Archaeological Institute of America. Southwest Soc.

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corridor and one stepped down into the patio which, with its blossoming
flowers, tropical trees, singing birds and tinkling fountain, was a source
of endless delight to me. Dear kindly Dona Emilita, what a pleasant
remembrance I shall always keep of your hospitality ! How restful
and peaceful the days I passed with you ! We rose soon after six. Then
followed mass in the beautiful old church near by ; breakfast (whenever
one chose to take it) consisting of a cup of chocolate or a glass of milk,
Pan de huevos (a sweet bread) and perhaps some beans ; a quiet morn-
ing passed with the birds and flowers in the patio ; dinner at two, fol-
lowed by a long siesta, a drive, or on band days a walk around the plaza
in the cool twilight ; and supper of a cup of chocolate, meat and beans
at eight.

Many of the dishes of Dona Emilita's table were new to me and I
give the recipes of a few of those most easy to prepare.

Most of my readers are doubtless familiar with tortillas, the Mexican
staff of life ; but for the benefit of those who are not, I may explain that
they are made of corn which has been boiled with a little lime until the
skin is ready to drop off, then ground in a metate, after which the masa
or dough is patted or clapped in the hands into thin round cakes like
pancakes, and cooked for a few moments on a griddle. Fairly good tor-
tillas can be made of our corn meal and water. These cakes form the
foundation of many other dishes — the most common being enchiladas,
which when well made are delicious, and it goes without saying that
Dona Emilita's were excellent. Here is her recipe:


Enchiladas.— Take small and freshly made tortillas, remove the skin and pop
them for a second into boiling lard, then dip them in chile sauce, sprinkle thickly
with grated cheese and minced meat (cooked), preferably pork, roll them, sprinkle
again with grated cheese and garnish with lettuce and radishes. Sometimes instead
of being rolled they are arranged in layers of three. The chile sauce is made of red
peppers, toasted and soaked in tepid water until they are soft. Remove the seeds and
veins, and crush in a mortar with a little bit of chocolate and cinnamon. Moisten with
stock and let it come to a boil.

Guajalote en Mole. (Turkey in Red Pepper Sauce.)— To one turkey, forty small
red peppers, toasted and soaked in water, four dinner rolls crumbled, a tortilla fried
in lard, two squares of chocolate, a few seeds of red pepper toasted, and a little
of all the spices, all well crushed together, mixed with a little water, and fried in
lard. Se»9onwith ground cinnamon, a little vinegar and a little sugar. Then mix in
the turkey, previously cooked and cut into small pieces. Warm up and serve. The
remains of a cold turkey can be done over nicely in this way.

Calabacitas Guisadas. (Stewed Squash.) — Peel some small squashes, cut into
small pieces, cut up also an onion, a little garlic, a tomato and green pepper, and
scrape some green corn off the ear. Put these all in a saucepan, adding a little salt
and butter and cover with milk instead of water. When cooked, turn into a frying-
pan with a little browned butter and some freshly grated cheese, let it boil up and

Chile Verde con Qdeso. (Green Peppers with Cheese.)— Nip a tiny bit of the
point off as many pods of green peppers as you require — twenty or thirty makes a
good dish — and toast them until the outer skin will separate from the flesh part. Peel
and give the green pulp a thorough washing in cold water. Crush this with three or
four tomatoes (all the better if they have been previously toasted and skinned) and a
little salt. Put a couple of ounces of lard in a frying pan and when it is thoroughly
hot empty the peppers and tomatoes into it and add half a pound of shredded cheese.
Boil up for a few minutes and serve.

Ante de Naranja. (Orange Pudding.)— Make a simple syrup of white sugar
and squeeze into it enough of oranges to well flavor. Let it boil until it is about the
consistency of cream. In this syrup moisten layers of sponge cake, and on top of
each layer of cake place thin slices of orange sprinkled with powdered sugar and

Champurrado.— Champurrado is roughly translated as chocolate gruel, but it is
much more delicious than gruel with us is apt to be. The Mexicans of course prepare
the corn in it as they do for tortillas or tamales, but it is very good made as follows :
Into five pints of fast boiling water sprinkle a heaping tablespoonful of Indian meal
and one teaspoonful of salt. Stir well and boil for an hour. Put grated chocolate, ac-
cording to taste, sugar, some cloves and cinnamon into one pint of boiling water
Stir well and strain into the boiling meal. Stir the mixture well for a minute or two,
then pour into a pitcher and serve.

