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nineteen years is 67° Fahrenheit, of July 71 , August 72 , and September
70 . (These figures are for Los Angeles, a fair average location.)

2. Owing to the extreme dryness of the air and the prevalence of the
trade winds the element known as " sultriness " is absent from the heat.
This tells not only in the matter of heat exhaustion and sunstroke, which
are unknown in California, but also in the lack of discomfort from
heat. It is an actual fact, substantiated by the experience of every
resident of this section, that 100 degrees does not /eel as hot as 85 in
the Eastern States.

3. Extremes of heat are not unknown to the thermometer. In nine-
teen years the mercury has passed ioo° four times in June, once in July,
three times in August, and eight times in September. On those occa-
sions it was undoubtedly hot, and people sought cool places and fussed
about the weather as they would anywhere else if the temperature was
85 or 90 . But there were no sunstrokes ; nobody stopped work, and the
succeeding cool night brought relief.

4. The nights are almost always cool. A hot night does not come
once in three years.

During the past month (August, 1896) the Eastern States have suffered
from a protracted season of intense heat, with daily lists of from 50 to
100 people in the leading cities stricken with death. In that same time
the thermometer showed in Southern California an extreme of 95 , which
is equivalent to 8o° in the East, and an average mean of 71 .

And yet people continue to wonder how the Californians endure the
awful heat of summer ! w. d.



1 64



Santa Barbara Lighthouse.



1Y S. E. A. HICGINS.



'PPROACHING Santa Barbara by steamer from the north, one
sees the lighthouse perched upon a mesa which slopes gently
toward the sea and ends in an abrupt bluff at the very
beach. The drive from Santa Barbara up Dibblee's hill and over the




THE LIGHTHOUSE KEEPER.



mesa is an attractive one; and the lighthouse is always interesting in
itself and for the charming views its tower affords.

It was built in 1856 by Albert Williams (sent out by the government
for that purpose), and was immediately occupied by him and his family.
Mrs. Julia F. Williams was assistant keeper from the first, and has had
sole charge since 1S66. She is one of the twenty women employed by
the United States government as lighthouse-keepers, and is probably
the senior in point of service.

Mrs. Williams is an interesting woman, of whose neat home and
quiet courtesy many visitors carry away pleasant recollections. Besides
her personal attention to the lights, as required by the regulations, she
has reared a family of six children ; and home and family seem a bit of
New England transported to the west coast. Mrs. Williams was born
on the island of Campobello, off the coast of Maine.

Santa Barbara.



165




Union Enf(. Co. THE SANTA BARBARA LIGHTHOUSE.



How Western Schools Grow.

IN view of the crowded condition of the Los Angeles public schools,
which condition has existed for some years, a most determined effort
has been made this year to open the fall term with no half day ses-
sions and with seating accommodations for every applicant.

Eleven handsome new buildings have been erected this year, and a
number of additions made to the old buildings. At the opening of the
fall term, September 21st, 1S96, there will be one hundred and fifty-eight
new rooms ready for occupancy. This will give accommodation to 7900
more pupils than could be comfortably seated last year at this time.

Of the rooms thirty are devoted to kindergarten work. There are
now on the kindergarten staff since the last election sixty five
teachers, and as the age of entering has been lowered from five years to
four and a half, it is doubtful whether the thirty rooms will contain the
little applicants who throng this department.

Last year the schools closed with three hundred and seventy-seven
teachers, this year they will open with four hundred and two teachers.

On the High School staff there were last year twenty-eight teachers,
this year the school opens with thirty-one. Besides the regular staff
there are twenty-seven substitute teachers on the list

The school census children last year numbered 16,965, this year they
number 20,679. Of course this does not include the kindergarten child-
ren. These figures tell their own story. Greater Los Angeles has
added about 1968 to the schools, as it has taken in the districts of High-
land Park, Rosedale, La Dow, Harmony, West Vernon, and Cahuenga.

The salaries of the kindergarten teachers range from $40 to $50 a
month; of the primary and grammar grade teachers, from $77.50 to $140
a month; the special teachers from $100 to $130 a month, all paid len
months of the year. The City Superintendent draws $250 a month, the
Deputy Superintendent $175 a month, both paid twelve months a year.

The expenses for running the schools for the year ending June 30th,
1896, were $297,338.48, with a balance of $64,146.74 in the treasury.

