Anthony G White.

Representation as an urban problem: a bibliography (Volume Council of Planning Librarians. Exchange bibliography no. 468) online

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Council of Planning Librarians exchange bibliography



October 1973



468



REPRESENTATION AS AN URBAN PROBLEM: A Bibliography



Anthony G. White



Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor
Post Office Box 229
Monticello, Illinois 61856



COMCIL OF PLMMING LIBRARIiil^S Sxchaiige Bibliography r/U68

R^PRE33NTATI0N AS iJvI UREM PROBLEM

by

j-mtliony G. Miite
Copyri£,ht (c; 1973 A::ithony G. Kliite

Denocratic cystenc tend to work irider a handiccp, coii-
parative to other systei.ic of t:;overi'U'.i3nt . Once the popiolation
of a denocratic v.rj.t reaches an uiriEnai^eable level, or the
cor.ii,iu:ucation 'distance' to be travelled (geograpliic, language,
cultural, etc.) in order to r.!£ke denocratic decisions becones
too great for convienence, then a substitute fori.i nust be found.

In iu'.ierica, the i.xist \.dable substitute - given the nation's
liietoriccl end cultm-el backgrouiid - has been representative
goveri'u.ient . Through the struggle to determine what shovild
be represented (land, wealth, or people), /ii.iericc's organic
law has defined people as the i.ost ir.portant eleiient in de-
termning hox-: govenuient shall be run.

Once it had been deten.iined that the representative forn
was to be used, then it renained to iiplenent such a systen.
The Federal division ox senators (representing states) fron
representatives (representing people) has been lir.iiced by
the states, although the basic problon has always been how
to i.iake the representative (congressionaJ.) districts as equal



2. CPL Sxcheiigs Bibliography j'/U68
in size re poccible to afford eech person the "equel protec-
tion of the lair" gurrantecd by the Fourteenth Anendr.ient to
the U, o. Conctitution. In the 1960^ c, tlAo rule boiled
doirn to "one nan-one vote."

Althou£;h state legLslatures have copied the federal
syster.i, since state-level decisions have not the scope a:id
ir.pact of national decisionsj until recent years not too
i.juch eiphasis was placed on the lirits of a state legislator's
district popialation, Hoxreverj U. S. Suprci.e Court decisions^
in tightening Congressional district population lirdts, have
had a siiilar tighteiiing effect upon state representative
district lii.its.

These state district lir.iits have irport relative to
Metropolitan- area goveniiients. Since i;a;iy states are not
"hoi,ie-rulc" states, their legislatures pass nui.:erous local
laws affecting everyday operations of both i.ietropolitan aid
noirietropolitan area governi.ients . They are, in fact, a second
city couiacil or count- • coiort, aiid soi.ie fori.i of equal repre-
sentation is necessary for local influence upon legislation.

Folloidng c. period of povrer abuses on the local level
in the late lOOO's, r.iost U. 3. cities aba:idonod the ward
(local district) systen as a foriiol part of city politics.
Council i,iei±)Grs were elected at large, to prevent ward- heeling
trade-offs of favors for votes. With the advent of 'Metropo-
litan' governi.ients, enough cities have groT;n so large as to
sever contact between the co\incili,;an and the citizen and to '
cause a crisis in representative governi.:ent.



3. CPL [icchause BibliOi^rc.phy i-;-'l;68
To i-si.iedy tliis ^roiflin^- rer.ioteneos, i.:etropolitcii govern-
nentsl i-efori.iGrn have nust^ected a return to coi;ii..uiuty control.
SuCt^ectionc in tluc crea ren^e froii t!ie breelcini;, up of lerse
cities into nuiaerouc cr.ialler onec^ ectabliGlur-Gnt of 'neigli-
borhood city halls,' erection of cor.ii.iunity covmcils, end
district roprosentction. Tiiis latter cu£t:,estion hr.c been
adopted in the charters of the eleven city-counties created
since 1962.

On the local level, however, district representation on
the basis of population - irlxile still the rule - can be cir-
cui'.ivented by a residency requireuent. In Virginia Beach,
VirG,inia, representatives froi.i the various districts i.iust
reside ivitliin the ^eo^rapMc bomidaries of districts mth
unequal population size, while the voters fron the entire
city-county deteri.ine who each district representative shall
be.