San Diego, Cal.



Take each fair mask for what it gives itself.
Nor strive to look beneath it. — Longfellow.

The hills, I think, are cold !
They wrap themselves in mist,

And peep between a fold,
As to the rain they list.

Like creatures wan and strange,
The hills go trooping by,

Masking, for a change —
My green hills in the sky.

Avalon, Santa Oataliaa bland.


Ku Yum.



YUM, the bride, who was to start on her long journey to
America on the morrow, sat in her room and wept. Young
maidens, her cousins and friends, wept with her, as is the
custom in China on the eve of a wedding, but the tears which
Ku Yum shed were not merely waters of ceremony ; her heart
ached sadly, for tomorrow she would no longer be reckoned as
belonging to her father's family, but then and for evermore
would be the chattel of a stranger.

Tie Sung, who was living in San Francisco and had become
wealthy, had sent to China for a wife, and Ku Yum, the
daughter of Ha You, was chosen.

All the formalities of betrothal and marriage by proxy had
been gone through. The go-between, an uncle of Tie Sung,
had arranged everything, even the favorable prediction of the
fortune teller, who had prophesied a bright and happy future for the
young people. A card on which a dragon was painted assured the
parents of Ku Yum that all was well with their daughter ; and another
card with a phoenix satisfied the family of Tie Sung that their son was
provided with a wife after their own heart.

So there was nothing more to do but weep, and this Ku Yum did
copiously — until her friends had one by one departed and left her alone.
Then she brightened up and dried her tears. She was not wholly
miserable. The prospect of a new life in a new country was not without
its charms, and as she caught a glimpse of her rich attire in a mirror and
saw that her hair was done up for the first time like a married woman's,
a change came over her and she felt glad that things were as they were.
She was indulging in some bright day dreams when the voices of her
father and mother in the next apartment fell on her ears. They were
talking about herself, and this is what they said :

"I am pleased," said her father, "to know that Ku Yum is at last dis-
posed of. She is so plain that I was afraid we should never find a
husband for her ; and it was a bright idea to present A-Toy as our
daughter when Tie Sung's uncle visited us. If he had seen Ku Yum he
would have sought elsewhere for a bride for Tie Sung, who, they tell me,
is particularly well favored."

"Yes," replied A-Chu, the mother, smiling through her tears. She
was grieved at the thought of losing her daughter, and yet like a dutiful
wife, felt bound to smile when her husband was pleased. "Yes, dear
husband, I rejoice that our daughter is well married, but I shall miss my
little girl."

" I have provided her with a suitable outfit," continued Ha You, "and
as a parting gift shall present her with the gold bracelets which belonged
to my mother. A-Toy will accompany her as maid. What a pity it is
that Ku Yum is not as good looking as A-Toy."

" Oh, do not speak like that," cried the mother. " Ku Yum is pretty
enough for me, and she has the Golden Lily feet, which A-Toy has not."
"True," said the father, " but the Golden Lily feet are the result of
art, not nature."

Ku Yum pressed her harids to her heart. What was this they were
saying? Her thoughts flew over the past few weeks. She remembered
how, when Tie Sung's uncle had first come to her father's house, A-Toy,
her handmaid, had been sent for in great haste and presented to him,
whilst she, the daughter of the house, had been bidden to remain in her
room. She remembered also, how on the day of the proxy marriage her
mother had laid on her particularly strict injunctions to keep her veil
tightly drawn down.


Ku Yum stood up, her lips compressed, her face flushed with shame.

*' I will not," said she, " do aught that will disgrace my father. But I
will die before I hear Tie Sung say : ' I have been deceived ; my wife is
not the wife I desired — not she whom I was told would be given me.' "

Just two days more and Ku Yum and her maid would behold the shores
of America. Sadly Ku Yum gazed on the blue water. Gladly would
she have thrown herself into its depths — but the ship must bring a bride
to Tie Sung and she was the daughter of a Chinaman and dared not
shame her father.

" A-Toy," she called.

A-Toy approached. She was a beautiful girl. Her figure was plump,
also her face ; her mouth was small and round, her eye long and bright ;
her brows finely arched and penciled, her hair of the deepest black and
very abundant.

Ku Yum sighed as she gazed on her. " Why is she so well favored
whilst I am so plain ? " she asked herself. And A-Toy thought : " Why
is Ku Yum a mistress and A-Toy a slave? "

" A-Toy," said Ku Yum, " how would you like to take my place, dress
in my clothes, and be Tie Sung's bride? "

A-Toy 's eyes sparkled.

