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wampum pendants, three grades of shell
"money " being used. Frequently the feathers
that grow on the heads of quail are to
be found on feather baskets, used in
connection with the tiny red feathers
from the head of the woodpecker.
A number of birds must of

necessity be slaughtered to Mausard-coiiier En g Co.
furnish the covering for even a small basket, and
on a basket of medium size I counted one
hundred "tufts," representing just that
number of quail.

How the weaver managed to catch the end
of the minute feather under the stitch,
fastening it firmly in place ; how she wove
a basket alike on both sides, inside and out,
with never a loose end to give a clue to the
Mausard-coiiier Eng. Co. secret ; how she fashioned the tiny beads of





I



LAND OF SUNSHINE




shell ; above all, how she could
attain such perfection in her
weaving with nothing save a
rude bone needle to aid the
labor of her hands — these are
a few of the things that have
not yet been found out.

The Modoc Indian wove the
finest basket, but the collector
who has not already secured one
of these treasures will doubtless
be obliged to con-
tent himself with a
Tulare basket — and
thank his lucky stars
if he can get that.
Mansard-collier Eng. Co. Really to appreciate

a California basket, one has but to contrast it with the work of the
Indians of Arizona and New Mexico. It is like placing a dish of delicate
porcelain beside one of common delf.




Union log. Co



PART OF THE JEWETT COLLECTION.




Union Eug. Co.



FROM THE COLLECTION OF FRANK N. RUST.



"> LAND OF SUNSHINE

Time was when the Indian brave chose his wife for her skill in basket
weaving ; it was, so to speak, her dowry. But the art that was handed
down from mother to child for centuries is in danger of becoming a lost
one, since the latter-day generation will not take up the occupation.
What use, they argue, when a battered tomato can will hold food or
drink quite as well as a basket, the shaping of which requires so many
hours of patient labor. Then, too, the materials of which the fine
baskets were made — the reeds and grasses that grow along the shores of
streams on unbroken ground — with the "settling up" of the country
have been well-nigh rooted out of existence. The wild growths might
be coaxed back to their native banks, but there is no such thing as coax-
ing the indolent young Indian of this New Woman era to emulate her
grandam's housewifely accomplishments.

As the only feasible plan — that of having the Indian children in the
Government schools taught to weave — has, I believe, been tried with
very indifferent success, chances are that a few years hence good baskets
will be as unattainable as the Koh-i-nor.

Los Angeles, Cal



Song.



BY LELAH ANCELL SPALDI!



I feel the warmth of his breath

As it wanders over my hair.
And on hands and feet are his kisses sweet,

As I swing in my hammock there.

I hear the sound of the convent bell,
That chimes at the close of day.

And my thoughts go back o'er the hazy hills,
As I lazily swing and sway.

But my love, not less, beside me stands,

In his strength, like the strength of old.

With arms outstretched, and impatient hands,
And his locks like a crown of gold.

I woo him soft, and he woos me sweet,
Aswing in my hammock there.

While 'round us both the swallows fleet

Wing their way through the summer air.

Oh, who has a lover so straight, so strong ?

Or kisses so balmy sweet?
For my lover so bold is the pine tree old —

And my hammock swings at his feet.

Valley. Cal.




THE SOUTHWESTERN WONDERLAND. u -

III: The Cave City of the Tyuonyi.

BY CHAS. F. LUMMIS.

VER against Santa Fe, westward and divided
from it by fifty miles and by the sullen canon
of the Rio Bravo del Norte ; where the tall
Valles range sets its toes down beside the
muddy river, lies that huge and magnificent
wilderness which is unique in the United
States — the Cochiti plateau. It is a wilderness
of nearly 4000 square miles without a human

habitation ; with an average height of 7000 feet above the sea, and its

peaks uplifting to 11,000 feet; furred with splendid forests of juniper

and pinon and pino real on the heights, and in the canons ribanded with

the tenderer green of the alamo. Quite like its topography there is

nothing, at least in the New World — its strange digitation, its sentinel

potreros, its tremendous checkerings of volcanic black and cream-color.

Some of the finest scenery and most notable antiquities in North America

are here ; and here is by far the largest and by far the most beautiful

"city" of cave-dwellings in the world.
Here the Rio Grande, escaped from the Taos gorges, done with loitering

in the narrow green vales which edge it from La Joya to San Ildefonso,

ploughs for forty miles

through a huge volcanic

plain, into which it has

already cleft a black

canon 2,000 feet deep.