This bibliography presents naterielj dealing generally
with representation, districting, apportiom.:ent and reeppor-
tioniaent. It will hopefully be of aid to those students of
goveiTO'.ient and of life who have an abiding interest in the
Fourteenth in.iendi.ient to the U. S. ConvCtitution and the "equal
protection of the laws."



U. CPL Exchange Bibliogrtplr/ #14.68
R:;?TESMTATIGN ;iS iiN URBiu^I PROBLai
Abate versuG Himolt . 2^3 il-2d 189, 1969.

Advisory CoiiiicGion on Intersovernr.iental Relations. Tl'xe ITew
G rass Rootc Go yerni.:ent ? IJasliLn^ton^ D. C: U. S.
GoverliTlent Printing Office j 1972.

• 1970 Cui.njlati ve AGIR State Lerj-clative Prograii .



UasMn^ton, D. C.; U. 3. Govera^ont Printin^- Office ^
1969.

Aiiderson, Ijilliai.;. "The Constitutionclity of Proportional
Representation," national Hui-dcipal Re'/leu . Vol. 12,
Suppleuent, 192 3 5 p. 751.

Aver:/ versus Midland Coipaay . 390 U.S. it7U, 1968.

Baker, Gordon E. "Redist rioting in the Seventies; The Po-
litical Tliicket Deepens," National Ci\dc Rcviev . Vol.
61, IIo. 6, Jvuio 1972, pp. 277-2b5.

Baker versus Carr . 369 U.S. 106, I962.

Banzhaf, Jolin F. I-Iulti -Member Electoral Districts - Do They
Violate the "One Iiaii, One Vote" Principle ? Hew York:
National llmiicipal League, 19o6.

Barbur, Katlileen L. Reapportioni.ient in O'.xio and Iiiclur;m.
Cleveland; Case Western Reserve University, Ph.D.
dissertation, I968.

Bigelo, Page E. "Texas Districts Cause Problei.is," National
Civic Revieir . Vol. 6I, No. 1, January 1972, pp. ii6-U7.

Binghai.i, R. D. Reapportioni.ient of t':e Olclgiliona House of

Representatives . Nori.an: Uriiversity of OlcLalioi.ia, 1972.



5. CPL ExchE-ije Bibliogrcphy h^oQ

Boydj TilllifK J, D. "Apportioir;.e;Tb and Dictrictia^^'s Prob-
leiuc of Coapliaics, " Nationcl Ci\dc Rev igvr . Vol. 60j
No. h, -fipril 1971, pp. 199-203.

. Chaiip.:!,, PattgriiG of ApportioiUieirb . New York:

Nati onal Municipel League, 19*^5 .

. "Court /^pointc Haoter to Redraw State lanes j"

^latdona L Civic Ro-vacTJ. Vol. 6l, Ho. kg April 1572, p.
193.

"Reapportionr.ient Irpasce nay Hurt Election,"



jiational Civic Reviexj . Vol. 6l, JIo. 8, September 1972,
p. 1;12.

. "States Continue Districtint; Fi-htc," Hctional

Civic Review . Vol. 61, Mo. U, April 1972, pp. 193-19U.

. "States Continue Rei:ap Activity," Mctional Civic

Review . Vol. 61, No. 5, Hay 1972, pp. 2ii9-2iil.

. "Virginia Districts Overturned by Court," National

Civic Review . Vol. 61, No. h, April 1972, p. 19U.

Bronage, Arthur W. Political Representation in Metropolitan
Agencies, imn Arbors University of MclTigan, 1962.

Bureau of Iiunicipal Research and Service. Ivhat Does "One Ilan-
One Vote" Require of Local Governin,.,- Zodias ? ^u^^ene s
University of Ore^'on, 1970.

Burns versus Ric'iardson . 381; U.S. 73, 1966.

Center for Governiiental Studies. Public Adiai-g strati on end
Neighborhood Control? Conference Proceedings . l/'Jasliin^-
ton, D. C.s The Center, 1970.

Chartrand, Robert L. Redistrictins in the 70' ss The Role of
the Coi.iputer . IJasliLntiton, D. C.s World Peace Throuj^h
Law Center, 1972.

Cipriano versus City of Houi.is . 395 U.S. 701, 1969.

Citizens League. Sub-Urbs in the City; Wa : to Expaiid Pcrti-

cipation and Representation in Minneapolis Governivont . liin-
neepoliss The League, 1970.

