the Separation of Judicial and Executive
Functions ; all of which were carried.
Resolution XA^III asked for an enquiry into the
dissatisfaction existing in the N. W. P. Frontier
Province, and it was moved by Mr. Purushottam Lai.
Mr. Sunder Singh Bhatia, in seconding, pointed out
that there was no security for life or property for
Hindus in that Province, and that there was a special
form of trial, called Jirga, in which a number of Sardars,
without any knowledge of criminal law, tried and
sentenced men to long terms of imprisonment. The
Resolution was carried.
The President put from the Chair Resolu-
tion XIX, thanking Mr. Hume, Sir William
Wedderburn and Sir Henry Cotton ; Resolution XX,
appointing the All-India Committee as elected ;
Resolution XXII, re-electing Messrs. D. E. Wacha
and D. A. Khare as General Secretaries; Reso-
lution XXIII, thanking the few volunteers who had
done the work usually done by students ten times
their numbei', coming forward when a circular from
the educational authorities forced the students to
502 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM
Dr. Tej Bahadur Sapru then invited the Congress
to meet in Allahabad in the following year, and the
invitation was accepted.
With the vote of thanks and the President's final
speech, the Twenty-fourth Congress ended.
The Grief of Congre-fs
I. Resolved — 'That tliis Coiij^ress desires to place on recoi'd
its sense of the great and irreparable loss which the country and
the community has sustained by the deaths of Mr. Lahnohau
Ghose and Mr. Romesh Chandra Dutt, both past Presidents of
the Congress. Their services to the country will always
remain enshrined in the grateful recollection of their countrymen.
II. Resolved — That the Congress records its sense of the
great loss that this country has sustained by the death of the
Marquis of Rijaon, who by his beneficent, progressive, and
statesmanlike policy, as Viceroy uf India, earned the lasting esteem,
affection and gratitude of all classes of His Majesty's subjects.
Thanks of Congress
III. Resolved — That this Congress thanks the Government of
His Imperial Majesty for appointing the Hon. Mr. S. P. Sinha as a
member of His Excellency the Guvemior-General's Executive
Council and ihe Rt. Hon. Mr. Amir Ali as a member of bhe Privy
XXI. Resolved — That this Congress desires to convey to Sir
William Wedderbuz-n, Mr. A. O. Hume, Sir Henry Cotton, and other
members of the British Committee, its grateful thanks for their
disinterested and strenuous services in the cause of India's ])olitical
XXIII. Resolved — That the thanks of this Congress be given
to the volunteers, who supi^lied the place of the students, with-
drawn by the Pjducational Authorities.
[For Resolution IV, on Council Rcforuis, see ))p. •4i)4, 495].
Executive Cull ncilif
V. Resolved — That this Congress while regretting that CI. 3
of the India Councils Bill, under which jjower was to be given to
THE TWENTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 503
the Governor-General in Council to create Executive Councils to
assist the heads of the Government in the United Provinces, the
Panjab, Eastern Bengal, Assam and Burma, was not passed as
originally framed, earnestly urges that action may be taken at an
early date under the Act to create Executive Councils in the above-
VI. Eesolved — That this Congress records its ojjinioii that
the Eegulations framed for the Panjab, under the Eeform scheme,
fail to give satisfaction for the following reasons, viz. —
(«) In that the numerical sti-ength of the Council provided
for in the Regulations is not sufficient to allow an adequate
representation to all classes and interests of the population, nor is
it commensurate with the jirogress made by this Province, in
matters social, educational, industrial and commercial.
(h) In that the elected element prescribed by the Regula-
tions for the Local Council is unduly small and altogether
insufficient to meet the needs and requirements of this Province,
and compares very unfavourably with that accorded to other
Provinces, not more advanced.
(c) In that the principle of protection of minorities, which
has been applied in the case, of non-Muhammadans in Pi-ovinces
whei'e they are in a minority, has not been applied in the case of
non-Muhammadans who are in a minority in the Panjab, both in
the Provincial and Imperial Councils.
(d) In that the Regulations, as fi-amed, tend practically to
keep out nou-Muhammadans from the Imperial Council.
Berur and C. P.
VII. Resolved — That this Congress desires to give expression
to the dissatisfaction produced among the people of the Central
Provinces and Berar by the decision of the Government not to
establish a Provincial Legislative Council for those territories, and
by the exclusion of Berar from jjarticipation in the election of two
members of the Imperial Legislative Council by the landholders
and members of District and Municipal Boards of the Central
Provinces, and this Congress appeals to the Government to remove
the aforesaid complaints at an early date.