Twenty miles west of this

chasm towers the Valles

range, captained by the

lonely pyramid of Abi-

quiu. The plateau which

slopes away from these

volcanic peaks is so palm-

ated by canons that a map

of the region would sug-
gest nothing else so much

as a titan hand with a

score or more of fingers,

all spread. That is, each

side canon is a wedge

whose apex points west;

each segment of the pla-
teau is a wedge whose

apex points east. The

cliff-wedges come to a

point in the Rio Grande




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. THE TIENDITAS.



°f THE

UNIVERSITY



THE CAVE CITY OF THE TYUONYI.




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co.



gorge ; and as each is
about 2,ooo feet high,
and pointed in propor-
tion as an axe of that
size would be, the ends
look from the east like
a long line of pillars
of tremendous height.
He ace the name potre-
ros. No other nation
has ever given quite
such apt geographic
names as tbe Spanish
did — when they felt at
liberty to neglect the
saints. These huge
wedges of rock, a
couple of thousand feet
high at the apex, and a
dozen or more miles in
jose hilario. length, are some of

them of lava, some of basalt, some of trap, some of a dazzling creamy

tufa. There is no other

country in the world

where such a potrero

formation exists ; and I

know of no other where

a deposit of pumice

2,000 feet thick and of

such area can be found.
In the northern edge

of this Cochiti Plateau

the tufa is split by the

canon of the Tyuonyi—

a smallish gorge, as

gorges go in the South-
west, for it is only five

or six miles long and

less than 2,000 feet

deep, but one of the

most beautiful canons

known to man. That

in itself ; and as for its

romantic interest, prob-
ably it has no equal.

I have written else-
where* of that wonder-
ful race-wandering of










*a:*£.



A CLIFF IN THE TYUONYI
Showing door of second and third-story caves, with mor
of outside buildings.



*The Land of Poco Tiempo, Chap. VI ; Chas. Scribner's Sons, N. Y.



THE CAVE CITY OF THE TYUONYI.



15



the Queres Indians of which the earliest legend begins in the Tyuonyi,
perhaps a thousand years ago, perhaps longer ; how the wandering
Pueblos drifted in from the buffalo plains and became sedentary in this
beautiful spot ; how they dwelt here for ages, and at last, decimated by a
murderous assault of invaders from the cave castle of the Pu-ye\ a day's
march north, moved on to the Potrero de las Vacas ; how they passed
centuries there, and then other more at the Cueva Pintada and then at
Ra-tya, and then at the Potrero Viejo, and then at the still-remaining




Commercial Eng. Co.



AMONG THE CAVES. Copyright 1891 by C. F. Lummis.

Showing masonry repairs and a port hole.



i6



LAND OF SUNSHINE.



pueblo of Cochiti — all before the written history of America began.
And Bandelier, greatest of American historical students, has not only
treated portions of this region in his monographs, but in that remarkable
novel The Delight-Makers has graphically pictured life as it was in the
Tyuonyi a thousand years ago. Indeed Bandelier was the modern dis-
coverer of this fascinating region and first made it known to the world.
But a brief description of the Tyuonyi properly belongs in this "Wonder-
land Series" — particularly as mine are the only photographs ever made
there, except a few by Bandelier's first artist, now long dead ; and only
three of these have ever been published. They give such comprehen-
sion of the cave "city" of Tyuonyi as has not heretofore been possible.
Clambering up from the south along the west side of the Rio Grande
gorge ; diving into shadowy canons, toiling up precipitous cumbres,
scuffing amid the ankle-deep glittering crystals which cover the mesa-
tops like a diamond drift ; companioned by Jose Hilario, best of guides




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. CAVES AN D EROSION I N TH E CLI FF. Photo, by o r. L.

in the Cochiti country and a principal of the modern pueblo ; past the
strange rock-erosions of the Tienditas and the castellate buttes of tufa
and twelve-foot basalt crystals — one comes at last, weary and unwarned,
upon the very Tyuonyi. Another rod would carry one pitching down
its cliff.

At the right the gorge narrows to the Bocas, grim and practically im-
passable, by which it enters the Rio Grande's chasm. To the left, one
looks along the enchanted cleft, with its northern wall a sheer white
precipice of 1,500 feet high ; and in that bewildering cliff makes out,
even thus from a distance, the innumerable black doorways of long-
forgotten homes.

Picking one's way down the south wall of the canon, crossing the tiny
trout-stream with its willows, clambering a pine-clad slope and an upper
talus of fragments from the cliff, one comes at last to the hushed abodes
that were once so full of life and love. For miles they pierce the foot of



THE CAVE CITY OF THE TYUONYI.



