The great object was to seduce the signs, and
military actually in arms ; for long ertbrts to
experience had taught the French j°J™f "*®
that it is by them that all social con-
vulsions in their country are, in the last resort,
determined. They were not long in finding a
few desperadoes who were -willing to execute
their designs. A captain in the Legion de la
ing fund, which, in 1816, was 20.000,000, and in 1817 was
increased to 40,000,000, had been highly gratifying. U
was as follows .
Annuities bonght ap.
. . 4,854,776
And from a statement laid before the Chamber by the
celebrated economist M Ganihl, it appeared that before
the Revolution the public burdens stood thus :
Total taxes 565,000,0C0
Of which the direct taxes were —
Franes. f. a.
On realized property . . . 250,000,000, or 8 1^0 per cent-
Industry and commerce. 30,000,000, or 1 1-20 "
Consumers 304,000,000, or 10 1- 2 "
After the Revolution in 1820 they stood thus :
Total revenue and taxes 875,941,063
Of which raised by Franw.
Of which the land paid. 268,000,000, or 9 francs 16 cents
Taxed capital money . . 154.000,000, or 9 " 16 ''^
Industry and commerce. 56.000,000, or 1 " 16
Consumers 302,116,300, or 6 " 16 "
So that the taxes on land, industry, and fixed capitall
had increased a third, and those on consumption had re-|
mained the same, though their amount per head dimin-
ished, from the increase of population, in the intervening!
period, from 25.000.000 to .30,0(10.000 souls.— Ann. Hist.,t
lii. 175. 15*8. 200 ; and iv. 611, f:u3.
HISTORY OF EUROTE.
Meurtlie, in garrison nt Paris, named IS'aiilil, a
half-pay colonel, named Sauzet, and a colonel
of the disbanded Imperial Guard, named Ma-
zaire, agreed to act as leaders. Their plan was
to surprise the fortress of Vincennes, to cor-
rupt the regiments in Paris, to rouse the fau-
bourgs and the schools, and with the united
forces march on tlie Tuileries. A great num-
ber of the half-pay generals of the Empire — in
particular, Generals Pajol, Bacheluz, Merten,
ilaransin, Lafitte, and superior officers in re-
tirement^were engaged in the conspiracy, the
object of which was to dethrone the Bourbons.
On that they were all agreed, but on ulterior
measures there was great difference of opinion.
Lafayette desired to proclaim a republic or a
constitutional monarchy, whose interests were
ideatical with those of the Revolution, and
who might be " fettered by the bonds of a rep-
resentative democrac}'." Tlie great majority
wished to proclaim Napoleon II., hoping to re-
store with him the days of glory, of promotion,
and plunder. Lafaj-ette indulged a sanguine
hope that, as Napoleon's son was in the hands
of the Austrians, wlio would not allow him to
accept the proffered crown, it would become a
matter of necessity to bestow on him the dic-
tatorship, of which lie had enjoyed a foretaste
in 1790, and of which he had dreamed in 1815.
The day of rising was fixed for 19th August:
Nantil was to raise his legion, and head the
attack ; Lafayette went to his chateau of La-
grange to rouse his department, and aid in the
assault on A^incennes ; M. d'Argenson
i.iu oQn''' went to Alsace to array in arms its
JJO, JJU ; ,. 1 TIT J
Cap. vii. numerous repubheans ; and JM. de
62,63; Lac. Corcelles was charged with organiz-
i'.m^"^' ing the revolt in, the great and pop-
\ilous city of Lyons. ^
An accidental circumstance prevented this
gj deeply laid design from being carried
Which fails into etfect. On the day before it was
byaccident. to have taken place, an explosion
Aug. 19. Qf powder, from fortuitous causes,
took place in the castle of Vincennes, and this
led to the military and police being assembled
in considerable numbers in that important for-
tress. Their presence led the conspirators to
suppose that their -designs were discovered,
which was really not the case, for they were
not fully developed till long afterward. In-
formation had, however, been given to Gov-
ernment, by some of the officers upon wliom
unsuccessful attempts had been made, of a plot
to overturn the Government, and the whole
ISIinisters, in consequence, were summoned to
tlie Duke de Ricliehcu's on tiie morning of the
19tli. From the information there laid before
them, it was resolved to remove the Legion de
la Meurthe, which was most disaffected, from
Paris to the frontiers, and the suspected officers
were arrested in their barracks early in the
forenoon by officers of the police. M. de Latour
Maubourg, the War Minister, was himself pres-
ent when this was done. No resistance was
attempted; the common soldiers were aston-
ished, not irritated ; it was their officers, not
themselves, who were privy to the oonspir-
ncj'. Before night, the Legion de la Mcnrthe
marched out for I.anlomatic body has already
bestowed upon him." Promotions, honors,
and gratifications were bestowed in the most
liberal manner in France: the crown debtors
were nearly all liberated fj-oni prison ; most of
the political offenders pardoned ; im- 2 ^ ^jj
mense sums bestowed in charity ; and 75, 78; Lac!
a great creation of the order of the iii- 1", I'J;
Cordon Bleu attested at once the grat- ^^-'"iog'
itude and liberality of the sovereign.^ '
But though these circumstances argued fa-
vorably for the stability of the dy- gg
nasty, and the consequent peace of Rupture
Europe, symptoms were not awanting with the
of a divergence of opinion, which por- ^°'^"'''
tended divisions that might prove fa-
tal in future times. It was with the Doctrinaires
that the rupture first took place. This part}*,
which afterward, from the talents of some of its
members, became so celebrated, had alreadj- be-
come important, from its position between the
two great parties which divided the state, and its
power, \>y inclining to either side, to give a pre-
ponderance to either. The conduct of the lead-
ers of this party during the session, if not decid-
edly hostile to the Ministry, had been equivocal ;
Roi nous a habitues a la clemence ; daignera-t-il permct-
tre que les premiers instants de I'existence de mon Henri,
de mon rher fils, du votre, du fils de la France, soicnt
marques par un pardon ? Excusez, mon chcr onode, la
liberie que j'ose prendre de vous ouvrir mon cCEUr ; dans
loutcs les occasions voire indulgente bonte m'y a encour-
agee. Je supplie le Roi d'excuser ma hardicsse. ct de
croire au respect profond avcc IpoupI je suis."