City of Phoenix versus Koloziejski . 399 U.S. 20U, 1970.

City of Spencer versus Raburn. U83 P2d 735.



6. CPL Exchange Bibliography #U68

Connecticut Public Expenditure Cou::icil. liinori-t/ Reprecon-
tc tioi: on Locel Lepiclctive Bodiec ? Hartford; Tho
Council;, 196b.

"Conctitutioncl Lau - Hunicipsl Rediotrictin^: Deprivrtion
of r.l^ht to Vote or Violation of 3;qucl Protection?"
livectern Reserve Laxr Reviex-T . Vol. hS^ Spring 1962, pp.
61U+.

DaviG^ I. ra.dt,-way. The ^ffectc of Reepportioni.ent on the
Connecticut Le^slature; Decade of the Si^ctiec . ilevf
York: national iiuiiiciptl Lea^e, 1972.

Decentralization for Ilationrl and Local Developnent . Mew
York; United Nations 5 1962.

Dixon, Robert G., Jr. "New Conctitutional Fornr for lietrop-
olis: Reapportioned County Boards : Local Councils of
Govemi.ient," Lair and Contevporary Problens . Vol. 30,
1965, pp. 57-70+.

"One Man, One Vote - V.liat Happens We:rt?" National



Civic Rc^'ie u. Vol. 60, No. S, May 1971, pp. 259-265.
. "Rebuilding the Urban Political Sycteii: Sone



Heresies Concerning Citizen Participation, Corixinity
Actions, Metros, end One Han-One Vote,'' Georgetoim Law
Journal . Vol. 58, Nos. U ^ 5, pp. 955-986.

Dusch versus Davis . 387 U.S. 112, 1967.

Erie, Steven P., et. al. Reforr. of Metropolitan Governi".3nts .
Wasliington, D. C: Resources for the Future, 1972.

Etter, OrvaJL. The lietropolitan BoroUt^;h; IJliat is It? Port-
la:id: Portland Metropolitan Study Cori.iiosion, I966.

Fair, W., J. IJood and L. Liebnaa. Decentralization of Nev:
York City . New York; Association of the Bar of the
City of Hevj York, 1971.

Faubus versus Kinney . 389 SV/2d 887.

Fort son versus Do rsey. 379 U.S. ii33, 1965-

Frederickson, H. George and Yong Hyo Cho. Leg.Gl?tive Appor-
tioiuiont a::id Fiscal Policy in tho Anericaxi Stctjs: A
Frelit.inary Report . New York; National Mxriicipal League,
1970.

Goiillion versus Li,;htfoot . 81 Sup. Ct. 125.



7. CPL ExchcUij^e Biblior^raphy rrh6Q

Gordon vercuj Lcaco . I1O3 U.S. 1, 1971.

"Goveriiing Hedictrictini^-, " Mationcl Ci\dc Re'^rxew . Vol. 6I,
No. 2, February 1972, pp. 60-61.

Hadley verGus Juaiior College Dictrict . 397 U.S. BO, 1970.

Ra^-iaii} D. G. aid S. G. Dicco. "One Haa-One Vote cs a Con-
stitutional Ir.porative for Heeded Retoru of Incorporf.'-
tion a-id Boundary Chan;^3 Lawc," The Urban Laxjyer . Vol.
2, Mo. k, Fall 1970, pp. U59-U79.

Hallettj George H., Jr. Proportional Representation - the

Key to Dei.ocracy . New York: iJational Municipal Leai^Tie,
I9I1O.

Hallinaii, Howard ¥. Cor.iiunity Control; A Study of Corii.iunity
Corporations and Ifei,:;hborhood Boards . WaslxLn^ton;, D. C;
Wasliinr^ton Center for Metropolitan Studies, 1969.

. Adi.inistrative Decentralization and Citizen Con-



trol. Waoldngton, D. C: Wasliingt on Center for Metro-
politan Studies J 1971.

Hawkins, Brett Ih and Cheryl yiielch'ol. "Reapportionnent and
Urban Representation in Legislative Influence Positions:
The Case of Georgia," Urban Affairs Quarterly . Vol. 3,
No. 2, March I968, pp. 69-bO.

Herget, Jai.ies ID. "The Iiipact of the Fourteenth Ai".iendr:ent on
the Structure of Metropolitan and Regional Goveriuients,"
Hastin:;s Law Journal . Vol. 23, No. 3, March 1972, pp.
763-790.