17



the bright cliff ; their tiny doors (made small for defense), and occasional
smoke-holes picking deep shadows in the weathered rock. The whole
great cliff is tufa ; and here and there in it were the nodules of obsidian
(volcanic glass), some as large as your head, which the Queres chipped
into the sharp-edged flakes which were their only tools. These frag-
ments were the saws and chisels with which they carved their homes into
the heart of the cliff; the knives with which they skinned game and
scalped their enemies ; the arrow-points upon which they depended for
hunting and for war.

The Tyuonyi had a population, in its time, of 1500 to 2000* so it was




Commercial Eng. Co.



Photo. byO. F. L.



BROKEN-DOWN CAVE-HOUSES.
(Bandelier in center.)

*These figures are based on BaHdelier's exhaustive and conclusive measurements.






THE CAVE CITY OF THE 7YUONYI. *9




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co.



CLIFF OF THE CACIQUE. Copyright 1891 by C. F. Lnmn



a large town for its sort — no aboriginal city in New Mexico or Arizona
ever exceeded 2000 inhabitants, despite the crazy tales of untaught
travelers and untraveled historians. This is as absolutely proved in
science as the population of New York city.

The town of the Tyuonyi was a composite one. Against the foot of
the cliff rose a many-storied, terraced pueblo, of the type familiar still to
many Pueblo towns, but built of tufa blocks sawed from the cliff with
obsidian " tools " The face of the cliff still shows the mortise-holes for
the rafters of successive stories in this huge communal building — see,
for example, the illustration below. All this edi6ce has fallen, of
course ; though in places the walls of the lower story are still five or six
feet high. In many places the caves were merely safe inner rooms,
reached through the rooms of the masonry house. Some were dwellings




Commercial Eng. Co.



CAVES OF THE EAGLE CLAN. Copyiight 1891 by C. F. Lummis



20 LAND OF SUNSHINE.

by themselves, in suites of two and three rooms, communicating by
doorways so small that an eight-year-old child could scarcely pass with-
out stooping. It is this defensive plan which has produced the foolish
fable that the "Cave-Dwellers" were dwarfs. They were Pueblo
Indians — nothing more, nothing less. The fact is now so fully proved
that only the uninstructed can forget it ; and even if it had never been
settled, any properly prepared student would discover it after a short
study of the Tyuonyi.

The cave-rooms are seldom over six feet high ; and the largest (which
is known as the " house of the Cacique ") has a floor diameter of fifteen
feet. Some are mere cells, 6x8. Being carved from the rock, they have
changed little with the procession of centuries. The niches for trinkets,
the clay film with which the walls were plastered, the caked smoke
upon the ceilings — all are there. One house has still the frame in
which the metates (stones on which corn is ground) were set ; and one
beautiful little swallow-nest of a home, far up the canon, still keeps
the wooden lintels of its door and window. The tufa erodes rapidly,
where exposed. When the front of a cave-room weathered away, the
tenants generally built a wall of masonry ; and many of these walls are
still visible — as in the illustration on page 15. There were no chim-
neys, and, if I remember well, only three porthole-windows in the
whole place.

Down in the narrow trough of the valley were most of the estufas — the
man-houses where the warriors not only counselled but lived ; for under
the strange aboriginal economy the family, as we understand it, did not
exist. The women and children lived and moved and had their being in
the cell-like rooms of the communal house ; while the men of each clan
herded together in the estufa of that clan. The Pueblos, even before
history began, were monogamists and punished adulter}* with death ;
but the clan system anywhere is a fence across the middle of the home.

Down along the brook — the Rito de los Frigoles — are still traceable
the fields that were once cultivated so long ago. Then as now, the
Pueblos were farmers. They dug their tiny farms with sharp sandstones,
and irrigated, and pulled their crops by hand. They had squashes, corn
and beans before America was discovered by Europeans ; and with these
and the meat dried from the great communal hunts — when their bands
surrounded a large area and drove deer, elk, antelope and other game
over the edge of some great cliff — they lived very comfortably.

Of the home-life of the Pueblos, their politics and religions, their pre-
historic and their modern towns, this series will occasionally treat. But
amid all the romance of this most picturesque people that ever dwelt in
America, and one of the most advanced among aboriginal nations, there
is nothing more fascinating than this, the spot where they first ceased to
be nomads and became home-dwellers — this ancient, weird, silent,
beautiful cave-city of the Tyuonyi.