" Oh, mistress," said she, " you are mocking me."

" Nay," said Ku Yum, " I am serious. When we reach America I will
be A-Toy ; you will be Ku Yum ; you will marry Tie Sung, and I will be
your maid and you shall be my mistress."

Upon arrival of the ship at San Francisco, Ku Yum and A-Toy were
met by Tie Sung, accompanied by a brother and another relative . A-Toy,
robed as a bride and closely veiled, was helped into a cab by Tie Sung,
Ku Yum following, and the whole party drove off to a Joss house,

A week had elapsed since a A-Toy became the wife of Tie Sung ; and
she and Ku Yum were together in the upstairs apartment of Tie Sung's
house. A-Toy was attired in a richly embroidered blue silk tunic and
gay trousers ; her hair was built up into a flat structure and adorned
with imitation jewels and flowers. She looked very well indeed, but
Ku Yum, who was very poorly clad and whose little feet were concealed
in a large slipper with a sole like a pyramid, looked pale and thin . She
was engaged in washing some cups and saucers, and every now and then
she would lift her hands to wipe away the tears which ran down her

A-Toy, observing the action, called her angrily.

"Why are you crying? If you do not stop I will tell Tie Sung to
whip you."

"Tie Sung will never whip me," answered Ku Yum. "I will not
allow him to do so, and he would not even if he could, for he has a kind
heart. It is you who are hard and cruel. Ah ! that I had never wished
to change places with you ! "

"Slave! do you dare to speak thus to me — and of my husband?"
cried A-Toy, and struck her former mistress with a small carved stick
which lay on the table beside her.

Ku Yum left the room and went and stood on the veranda .outside.
It was evening ; the veranda was high, and looking down one could per-
ceive nothing but a soft darkness.

Ku Yum stretched out her arms to the faint moon.

" Beautiful ladies in the moon," cried she, " close your eyes for a little
while. Life is too hard to bear."

" A-Toy ! A-Toy ! " called Tie Sung's wife, " come in and prepare my

But there was no answer.


" I have received a letter from Tie Sung," said Ha You to his wife.
"He seems to be very pleased with Ku Yum's appearance, and compli-
ments us highly on her beauty .' '

" I always thought Ku Yum lovely," replied A-Chu, complacently.

"He says, however," continued Ha You, "that her temper is not as
good as he would like it to be."

" He's out of his mind," retorted A-Chu with asperity. " Ku Yum's
temper is of the sweetest."

' ' What do you think he means when he says he is surprised to find
that her feet are large, not at all like a lady's?"

"I think he must be joking! Ku Yum's feet could not possibly be

"In the postscript to his letter he informs me that A-Toy, Ku Yum's
maid, fell from a high veranda and was picked up dead. He is sending
the body to China so that we may have the pleasure of burying it. By
the way, he says that the men who discovered A-Toy's body discovered
also that her feet were the Golden Lily feet. My dear, do not scream
so ; our friends will be running in to see if I'm killing you."

Mr. Ha You assisted Mrs. Ha You, who had fallen on the floor and
was emitting loud screams, to rise ; and as she rose he forced her eyes to
meet his. What she saw in those placid depths had an effect, for she
immediately became calm and quiet.

" Now listen to me," said Ha You.

" My daughter, my little daughter is dead ! " sobbed the mother.

"That is so," replied Ha You, "but remember, no word of this to a
living being. The body that arrives must be buried as the body of A-Toy,
the slave. I will not be disgraced."

So Ku Yum was buried among the slaves, and the mother stood afar
off and wept.

Montreal, Canada.

The Song of the Western Lark.


fCNpJHE meadow lark, represented by the two species of Sturnella,
>^j ™ magna and neglecta, is found in nearly every part of the United
• States. The species magna extends from Maine to Florida,
and, according to some ornithologists, as far west as the Pacific Coast ;
but the meadow lark so common in all parts of California, and par-
ticularly in the southern half of the State, is the Western Lark, Sturnella
neglecta (Geological Survey of California). It resembles closely the
lark of the East, but is somewhat lighter in color, and has more yellow
in its markings. This bird is a common and familiar object everywhere
on the plains and among the foot hills, and may be seen and heard at
almost any hour of the day and time of the year. Its flight is rather
slow and laborious, seldom more than a few hundred feet at a time, and
usually not far above the ground, on which, among the grass and weeds,
it forms its nest. It is not a graceful bird, though of beautiful plumage,
but is a general favorite.