Heri.ienc, Ferdinand A. Der.]ocracy or Anarchy? A Study of Pro-
portional Representation . Worth Bend: Notre Dane, 19U1.

Huston, Michael J. "Special Service Districts in a City-County
Consolidations Conflict Between Metropolitan Reforri a:id
"One Man-One Vote in Indianapolis-Marion County," Indiana
Law Journal. Vol. I47, No. 1, Fall 1971, pp. 107-117.

Institute of Governriental Affairs. County Board Reapportionnent
Handbook. Madison, x/isconsin; UnJ-versity of Wisconsin,
1971.,

Jewell, Malcolii E. Metropolitan Representation; State Lej-s-
lative Districtin}^ in Urban Counties . New York: National
Municipal League, 1969.



6. CPL Exchange Bibliogrsphy #U68

KaufriEii, Herbert. "Adiiinictrative Decentrrli action end

Political Power," Public Adjirdctrction Review . Vol.
29, 1969, pp. 3-1 f.

Kneier, CharleG i-i. Cit:/ Governr.ent in the United States .
Nei-7 York: Hcrper and Rou, 1957.

Kotler, I'iilton. Nei£;hborhood Govem:,.ent; Tlie Local Foundg-
tions ox Political Life . Hew York: Bobbc-nerrill, 1569.

Krarier versuG Union Free School District . 395 U.S. 621, I969.

Kruder.der versuG McCulloch . li|2 Wvl2d 355, 1966.

Leiine, Richard. A Pablic Policy in the 3i '.pi re State; Reap-
portioiiiient, 196U-1966 . Syracuse : Syracuae Univercity,
dissertation, 1969.

_. Legislating Reapportionnent in New York . New



York; National Municipal League, 1971.

__. ReapportionTiient of the New York Le^slature;

Irpact and Issues . New York: National Muidcipal League.
1972.

_. Shape of the Future . New York: National Muni-



cipal League, 1969.

Leveson, Rosaline. "Connecticut Rer.'.ap Invalidated by

Court," National Ci^Tic Review . Vol. 6I, No. Ss ^-'^^7 1972,
pp. 25l-253r" "

HacColl, Jai'.ies ^. Metropolitan Borourfi Councils . London:
Fabian Foundation, 19li7. " "

Malion versus Howell . — U.S. 1117, iidvaiice Sheets, 1973.

Marshall, D. R., B. Frieden and D. IJ. Fessler. Minority Per-
spectives . Wacliington, D. C; Resources for the Future,
1972 .

McKay, Robert B. Reapportion) ;ent and the Federal Analogy .
Nevj York: National Municipal League, 1962.

j^QsP.Po^^'t'io^'ment; The Law and Politics of :]:qual



Representation . IJev: York: National Municipal LeagTie,
1966 .

Melrose, Joseph H. aiid Robert Heath. Pe:"uisylvgnia Reapportion-
nent; A Study in Legislative Beha-vlor . Nev; York: National
Municipal League, 1972.



9. CPL Sxchrnge Bibliography ,-^%68

Metropolitan Boi'ouchc' Cor.nittss. /.iiimcl pLeport . Loiidons
The Coi.ii.ittee, 1952-53.

NctioHcQ. Hmiicipsl Leacue. Conflicts /jion.-;- Pocsible Criteria
for Hatioacl DiGtricting . Hew Yorlcs T^ie Leaf^ue, 19o9.

_^__. Lerj-slc tive nedictrictin,^ b:/ Hoii-Lepj-clgtive

Agencies. iToxr Yorks The League, 19&7.

. Proportional .Reprecentation. Hew Yorks The



League, n.cl., r.i;.:eo.

__. RJIDIST; Pro[-rai,i Description and Uaer Manual .

Hew Yorks The League, 1967.

. State Constitutional Pro\d.slions on ij3portion-



r.ient and Districting . Hexx Yorks The League, 1971, i.ineo.

. The Cases Before the Court , Several Volm.ies.

New Yorks The League, 1963+ .

Perld-ns versu s MatthetTS. UOO U.S. 379, 1971.

Polsby, Nelson U., ed. Reapportioiment i n the 1970' s.
Berkeley: University of California, "l971.

Reynold s versus Sins. 377 U.S. $33, I96I4..

