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HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK



History of Channelkirk



BY

REV. ARCHIBALD ALLAN, M.A., F.S.A. Scot.

Minister of the Parish



WITH FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS



EDINBURGH
JAMES THIN, 54 and 55 SOUTH BRIDGE

1900



«^



>;



DeMcation



THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED TO

JAMES A. NASMYTH, Esq.

MIDDLEBANK, DUNFERMLINE
WITH EVERY EXPRESSION OF AFFECTIONATE RESPECT



57119?



PREFACE



The following chapters had their origin in the idea of
"Church Defence." In 1892, an agitation became general
throughout the Church with reference to the question of
its Disestablishment ; and in Lauderdale, as elsewhere, its
influence became paramount, and almost simulated a phase
of panic. The writer ventured to believe that, as a rule,
more harm than good is done when platform and political
tactics are adopted to accomplish moral and spiritual ends ;
but far from waiving responsibility in the cause of national
religion, and convinced that the Church can only be safe
when her principles, her work, and her character are
respected, it seemed to him a duty to try, in his own parish,
to effect, if possible, somewhat of this desirable result, and
by methods which appeared to him to promise as enduring
success as those which were then in vogue. The book is
a humble contribution towards this purpose. True, it is
an indirect and slow method : in the nature of things it
must be so : but even when the immediate end to be
compassed is chiefly conditioned by political action, an
increa.sed public interest in a Church and Parish, sustained
by the records of their ancient traditions, may make itself
long felt through many channels. It is also a method to



viii PREFACE

which local sympathies are peculiarly susceptible, for men
of all shades of opinion and faith pay homage to the
past ; and, at least, it is always above those irritable and
divisive feelings which spring so disastrously from sectarian
or denominational action pressed along the lines of party
politics.

The writer claims no merit in the work save that of
trying to be faithful in the collection, compilation, and
arrangement of his materials. The narrative has grown
from a single lecture, delivered in Oxton Schoolroom, to
about a score of people. Approximately, one half of the
book deals with the Church, and the other half with the
places in the parish. It is hoped that thereby one may
be able to gratify a particular interest without requiring to
peruse the whole.

The warmest gratitude is due to many kind friends who
have, one and all, given ready and invaluable aid. It
would be impossible, of course, to give details, but impor-
tant help has come from Principal Story, Glasgow ; the
late Professor Mitchell, St Andrews; Professor W. W.
Skeat, Cambridge ; Professor T. York-Powell, Oxford ; Pro-
fessor Mackinnon, Edinburgh ; Professor J. Rhys, Oxford ;
Rev. Dr James Gammack, West Hartford, Connecticut,
U.S.A.; the late Dr Hardy, Old Cambus ; William Aitken,
Esq., retired Classical Master, Strathkinness, St Andrews;
John Ferguson, Esq., F.S.A. Scot., Writer, Duns ; John C.
Brodie, Esq., & Sons, W.S., Edinburgh, etc., etc.

A special meed of praise is due the librarians and
assistants in the Advocates' Library, the Signet Library,
the Museum of Antiquities, and the Public Library, Edin-
burgh ; also to those of the University Libraries of St
Andrews, Glasgow, and Aberdeen, and the Free Library,



PREFACE ix

Dundee. Their disinterested kindness and intelligent help-
fulness have placed the writer under the deepest obliga-
tions. The same falls to be said as emphatically with
regard to the officials in H.M. Register House, Edinburgh.
In the Historical, Record, and Teind Departments, the
able and necessary aid, freely and ungrudgingly bestowed
by all, can only be mentioned in terms of the heartiest
gratitude. Earlston Presbytery, the Heritors of the Parish,
and Lauder Magistrates, for records lent ; local authorities,
local working-men, and others who have contributed items
of interest regarding the people and places of the district,
are all warmly remembered here.

The Illustrations have been specially prepared for the
book by the firm of Hislop & Day, Swinton Row, Edinburgh.

ARCHIBALD ALLAN.