Its song is the most interesting attribute of the Western lark. The
vocalization of most birds is very similar to whistling, and has little of
the tone of the human voice in singing ; but the song of the Western


lark has this property to a wonderful degree. I have never heard the
nightingale, or the English skylark, and know not whether their song
possesses this human quality of tone ; but there is no bird with which I
am familiar approaching in this respect the Sturnella neglecta. Another
property of this bird's singing is its variety. I have heard at least six
or eight different forms of its song, all bearing a general resemblance, so
that one recognizes them as the song of a single species ; but differing
from one another, like the variations of a theme in music.

In the summer of 1895 I passed a few days in sketching at Mission
San Fernando, and while there was particularly struck with the peculi-
arities of the bird's song. From the nature of my work, and the great
number of birds in that region, I was unusually well favored, and all
day long, from early morning till sundown, I heard, every few minutes,
this bird give its lively, varied song. My work forbade my devoting
much time to the subject, but my few hurried observations led me finally
to believe that each bird has a single form of song — no one bird singing
two or more variations. There may be exceptions, but this, I think, will
be found true in nearly every case. One morning, while at work, I could
not resist giving up a few minutes to studying the songs of the larks all
around me, and writing down two or three of them on my sketch-block.

The first is the simplest and most common form :
no. 1.



The next is only a slight variation from the first, but has a greater
range — more than an octave :

NO. 2.

gy» S"j"jr"yy

The third was more difficult, on account of the rapid trill given to the
last three notes, which were sung con portamento ; and, as it is not as
frequently heard as the other forms, I was obliged to wait some time
before hearing it repeated to make sure I had it correctly transcribed :

no. 3.


But I could carry no further this pleasant pursuit, much to my regret :
for a complete, or at any rate, large list of this bird's many song varia-
tions would be interesting, and, perhaps, valuable scientifically, and I
have never seen anything of the kind attempted. Yet these three
examples will give some idea of its musical range and variety.

Kloomfielii. Cuuu.

President, Chas. F. Lummis.
Vice-President, Margaret Collier Graham.
Secretary, Arthur B. Benton, 114 N. Spring St.
Treasurer, Frank A. Gibson, Cashier 1st Nat. Bank.
Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. M E. Stilson.

913 Kensington Road, Los .


Dieectors :
OFFICERS: Frank A. Gibson.

Henry W. O'Melveny.
Rev. J. Adam.
Sumner P. Hunt.
Arthur B. Benton.
Margaret Collier Graham.
ngeles. Chas. F. Lummis.

ADVISORY BOARD: Jessie Benton Fremont, Col. H. G. Otis, R. Egan, W. C. Patterson, Adeline
Stearns Wing, Geo. H. Bonebrake, Tessa L Kelso, Don Marcos Forster, Chas Cassat Davis, Miss M. F. Wills,
C. D. Willard, John F. Francis Frank J. Polley Rev. Wm J. Chichester, Elmer WachteL, Maj. H. T. Lee,
Rt Rev. Joseph H Johnson, Bishop of Los Angeles.
J. T. Bertrand, Official Photographer

It is a pity that everyone capable of a generous interest in the preservation of the
noblest ruins in the United States cannot visit the mission of San Juan Capistrano and
see what is being done there by the Landmarks Club. A half hour would suffice to con-
vert the dullest, both to the need of enlightened work and the care and economy with
which such work is being prosecuted ; and the necessary funds would be at once forth-
coming. Few who have not visited the spot have any idea of the importance of this
church which the Spanish frailes founded in the wilderness, among Indians and for
Indians, in the very year our republic was born. The stone church itself could not be
restored today to its original splendor for less than $100,000 ; and it is a comparatively
small part of the great plan. As a model of architectural art, the mission is one of the
finest in the United States.

On page 21 three photo-engravings show graphically j list what is being done by the
Landmarks Club. Figure I shows a point in the south front as it was some years ago.
When the Club was organized last winter this building was in still worse condition; the
roof being farther gone and the end wall (at left of picture) entirely fallen out. Figure
II shows the old roof stripped off and replaced with a new structure of Oregon pine.
Figure III presents the same roof fully rebuilt and with the tiles replaced.