Local Selj'-G overmnent
XVIII. Resolved — That this Congress expresses its satisfac-
tion that the Secretary of State has recognised that the Local
Self-Government Scheme of 1882, has not had a fair trial, and has
pressed on the Government of India the necessity of an effectual
advance in the direction of making local, urban and raral bodies
really self-govei-ning, and it expresses the earnest hope that the
504 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM
Government will be pleased to take early steps to make all Local
Bodies, from village paiicliayats upwards, elective, with elected
non-official chairmen, and snjtport them with adequate financial aid.
The Partition of Bengal
VIII. Resolved — That this Congress earnestly appeals to the
Government of India and the Secretary of State for India, not to
treat the question of the Partition of Bengal as incapable of recon-
sideration, but to take the earliest opportunity so to modify the
said Partition as to keep the entire Bengali-sjseaking community
under one and the same administration.
That this Congress humbly submits that the rectification of
this admitted error will be an act of far-sighted statesmanship.
It will restore contentment to the Province of Bengal, give
satisfaction to other Provinces, and enhance the prestige of His
Majesty's Government throughout the country.
That this Congress appoints Messrs. Surendranath Bannerji
and Bhuiiendranatli Bose to proceed to England as a dej^utation, to
lay tlie c^uestion of the Partition before the authorities and jaublic
IX. Eesolved — That this Congress expresses its great admi-
ration of the intense patriotism, courage and self-sacrifice of the
Indians in the Transvaal, Muhammadan and Hindu, Zoroastrian and
Christian — who, heroically suffering jjersecution in the interests of
their country, are cari-ying on their peaceful and selfless struggle for
elementary civil rights against heavy and overwhelming odds.
That this Congress offers its warmest encouragement to
Mr. M. K. Gandhi and his brave and faithful associates, and calls upon
all Indians of whatever race or creed to help them unstintedly with
funds ; and in this connection the Congress begs to convey to
Mr. E. J. Tata its high appi-eciation of the patriotic instincts which
have inspired his munificent donation of Rs. 25,000 to liis suffering
countrymen in South Africa in their hour of need and trial.
That this Congress begs earnestly to press upon the Government
of India the necessity of prohibiting the recruitment of indentured
Indian labour for any jjortion of the South African Union, and of
dealing with the authorities there in the same manner in which the
latter deal with Indian interests, so long as they adhere to the
selfish and one-sided policy which they proclaim and practise, and
persist in their present course of denying to His Majesty's Indian
subjects their just rights as citizens of the Empire,
That tliis Congress protests against the declaration of resiJon-
sible statesmen in favour of allowing the Self-Govei'ning Colonies in
THE TWENTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 505
the British Empire to monoiiolise vast undeveloped tex^ritories for
exclusive white settlement, and deems it its duty to point out that
the 25olicy of shutting the door in these territories and denj'ing the
I'igbtsof full British citizenship to all Asiatic subjects of the British
Crown, while preaching and enforcing the opposite policy of the
open door in Asia, is fraught with grave mischief to the Empire and
is as u^nwise as it is unrighteous.
Leifres dc caclief
X. Resolved — That, having regard to the grave risk of injustice
in Government action based upon ex-parte and untested information,
and to the sufficiency for reasonably preventive and punitive
pur^joses of other provisions on the Statute Book of the country,
this Congress urges upon the Government the repeal of the old
llegulations relating to deportation, and prays that the joersons who
were last year deported from Bengal be set at liberty without
further detention, or be given an opportunity to meet the charges,
if any, that may be against them, and for which they have been
XI. Resolved — That this Congress protests against the
continued exclusion of the children of the soil from higher military
careers, and in urging that such careers be thrown open to them,
suggests the establishment of Military Colleges, at which Indians
may receive the training necessary to qualify them for His
Majesty's commission in the Array.
[See XIX (b)].
XII. Resolved— That having regard to the grave dissatisfac-
tion caused by the operation of the Land Alienation and allied Acts
among large sections of the community in the Pan jab and
elsewhere, this Congress is of opinion that the time has arrived
for instituting a thorough and detailed enquiry into the policy and
working of the laws restricting alienation of land in Provinces
where such laws are in operation ; and urges Government to
appoint a mixed Commission of officials and representative non-
official Indians to institute an enquiry, in order to ascertain
whether the legislation has really benetited the interests of
agriculture and of the class intended to be benefited by it, and
whether it has given rise in actual operation to anomalies,
hardships and disabilities, calculated to injure the growth and
prospects of the agricultural industry, and cause discontent among
any particular class or section of the community.
506 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM
XIII. Resolved— («) That this Congress gratefully recognises
the efforts that have been made dui-ing the last three years by the
Secretary of State for India and the Viceroy to give gracious effect to
the policy, laid down in the great Charter of 1858, and reiterated
in His Majesty's message of last year, of obliterating distinctions
of race in conferring higher offices on the people of India in the
Public Service of the country.