The new school buildings are quite handsome. They are of the
French school of architecture, the Colonial, English, Tudor and Italian
Rennaisance. The property sites, buildings, furniture, library, etc.,
are valued at $1, 146,680. The bonds issued ior the necessities of the new
school buildings were sold at a premium of $20,000, and bear 4^ per
cent, interest. The outlay on new buildings and additions was $332,000.




1 66



The Padre's Story.

Br EVB LUMMIS.

HERE been something strange about the marriage
I perform this morning, you say ? You would to
hear the story ? We will have a glass together,
then. It is claret of the Father at Bernalillo.

I shall go back many years, before the railroad
come with all its changes, and run through this
pueblo. There come one day to our quiet Indian
village a large train of wagons, with finer horses
and stronger mules than are seen in these parts
before.

They were of one Francisco, an aleman — German, you call him ? — one
who had traveled in many lands and spoke many tongues. The Spanish
was to him as his own language, for he had learned it where it is spoken
with all its beauty — in Andalusia. He was of those to whom the music
is a gift natural, and when he played the guitar, the violin or the zither,
he charmed all.

Don Francisco was come, it resulted, to make trade with the Indians,
to put here a tienda, changing their grain and hides and fruits into the
coffee, lard, calico, and all that the Indian needs in her housekeeping.
It would be well, and he was welcome.

It went well to him. The Indian women and girls crowded the store
in the morning and evening when are the hours of trade, for none was
so greedy in those davs to strive for the dollar during the hours when
the sun was high.

But one there came to be who was greeted with the best smile, and
whose stint of grain bought a larger pound than any other woman's.
Was it not natural? Lola's eyes were like the azabache, * and her
cheeks the color of our claret. She was — ah, she was one bright star,
sehor ! But she care not for the stranger : and his light hair and blue
eyes she only' laugh at, calling him the red man.

The rich young German would even to marry the Indian girl. He
come to tell me all, and to say that he is Catholic. I listen to him with
courtesy, but in my heart I am sad, for I like not that strangers marry
into the tribe. He would conform to all the customs of the Indians, he
would do anything in reason that would give him Lola.

So, as if he were whatever Indian, and not the rich tenderof in whose
pockets always jingled money, he chose among his friends the three
oldest men, and they carried his written asking in marriage and read it
before Lola's family. He could not receive his answer for three days —
for such is the custom of the Tiguas — and the three days went him
long, and when the answer came it was no.

He could ask twice more, as is the way of them of my little parish.
The second asking bring the same answer ; and the young men of the
village make joke among themselves that Indian Lola give la calabaza
(the squash, they say, senor) to the rich foreigner. But the third
time bring another answer. Don Francisco have taken care; for with
his silver and his wine he buy friendship with old Simon, her uncle
and padrino% and her guardian since that her father died. In one
speech long and solemn Simon tell the bearers of the white man's pro-
posal that he feel honor to give his niece to the aleman. Lola listen
weeping, with her face hidden in her mania.',



•Jet. tTrader. 'Godfather. (Shawl.



THE PADRE'S STORY. l6 7

Don Francisco he come to tell me that I shall perform the ceremony,
and that he will pay me well. I tell him that I will first talk with the
girl. And when I go to her she will say only " I cannot ! I cannot
marry me with the American ! I not love him."

So when the Don come again I- tell him I cannot make a lie of the
marriage sacrament ; and when he get angry and threaten, I point to
these scars in my forehead and say ' ' You see these ? They were given
me by one more rich than you because I will not be frightened into
doing evil ; and I will take more before that I go outside the road of
duty." I look him in the eye and he look away, and he come not near
me again.

After a time of peace in our little pueblo, when it has almost forgot-
ten itself to talk about Don Francisco and his calabaza, come a day
very sad. Lola, Simon and the Aleman have gone in the early morn-
ing ! They have take the poor child to a Mexican town across the river
where a Justice of Peace have made such ceremony as he call one
matrimony. They return late in the afternoon and Don Francisco
order his servants that they make one grand wedding feast. There is
a plate for everybody, and wine to spare. The bridegroom drink
enough — too much. Lola, she slip out unheeded, while his eyes look
into the bottom of another glass. Where ? they can guess !

Francisco he will go for her, he will find his wife ! And his friends
shall company him. So he go staggering to the house of Ambrosio,
one young Indian of the tallest and most straight. When Francisco
knock loud and strong, Ambrosio, he unafraid, he open at once.

" Lola, my wife, is she here? " demands the enangered man.

" She is," Ambrosio answered to him. " If you would take her,
come and get her. But first think well!" And his hand hold some-
thing gleaming in the moonlight, which, Francisco know, no one can
so well use as Ambrosio.