OF THE

([UNIVERSITY

21




L.A.Eng.CV /;/. SAME, REPAIRED. Photos, by C. F. L.

THE SALVATION OF SAN JUAN



)RK OF THE LANDMARKS CLUB.



See page 33-



Echoes of California Fiestas.




• takin



lotion of having a
time seems to be

t^Tf • taking hold upon all

. the golden Southwest. Partly
I because it is possible to enjoy
. : ^**^' I '""J8 life here, and partly because all
fflkWr \. « of us have learued something
since we migrated from Eastern
freezes and agues, we are be-
ginning to take joy of it. The
habit spreads fast, and many
localities on the Coast have
already contracted it. Within
a few years, it seems likely, a
motion to make it unanimous
will carry with a swing.

This magazine has already
given considerable attention to
these spring festival events ;
and in the present pages adds a
little aftermath of photographic mementoes of this year's fiestas in Los
Angeles, Santa Barbara, San Jose and San Bernardino. Each has had
its own specific sort of a good time ; and they have all been as good
times as any American town ever saw, and more beautiful and character-
istic than any festival could possibly be made in the less lucky States.
As we live and learn, these affairs will grow better every year ; and every
year more people will escape temporarily from the East to enjoy them
with us.

The Los Angeles Fiesta was a magnificent success, artistically and
financially. Some of its handsomest features were illustrated in the May



SWEET PEAS.
(Flower Day. Fiesta de Los Angeles.)







H

m






m


fesiia



Behre Photo-Process



A CARRIAGE OF CARNATIONS.

(John F. Francis President La Fiesta de Lot Angeles.)



Photo by Waite




Mausard-Collier Eng. Co. FLOAT OF THE L. A. BUSl N ESS COLLEGE. Photo, by Stiffler.

(Winner of 1st prize. FIoi-hI Day, La Fiesta )




THE QUEEN OF THE MAY, SAN BERNARDINO.
Miss Beulah Morse Kendall.



LAND OF SUNSHINE




Photo by Newton, Santa Barbara.
Bebre Photo -Process Co. ruovo }

A FLOAT IN THE SANTA BARBARA FLOWER FESTIVAL.

number of this magazine. The Santa Barbara Flower Festival has won a
national reputation for its extraordinary beauty and good taste. San
Bernardino held this ^^^^^^^m
year a charming May- '
Day celebration, with
over 1500 school child-
ren parading in a wealth
of flowers. The Santa
Clara Rose Carnival at
San Jose was an am-
bitious and beautiful




affair. Seventy-two
floral floats pictured the
charms of the Garden of
the North.



Maujard-Collie



25



Catalina.

BY ARTHUR WELLINGTON WAYNE.

here the green of the gulf is aglisten,
And the bending crags are low;
The warm wave leaps
From the shrubless steeps,
And the foam-fern lowers to listen

To the love song sung below,
Where the gray-green gulf is aglisten,
And the bending crags are low.

In the depths of the crags are the mosses,
And the salt sea-blooms above ;
The glad surf flows,
As a gallant goes,
With the silvery gifts he tosses,

And the song he sings of love,
To the clefts of the crags and the mosses,
And the salt sea-blooms above.

San Francisco, Cal.



The Nectarine.

MONG the luscious fruits of Southern California which are com-
paratively unknown to a great majority of Eastern people is the
nectarine. It looks like a small, smooth, red peach, and in flavor
resembles a cross between a peach and a plum. From the fact that the
nectarine has no down upon it, itvhas been humorously called "a peach
without whiskers." The color is a claret, similar to that of many plums.
In some varieties the fruit is entirely red, while in others it is mottled
with yellow. The size of the fruit ranges from that of a small apricot to
that of an ordinary peach .

The nectarine is undoubtedly a "sport" of the peach, which is proved
by the fact that a peach pit will sometimes produce a nectarine and vice
versa ; and there have been such freaks noticed as peaches and nectarines
on the same branch. The fruit is a great favorite with producers, not
only because it is easier to handle, but they use it in preference to the
peach for home consumption. It has a clear, waxy appearance when
nicely dried that is seldom found in the peach, and the percentage of
shrinkage in drying compares favorably with the very best of peaches.
The canned fruit is especially fine, but the mass of consumers have never
tasted it, and will continue, for some time at least, to call for peaches
and apricots in preference. The production of this fruit is in very small
proportion to that of the others, and the market, although steadily im-
proving, does not call for any large increase.