But this is only a small proportion of the work done, though a fair sample. East of
the two-story building seen in the center of the picture, a similar roof has been as com-
pletely repaired; the tiles being carefully removed, the crazy rafters of sycamore poles
replaced with a truss roof of Oregon pine, and the tiles replaced. The kitchen (which
has the fine brick-lattice chimney shown in the engravings) had terrible breaches in
both outside walls ; and in a few years its splendid stone vault must have fallen. But
these breaches have been repaired with solid masonry, new door and window frames have
been put in, and the vault is now secured with iron tie-rods. With its roof, this building
is now good for at least 100 years. Through it was the main entrance to the patio or in.
ner court. This was broken down, but has been repaired substantially. The western
end wall has also been rebuilt, as is shown in the last engraving.

Besides the complete repair of this important building, about 400 feet of the 12-foot
cloisters have been solidly roofed with Oregon pine rafters and redwood sheeting, pre-
paratory to covering them with asphaltum as in the old days. These roofs had alto-
gether disappeared, and it was imperatively necessary to restore them to protect the
adobe buildings. The rebuilding in this case, as in all others, is done precisely along
the original lines. The only difference is that the lumber is sawed instead of being
hewed. The Club would have been glad to use hewn beams, but is content to save the
mission with the vastly cheaper machine-made lumber.


A competent mason is now repairing the sandstone pillar whose ruin threatens to
involve what has been left of the great stone church, of which two noble domes were
spared by the earthquake of 1812 and the gunpowder of 1865 (about).

A great many minor matters have been attended to— like cleansing the rooms long
occupied by the chickens of the old custodian, restoring the benches in the inner corri-
dor, removing debris, etc. Indeed, it is something of which the directors feel proud
that so very much has been accomplished with so little expense. It is no exaggeration
to say that twice the money expended in the usual way would not have done nearly what
has been done with less than $300 in cash and a little more in material. Every lover of
these old piles is debtor, as the Club is, to Judge Egan of Capistrano, who has person-
ally managed the work. As for the manner in which these repairs, and those on other
historic Landmarks will be prosecuted, it is enough to say that the details are carefully
superintended by two of the most competent architects in California and a specialist
who has devoted the best years of his life to the study of these remains all over Spanish-

The next work of the Club will be to repair the dilapidated adobe church in the rear
of the buildings shown in the engravings. This was the original edifice built by Fr. Juni-
pero Serra, in 1776; a fine, solid structure about 100 feet long, with superb adobe walls.
An iron tie-rod has already been placed where it will hold these from farther bulging;
and two more will be added. The roof must be entirely replaced, the sycamore-pole
rafters being rotten and cracked. Something like $150 worth of tiles will also have to
be bought to replace those that have become broken. For this work and the water-
proofing of the cloister roofs (which were never tiled but had an asphalt pavement and
were used as a promenade) the Club will need fully $500 more. This, roughly speaking,
will close up the necessary- work at San Juan for the present ; and in the fall the Club
can turn to the next Mission on its list.

Membership in the Club is only $1 a year; and every cent of that money goes to the
preservation of the Missions and other landmarks. Larger contributions are even more
welcome. Every thoughtful man and woman in the United States is invited to join.


Previously acknowledged: Cash $292.50; material and services $372 ; total, $664.50.

The Pasadena Committee (Mrs. B. Marshall Wotkyns, Mrs. C. F. Holder, Sirs.
Seymour Locke, Mrs. Win. Kimball, Miss Dreer, Miss Wotkyns and Miss Dows) sends a
check for $300— net proceeds of the Napoleon Tea given March 21. These ladies have
raised in all for the Club $330.

Rev. G. D. Heldmann, Rector St. Paul's Church, Chicago, $5 ; Dr. E. L. Townsend, $5;
Rt. Rev. Geo. Montgomery, Coadjutor Bishop of Monterey and Los Angeles, $10.

$1 each: Elizabeth Harrison, President Chicago Kindergarten College ; Juliette
Estelle Mathis, Santa Barbara, Cal.; Mrs. If. W. Gardner, Santa Monica, Cal.; Mrs. D.
Whipple, Oneonta, N. Y.; Mrs. Marriner, Pasadena, Cal.; Mrs. R. J. Mohr, Pasadena;
Octavius Morgan, Silas Holman, Mrs. Silas Holman. ; Miss Metta Robinson, Topeka,
Kas. ; Miss Julia E Weaver ; Dexter M. Ferry, j r., Detroit ; Miss Blanche Ferry, Detroit ;
T. H. Palache, San Francisco ; Prof. J. C. Fillmore, Claremont.

In all cases where other addresses are not given, the donors reside in Los Angeles.

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