That this Congress, however, is strongly of opinion tliat in
order to carry out this policy effectively, the Resolution of the
House of Commons of 2nd June, 1893, should be given effect
to, and all examinations held in England only should be
simultaneously held in India and in England, and all first appoint-
ments for the higher branches of the Public Service, which are
made in India, should be by competitive examination only.
(h) That this Congress thanks the Secretary of State (1) For
his despatch regarding the employment in the superior posts of
the Civil Medical Service of qualified medical men, not belonging to
the Indian Medical Service, and earnestly requests the Government
of India to take early action in the direction pointed out by
the Secretary of State. (2) That in the interests of the public,
the medical service and the px'ofession, as well as for the sake of
economy in expenditure, this Congress, concurring with previous
Congresses, urges the constitution of a distinct Indian Civil
Medical Service, wholly independent of the Indian Military Medical
High Prices of Food-stuffs
XIV. Resolved — That this Congress is of opinion that, having
regard to tJie high prices of food-stuffs current during the past
several years, and the hardships to which the middle and poorer
classes in particular are put thereby, an enquiry by a properly
constituted Commission should be instituted by the G-overnment
into the causes of such higli prices, with a view to ascertain how far
and by what remedies that evil could be removed or its effects
XV. Resolved — Tliat this Congress accords its most cordial
support to the Swadeshi Movement, and calls upon the i)eoj)le of
the country to labour for its success by making earnest and sustain-
ed efforts to promote the growth of industries, capable of
development in the country, and to respond to the efforts of Indian
producers by giving preference whenever practicable to Indian
products over imported commodities, even at a saci'ifice.
THE TWENTY-FOURTH CONGRESS 507
XVI. Resolved — That this Congress is of opinion that the
Government should take immediate steps :
(a) to make Primary Education free at once and gradually
compulsory throughout the country ;
(b) to assign larger sums of money to Secondary and Higher
Education (special encouragement being given where necessary to
educate all backward classes) ;
(f) to make adequate provision for imparting Industrial and
Technical Education in the different Provinces, having regard to
local requirements ; and
(d) to give effective voice to the loaders of Indian public
opinion in shaping the i)olicy and system of Education in
That in the opinion of this Congress the time has arrived for
people all over the country to take up earnestly the question of
supplementing existing institutions and the efforts of Government,
by organising for themselves an independent system of Literary,
Scientihc, Technical, and Industrial Education, suited to the
conditions of the different Provinces in the countr}'.
Separation of Judicial and Executive Functions
XVII. Resolved — (a) That this Congress jjlaces on record its
sense of regret that notwithstanding the hopes held out by
Government that the Executive and Judicial functions were soon
to be separated, no effective steps have been taken in that direc-
tion, and this Congress, concurring with previous Congi-esses,
urges a complete separation of the two functions without delay.
(b) That this Congress, concuri'ing with previous Congresses,
urges that the Judicial Service in all Y)arts of tlic country should be
recruited mainly from the legal iJrofession.
XIX. Resolved — That this Congress, concurring with previous
Congresses, urges :
(«) A reasonable and dehnite limitation to the State demand
on land, and the introduction of a Permanent Settlement, or a
Settlement for a period of not less than sixty years in those
Provinces where short periodical Settlement revisions prevail, as, in
the opinion of this Congress, that is the only means of ameliorating
the present unsatisfactory economic condition of the agricultural
population ; and
508 How INDIA WROtJGliT POU FREEDOM
(h) A reduction of the annually growing military expenditure
■which now absorbs nearly one-third of the Empire's revenue, leav-
ing an inadequate portion only of the balance available for the
many objects of popular utility, specially Education and Sanitation,
which are yet greatly starved.
N, W. F. ProYince
XX. Resolved — That in view of the prevalence of serious
dissatisfaction among the people of the N. W. Frontier Provn'nce
with the character of the administration under which they live,
this Congress earnestly urges the Government of India to order
a public enquiry into their complaints, and take steps to remedy
the disadvantages under which thc}^ labour as compared with the
population of the Panj.il).
XXII. Resolved— That Mr. D. E. Wacha and Mr. Daji Abaji
Khare be appointed General Secretaries for the ensuing year.
XXIV. Resolved — That the next meeting of the Indian
National Congress be held at Allahabad after Christmas, 1910.
The Twenty-fifth National Congress met at Allahabad
on the 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th December, 1910.
The Congress Pavilion was pitched on a plot of
ground opposite the Fort, and it was quaintly
designed with twenty-five sides and twenty-five
doors, with a picture of a President over each door.