Francisco menace and curse, and curse, but at the end he go off away
to sleep, his head being heavy with wine ; and the next day to drink
again, and more and more. He visit not to his tienda now — only to
the wine cellars.

After a time he leave our village. It makes years, and Lola has been
many times a mother, but for a few months only. ' Our Lady is too
kind to let those little ones grow up in sin, I tell the weeping woman
when she send for me to perform the last rites. At last messengers
come from Don Francisco. He would seek a divorce that he may
marry him to a woman no longer young — not like the little Lola, but
one who has riches — and Lola should pay half the lawyer's fee, since
she has treated him so, and since he who once been so rich is now poor
and of many debts.

So Lola command her herders to bring in her herds from the plains,
and they select some of the finest horses — as might buy a dozen
divorces, and send them to the Don. He is well satisfied, and back
come his messengers with the papers that make Lola free even from the
profane law. To us that are Catholics, that of the Justice was no mar-
riage ; and of divorce we know nothing.

Soon my repentant children come to me to make them tmly married.
I consult my superior ; I make him acquainted with the case. They
may wed, he advises me, and with his blessing ; but first they shall do
penance. I feel in my heart that they have done penance, when I re-
member the little graves in the campo santo ; but I am always to obey
my superior, and I impose a penance very heavy, which they do
meekly. We are all relieved when that is done, and after the bans have
been announced for three Sundays at mass, the wedding day come — it
come this morning, senor ; the wedding which you saw was the one
which made holy in the sight of God the union of Lola and Ambrosio.

Los Angeles.



1 68

Customs of the Rio Grande.

The sudden death of Capt. John G. Bourke, President of the Ameri-
can Folklore Society, cut short a series of articles which he was prepar-
ing for this magazine, in whose work in and for the Southwest he bad
taken a deep interest. A soldier and a scholar of the Southwestern
frontier for a quarter of a century, his observation of customs and folk-
lore were of great interest.

The last work done by Capt. Bourke was the paper read by him at this
year's annual meeting of the American Folklore Society, tracing the
survival of Arabic customs among the Mexican inhabitants of the Rio
Grande valley. From the mass of interesting data the following brief
extracts are made :

The streets of Mexican towns present strong resemblance to those of
Arabic-Spain and Morocco, in being narrow and hemmed in bv houses
with zaguanes, iron-railed windows, projecting balconies, and walled
patios. There is no general rule as regards paving, some streets being
empedrados (cobble-stoned), some paved with the Arabic guijas, or
gravel, others unpaved ; in some there is a gutter in the middle, in others
there are gutters on each side. If the promenade be made by night, one
meets at every second or third corner the sereno, or watchman, who
derives his name from the cry he was wont to give until very recently of
sere-e-n-o-oo (clear weather). He is a son of Islam on the wrong side of
the Atlantic. The Arab emirs had watchmen in all their villages. They
are directly mentioned in Granada as early as A. D. 1343. London and
Paris did not have any at that date.

The electric light is playing havoc with much of the poetry of Mexican
evening life, in which the old-time oil lamp, suspended from wires cross-
ing diagonallv from corner to corner, was a conspicuous feature.

For this, also, Mexico was indebted to the Moors. The streets of
Arabic Cordova "might be traversed at night by the light of lamps
placed close to each other." This was about A. D. 1 too, when neither
London nor Paris were lighted. No systematic attempt was made to
light the city of London until the days of the French Revolution.

The world has benefited beyond calculation by the Arabic invention of
clocks and watches. It might almost be said that a revolution was
brought about in social economy. One of the Roman pontiffs, Gerbert,
who assumed the tiara under the name of Sylvester II, was a student at
Cordova before the year 1000, and there learned the art of making
watches and clocks, an accomplishment which placed him under sus-
picion of witchcraft.

X ) Mexican municipality which can possibly provide baths for the
people neglects that solemn duty. In many of the smaller towns, these
are noticeably fine and well arranged.

The baths are not free, the price being two cents for poor people, up
to dos rcales, or twenty-five cents, for the more affluent. For the smallest
figure, one gets nothing but an abundance of clean, cold (or hot) water
and the tank to bathe in ; for dos reales there are attendants at hand
with towels, soap, brushes, mirrors, and anything else that may be
needed.

The attendants are very strict in preserving order and in seeing that
each bather is provided with his own key and tank. One half the build-
ing is reserved for men, the other for women.