In Europe the nectarine is found growing here and there trained upon
brick walls of gardens which have a southern exposure. There it re-
quires much care, but in Southern California it is grown readily in
orchard form, after the fashion of the peach and apricot, and with no
more trouble. Light, deep, sandy soil, well drained, and hillsides and
beach lands where the soil has been formed by decomposed rocks, fur-
nish ideal locations for a nectarine orchard.




26

More Mexican Recipes*

BY LINDA BELL COLSOS.

HEORETICALLY woman in Mexico is forever
young. By a pretty courtesy of the lower classes, be
her age what it may, she is always called "nifia"
(child) or "sefiorita" (young lady). It is amusing
to watch an old white-haired lady going through the
market, and hear the hucksters call to her as she
passes, " que doy a la nifia " (what can I give to the
child). Servants, male and female, invariably ad-
dress their mistresses as "nifia," and when there are
several ladies in one household, the eldest is called
the "nifia grande."

One day I stopped in the jardin, or public garden, near our house in
Guadalajara to speak to a little boy whose beauty attracted my attention.
His name was Panchito, his age four, so his ragged but proud mother
informed me. He was quaintly attired in a pair of white linen trousers
long enough to touch his little sandalled feet, a short linen coat, and a
tall straw sombrero. As I paused near him he held out a friendly little
brown hand saying, " Buenas tardes, nifia" (good afternoon, child).

A day or two later as I was sitting reading in my drawing room, I
heard a childish voice calling "Nifia ! Nifia ! " I did not at first heed
it, but when the "nifia" became a pleading "nifiita" (little child) I
came out into my patio, and there, out in the street, peeping in between
the iron bars of the doorway stood my friend Panchito, all alone and
looking extremely small. He had a tiny bunch of English violets for
me, or as he prettily expressed it " a bunch of flowerets for the little
maiden." The " little maiden " feeling like a giantess beside the small
giver of the blossoms, expressed herself suitably, and Panchito bowed
himself off. En passant I may remark that among the many charming
little courtesies which the Mexicans delight in is that common among all
classes of giving flowers, especially to strangers. While I was keeping
house in Mexico scarcely a day passed but a bouquet of dainty blossoms
arranged in some pretty or odd fashion was left at our door.

But though a Mexican woman is by courtesy forever young, as a mat-
ter of fact she ages early — I am speaking now of course of the upper
classes. At thirty she is middle aged, at forty old. Whether this is due
to her early development or to her mode of living it is difficult to say,
but certain it is that the monotony of her life — bounded as it is by the
four walls of her home and the nearest church — would drive the average
American woman insane in a short time. Of the great world outside her
own small city she knows little and cares less ; of intellectual food she
has none, save what she can glean from the perusal of the lives of the
Saints and the few translations of French novels which fall in her way.
She never goes out on the street unattended, even to mass or market,
never has any kind of exercise, unless the promenade around the plaza

•See tbia magazine for November, 1895 and February, 1896.



MORE MEXICAN RECIPES. 27

on Sunday evenings can be called such, and as for taking the shortest
journey alone, such an idea would never enter her head, and she will
listen to the recital of an Anglo-Saxon woman's travels around the world
as if she were being told some impossible fairy story. That Mexican
women enjoy so little freedom is in some degree due to a naturally retir-
ing character, but more to that jealousy of disposition common to all the
Latin peoples, which makes their husbands and fathers desirous of keep-
ing them in a seclusion as great as possible.

The last ten years, however, have seen many changes in this respect.
The next ten will see still more, and no doubt Mexican women will soon
enjoy the same privileges that their Anglo-Saxon sisters now do. But
in spite of her disadvantages (disadvantages, that is, from our point of
view) the average Mexican woman — until with advancing years she
grows too stout and indolent to be either interesting or interested — is a
delightful person to meet. Her manner is charming, her conversation
bright and kindly. In her dress she is apt to be careless in the house,
but in church she wears a modest and unobtrusive costume of black
which we might do well to imitate ; reserving her fashionable and showy
gowns for the afternoon drive or the Sunday evening promenade.. She
is a careful housewife, an ideal hostess. Indeed, I have traveled in
many parts of the globe and have nowhere met with more gracious hos-
pitality than in Mexico. As I write, the memory of a quaint old house
rises before me, one-storied, fiat-roofed, built around a generous patio or
courtyard, on all sides of which ran a wide corridor, with graceful arches
and pillars, and paved in red tiles. All the living rooms opened on the



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