636 delegates attended, and some 4,000 visitors
gathered to take part in the proceedings. The
delegates were distributed as follows
Bombay (SO), Sindh (58)
U. P. ...
C. P. ..
Behar . .
It will be noticed that the Central Provinces
and Berar are here definitely separated, and we
miss Burma from the roll.
Sir William Wedderburn had been elected as
President, and he came over from England in the
hope of surmounting the difficulties that were dividing
510 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM
the National Party, on one side from the Surat trouble,
on the other from the wedge driven in between the
Hindus and the Muhammadans by introducing the
religious question into electioneering. The Hon.
Pandit Sunderlal, as Chairman of the Reception
Committee, welcomed the l^resident and the delegates,
and was able to say that both the Civil and Military
authorities had heljDed the Committee in making the
necessary arrangements. After reference to several
losses of the old pillars of the Congress, he welcomed
Sir William Wedderburn, whose ceaseless labours for
India's welfare had made him beloved by every Indian.
Then followed a touching reference to the passing away
of H. I. M. Edward VII and loyal homage to his suc-
cessor, with a word of gladness for the promised
visit of the new King-Emperor and his Consort.
The changes in the A^iceroyalty and the Secretary-
ship of State were noted, and the attention of the
new A'^iceroy, Lord Hardinge, was called in a few
brief sentences to the claims of Education, the
Separation of Judicial and Executive functions, and
the need for the establishment of an Executive
Council in the U. P. Sir William W^edderburn was
going to hold a Conference of Hindus and
Muhammadans ; it was noteworthy that in District
and Municipal Boards in the U. P where there were
no separate electorates, out of 663 members of
District Boards, the common electorate had returned
445 Hindus and 189 Muhammadans, and in 965
Municipalities 562 were Hindus and 310 Muham-
madans, showing that in a l^'ovince where only
THE TWEXTT-FIFTH CONGRESS 511
one-seventh of the population were Muslims, Hindus
had voted for them in large numbers. Sir John
Hewett had said that it would be a great pitv to
disturb their amicable relations by introducing
religious differences into elections.
Mr. Surendranath Bannerji moved that Sir William
Wedderburn take the Chair in a speech of warm and
grateful praise for his long and devoted services to
India. The motion was seconded bv Mr. D. E. "Wacha,
supported by the Hon. Rao Bahadur R. X. Mudholkar,
the Hon. Mr. X. Subba Rao, the Hon. Lala Harkishan
Lai, Mr. Yusuf Hasan, and the Hon. Pandit Madan
Mohan Malaviya, and he was installed amid enthu-
The President began by asserting his faith in the
future destiny of India. " India deserves to be
happy." They had reason for hope in the reforms
lately introduced, and these should result in a spirit
of conciliation and co-operation. The chief differences
were : ( 1 ) between European officials and educated
Indians; (2) between Hindus and Muhammadans; and
(3) between Moderates and Extremists. He then
dealt with these seriatim, making far too little of the
" indiscriminate house-searchings, prosecutions and
other processes in pursuit of offences " ; then urging
harmony under (2) and (3).
The President next classified Congress work as : (1)
constructive work in India, educating and organising
public opinion ; (2) representations to Government ;
and (3) propaganda in England. The latter he urged
very strongly. The newborn spirit of self-reliance
512 HOW INDIA WROUGHT FOR FREEDOM
was good, but it should not degenerate into dislike
of people from other lands. The " United States
of India," under the wgis of the British Empire,
need not be very long in coming, if the leaders
of India worked hand in hand with the British
Mr. D. E. Wacha read telegrams from Mr. Dada-
bhai Naoroji, Dr. Rash Behari Ghose and others, and
Mr. D. A. Khare asked the delegates to elect their
representatives on the Subjects Committee, '^l^he
Congress rose for the day.
The second day opened with the I^resident putting
the first three resolutions from the Chair. Resolution I
was an expression of profound grief for the death
of King Edward VII, which Avas passed standing
and in silence. Resolution II offered the homage of
the Congress to King George Y, and welcomed the
proposed visit of the King and Queen, and passed
by acclamation. Resolution III welcomed the new
Viceroy, Lord Hardinge, and appointed a Com-
mittee to draw up an Address to him from the
Congress, and named the deputation to wait upon
him to present it. Sir William Wedderburn noted
that it was for the first time that the Consrress
was to " be received in friendly personal recognition
by a A^iceroy " — the first, we may add, of many
acts whereby Lord Hardinge showed his sympathy
with Indian feeling. The Resolution was unanimously
Resolution IV, on the appointment of the Law Mem-
ber to the Viceroy's Ex(>cutive Council being limited to
THE TWENTY-FIFTH CONGRESS 513
members of the English Bar, and urging that Advo-