Not a drop of water is wasted. After leaving the bath-houses, it runs
down the side of the hill into a line of stone troughs alongside which
patient lavanderas are washing clothes from morning until night; from
the laundreses it runs down into larger pools, where the sheep
shearers and dyers are sousing sheep, great hunks of woollen yarn,
and piles of blankets. Farther down, it is contained in an acequia



CUSTOMS OF THE RIO GRANDE. 169

deeply shaded by orange, lemon, banana, pecan, pomegranate, rose,
willow, and oleander ; next it courses through one of the streets, to
keep it refreshed and free from dust, and finally meanders across the
prolific fields beyond the town.

The bakeries of Mexico are entitled to the grateful remembrance of
every traveler, and the bread is of the best ; the wheat is ground between
stones in tiny mills whose wheels are turned by the water of acequias,
much as in Andalusia and Murcia, the grist was made ready for Alman-
zores and Abdelmelics of centuries past.

The Arabian fashion of selling bread from trays carried through the
streets of Jerusalem and other cities is paralleled in most of the Mexican
villages, and there is rather more than an accidental resemblance between
the street cries of this part of the New World and those of the land of
Moslem. " In the name of the Prophet, figs," is a cry no longer heard
by Christian ears, and which as fallen back before the ear-piercing "Algo
de fruta ! A Igo de dulce /" of the intinerant candy and fruit peddlers
of Monclova, Celaya, Morelia, Queretaro, Laredo and elsewhere.

The caldero or wandering mender of brass pans and kettles is an-
other type of street industry which may have come to Mexico from
Cordova or Bagdad.

The Mexican is endowed with a great fund of good common-sense.
He does not believe in the cheerless existence of his Yankee brother
who works himself to death or decrepitude before he is forty, and he
will not follow such an example. Therefore, as a matter of duty, he
devotes a portion of his life to rational enjoyment, and as a consequence
neurasthenia is a disease unknown in Mexico, and one whose character
it would be difficult to make a Mexican understand.

Scarcely a town in the republic is so poor or so small that it has not ils
alameda or its public garden, with its winding paths or rambles (ramb/a,
Arabic), in which twice a week one can listen to fairly good music, and
witness the promenade of sedate men who march leisurely, arm in arm,
two by two, in one direction, while sefioras and senoritas, equally
sedate, march with equal leisure in the opposite.

Once a week there is a performance, generally by local talent, in the
teatro. The Mexican theater, or the Spanish theater, its parent, is a
subject too vast for any such treatment as can be given here.

Entering the pa tio of a well-kept Mexican home, one cannot restrain
a feeling of surprise at the many evidences of transplantation.

Here is the castor-oil plant, a wanderer from Northern Africa and the
Nile valley. Next to it, the stately red flowered oleander ; the rose, the
queen of the garden ; the date, the solace of the great Abrlu-r-rahman ;
the jazmin, of delicate odor ; the pomegranate, which did not give its
name to Granada; the apricot, albericoque, and peach, durazno, known
to the Romans as the Persicus or Persian fruit ; occasionally the almond,
almendra, and at all times the orange, naranjo, with its redolent flower,
azahar; the lemon, Union; the shaddock, toronja; the olive; the quince,
membrillo ; the apple, manzana ; the succulent watermelon, sandia ;
rice, arroz ; the poppy, amapola ; the musk-flower, almixtle ; tulip,
tulip an ; saffron, azafran ; anemone; verbena; cork, corcho ; ebony,
ebano ; lily, azucena; cotton, algodon; hemp, cdtiamo; myrtle, arrayan;
acorn, bellota; oak, roble; juniper, sabino; poplar, Alamo; luzerne grass,
alfalfa; grass, .zacate ; forage, forraje /'prickly pear, tuna; bamboo,
bambu. Grapes grow wild in all parts of our own Southwest, and in
every section of the great Mexican republic, yet the Spaniards intro-
duced new varieties. The celebrated mission grape of California was
introduced by Franciscan monks from Malaga.




IE
LANDMARKS



INCORPORATED ^

TO CONSERVE THE MISSIONS
AND OTHER HISTORIC
LANDMARKS OF SOUTHERN
CALIFORNIA.



P:f.



President, Chas. F. Lummis.
Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham.
Secretary. Arthur B Benton, 114 N. Spring St.
Treasurer. Frank a. Gihson, Cashier 1st Nat. Bank.
Corresponding Secretary Mrs M E. Stilson.

Road, Los Angeles.