Rli^iie, Charles S. Municipal Law . I.'aslungton, D. C.s National
Institute of Municipal Law Officers, 1957.

Sailors versus Board of Education . 387 U.S. 105, 1967.

Salyer Land Coi. paiiy ,, et. ^ cl. versus Tulare Uater District .
~ U.S. 1611, Advance Sheets, 1973.

Scluiandt, Henry J. "Decentralizations A Structural Inper-

ative," in Frederlckson, H. George, ed. Politics, Public
Adi:inistration aaid neighborhood Control . Los Angeles s
Chandler Publi slung Coi.pany^ 1972.

Sentell, R. P., Jr. "Federalizing through the Franc'.iise:
The Supreiie Court and LoccJL Governi::ent,'' Goor;^a Law
Reviow . Vol. 6, Ho. 1, Fall 1971, pp. 3ii-73.

Sherin, Robert L. Mer.iorandui.i of Lavr/Florida r.eapportioiii;.ent .
Tallaliassees Office of the Attorney General, 19Y1.

Silva, Ruth C. and IJilliaij J. D. Boyd. Selected Bibl i ography
on Legislative Apportionment and Districting . Hew Yoi-ks
National Municipal League, 196b, rir.ieo.



10. GPL Exchaiit^e Bibliosrsplv j5%68

Sincock ver3^^G Gately . 262 Fed. Sup. 735, 1567.

"Srisll Toini Reprecentction: Invidiouc Deccrii.inction the
Reapportioiuient Probleii - Rliodo iGleud, Veniont, end
Connecticut," Bosto n Uiiivercity Law ?.e"'/ieir . Vol. It3j
Fall 1963, pp. 523-5hO.

Spiegel, Kane E. C. and Stephen D. Iiittenthal. ilei^-iborhood
PoTfer and Control; Ir . plicationc for Urban Planning; .
Ifeciliington, D. C.s U. S. Dep^rtr.ent of Housing and Ur-
ban Developi.isntj 1968.

Stenberg, Carl IJ. "Decentralization and the City," in Iluj-d.-
cipal Yearbook 1972 . lJacMn:;ton, D. C: International
City lianacerc Association^, 1972, pp. 88-96.

Straetz, Ralph A. PR Politico in Cincinnati. New York;
New York University Press ^ 1958.

Swazin versus Adaa.is. 385 U.S. UUO, 1967.

S^aider, Lester B. and Richard IJ. Pearson. "A Two-Dii.iensional
Scheiie for Classifying the States of Inter-Party Corpe-
tition, " Connecticut Bar Journal . Vol. 39, iiarch 196^,
pp. 1-32.

IJaJsh, A. H. The Urban Chall3nr;e to Govorni.ient. Nev: York:
Praeger, 1969.

IJasJinis, George J. Kunicipal Decentralization and Neighbor-
hood Resources . New York; Prae^^er, 1972.

IJeaver, Jai.:es B. x^air a:id Equal Districts; A How-to- Do-It
lianual on Coi.iputer Use . Hew York; National liunicipal
League, 1970.

IJeaver, L, H. "Representation of liinorities in At-Large

IClections in City cud Village Goveniinentc -uiider liic'dgiui
Law," Journal of Urban Law . Vol. h9, Mo. 1, 1971, pp.
131-1617"

TJeinstein, J. B. "Effect of the Federal Reapportioiuient De-
cisions on Counties and other Fori.is of fiu:iicipal Govern-
ment," Coluribia Lew Review . Vol. 65, January 1965, pp.
65+.

Ilesbcrry versus Sanders . 376 U.S. 1, 1961;.

Winter, Willia;-: 0. The Urban Polity . Dodd, Lieade, 1969.

Wright versus Rockefeller . 376 U.S. 52, 196^.



11. CPL S::chan£^e Bibliogrcpliy i/'U68

Yanc;/ versus Faubuc . 2^1 Fed. Supp. 998.

Zir.u.ieri.ieiij Joseph F. "Dcsigiiint,' an Electoral S^aten for a
Goncolidated Goveriiiient," Popular Goy enu:ent . Ilarch
1970.



COITJCIL OF PLiafi'IIMG LIBRiiRI/uIo Eicchaiii^e BiblioGraphy ,vl;63

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Online LibraryAnthony G WhiteRepresentation as an urban problem: a bibliography (Volume Council of Planning Librarians. Exchange bibliography no. 468) → online text (page 1 of 1)