Prank A Gibson.
Henry W O'Melveny.
Rev. J. Adam.
Sumner P. Hunt.
Arthur B Benton.
Margaret Collier Graham.
Chas. F. Lummis.



ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R Egan. W C. Patterson. Adeline
Stearns Wing, Geo. H. Bonebrake. Tessa L Kelso, Don Marcos Forster. Chas Cassat Davis. Miss M. F. Wills,
C D. Willard. John F. Francis Frank J. Policy Rev. Wm. J. Chichester, Elmer Wachtel, Maj. H. T. Lee,
Rt Rev. Joseph H Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles.
J. T. Bertrand, Official Photographer

The work of the Landmarks Club progresses steadily. It is hoped to secure suf-
ficient funds at once for the prosecution of extensive repairs in the next two months,
before the winter rains begin.

The following new contributions are acknowledged : F. K. Rule, $10 ; Andrew Mc-
Nally, 550.

ich, Bertrand Eugene Tavlor, Boston, Mass.; Alfred Stern. Mission Road, Cal.:
Mrs. J. J Shallert. Mr. T. W. Walters, Berman & Hendee. Mr. Andrew Mullin, Miss
Mattie Mullin. Miss A. E. Bluett. Mrs. W. C Bluett, Mr. H. H. Kerckhoff, Miss Eileen
R. Mitchell. Miss Lucie M. Mitchell. Mrs. E. E. Buell. Miss Ruth Childs. Mrs. John
Wolfskill. Mrs. Frank W. King. Mrs. John Bradbury. Miss S. A. Lannon. Mrs. M. A.
Coleman. Miss C. E. Coleman. Mrs. J. G. Mossin. Mrs. Frederick C. Howes, Miss Mary
McSwiney. Mrs. Lizzie Black, all of Los Angeles.




>SlON SAN JUAN.







^/^^



IN THE

LION'S DEN



;raa«3J33i^THSEr^g?^^



THE

THEORY

HABIT-



If Mr. Edison would just invent a way to do our national politics by
telephone — !

Lombroso, the eminent Italian specialist in prognathous
jaws and that sort of thing, begins to incur the penalty of all
closet science. Whiskey and theory are both good in their
way, but neither will do for a steady diet ; and strong drink is a fool to
the theory habit. Though we have ceased to be startled by the an-
nouncement that people in prisons and slums have a tendency to do
wrong, Prof. Lombroso has not exhausted his sensations. He now
advises us that Dante was merely a lunatic and that his supposed in-
spiration was just epilepsy.

Which reminds one of Lincoln and the whiskey of Gen. Grant. If
Prof. Lombroso will kindly hunt us up the germs of Dante's particular
brand of epilepsy, and propagate them, he will do more for the world
than he has yet seemed preordained to do. And in passing-around the
inoculation he should not be so unselfish as to fail to keep a few fits for
himself.

Hamlin Garland is a worthy young man and a talented bunco
writer who has already been laughed at probably more than "travel."

he deserves. Lacking the sense of humor himself, he naturally
provokes the smiles of those who have it, even while they respect his
astonishing seriousness. Now seriousness, though dangerous when
untempered with proportion, is a good thing in a flippant age ; and the
Lion does not much care to swell the chorus of laughter. But really
there are things more vital to be preserved than the peace of a con-
scious young man — and among them is the dignity of literature.

Mr. Garland is just now promulgating himself about Mexico, where
he passed a few weeks as a peripatetic deaf-nmte. He did not see very
much, and understood less than he saw ; and the result is naturally
painful. But — and here comes in the principle against which he is not
the only nor the greatest sinner — he seems to think that the important
thing to be recorded is not some alleviation of our current ignorance pf
Mexico, but — the color of Mr. Garland's mind during the various
stages of his ride over the Ferrocarril I-M.

This is a vice which is eating deep into literature, particularly peri-
odical literature. The West has suffered enough from the miswritings
of innocent young-men-from-a-car-window ; but the one misrepresented
is no more sufferer than the cheated reader. Our average " traveler"
adds to the sum of ignorance and multiplies intolerance by giving us
knowledge not of the countries he sees, but of the various ways in
which he can be smart or impressive.

Mr. Garland could not talk with the people he met, who might have
told him what things mean ; and he is not a good guesser. His obser-
vations would set the Chihuahua kindergarten on a grin ; but he
delivers them with Delphic solemnity. And really it is too bad. If
Mr. G. will travel in Mexico — or any other country of whose habits,
history and language he is ignorant — let him keep his eyes and ears



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