Manse of Channelkirk,
May 1900.



CONTENTS



INTRODUCTION



Natural Agencies — Geological View of Lauderdale — Twice a
Valley — The Leader— Prehistoric Man — Stone and Bronze
Ages — Population of the Dale in the Second Century —
Iberians — Goidels — Brythons — Picti — Scotti — Saxons —
Cuthbert — Kingdom of Bemicia — War and Religion — A
Common Faith — Lauderdale in Cuthbert's Day — Coming of
Cuthbert to Channelkirk — Norse Names in Upper Lauderdale
—Lauderdale in England— Parish Boundaries of Channelkirk
— The Lords of Lauderdale, .....



CHAPTER I

THE NAME

" Channelkirk "—Theories regarding the Origin and D*erivation

of the Name — Its Form at Various Dates — Chalmers' View

The Irish Life of St Cuthbert— Cuthbert in Channelkirk—

The Church Raised in Honour of the " Childe " Cuthbert

Dryburgh Abbey Charters and the Dedication— Bishop De
Bernham— The Priest Godfrey— Hugh de Morville as Patron
—The Name and the Reformation— Its Local Forms, 36



xii CONTENTS

CHAPTER I I

THE CHARTERS

PAGE

The first Charter in the Liber de Drybiirgh — The De Morville
Family — The Patron Saint of Channelkirk — Godfrey the
Priest and Hugo de Morville — Extent of De Morville's Estate
in Lauderdale— Kirk Lands near Pilmuir — Lauderdale in the
Thirteenth Century — Its Devout Men and their Gifts to
Channelkirk Church — Gifts "In Perpetuam" — An Era of
Bequests to Holy Mother Church — Supposed Atonement for
National Sin — Thomas of CoUielavv — Ancient Agricultural
Life— The Domus de Soltre and Channelkirk Church —
Fulewithnes — Glengelt Chapel — The Veteriponts — Carfrae
Chapel — The Sinclairs— Premonstratensian Order — Dedica-
tion of Channelkirk Church, a.d. 1241— Then and Now, . 52

CHAPTER HI

THE PARISH KIRK OF LAUDERDALE

Ecclesiastical Disputes in the Thirteenth Century— The Lauder
Case — Struggle for Teinds — Lord Andrew Moray — Eymeric,
Lauder Priest — Judicial Proceedings — The Pope's Sentence
and Suspension of Eymeric— Resistance of Eymeric — Final
Settlement Concerning the Chapel of Lauder — Channelkirk
Church, the Mother and Parish Church of the Whole Valley
—Triumph of Dryburgh Abbey — The "Parish" of the
Twelfth Century — First Mention of Lauder Church — Its
Patrons — Channelkirk Priests and Lauder — Lauder Church
or Chapel — Its Status before the Reformation, . . .81

CHAPTER IV

THE MINISTERS AND THEIR TIMES

Before the Reformation.

Godfrey, the Priest — Cuthbert and the Holy Water Cleuch — The
First Minister in Channelkirk and Lauderdale — The First
Church — Cuthbert's Fame — Five Hundred Years of Historical
Darkness — Channelkirk Priest in the Twelfth Century — Papal
Taxation — King Edward I. in Lauderdale — The Priests Serv-
ing Channelkirk and Lauder — Troublous Times — Lauder Brig
— Moorhousland and Lauderdale — Social Life in the Fifteenth
Century — Corruption of Church and Clergy — ^Reformation, . 106



CONTENTS xiii

CHAPTER V
THE MINISTERS AND THEIR TIMES— continued

After the Reformation ■ ^^^^

Seven Years after the Reformation — Ninian Borthuik — John
Gibsoun, Reader — Alexander Lauder — King James VI. and
I., and Episcopacy — Famine — Allan Lundie — Francis
Collace — Henry Cockburn — Report on Church and Parish
in 1627 — The Teinds — Knox's Indictment against the
Scottish Nobility — Lord Erskine — Suspension and Deposi-
tion of Cockburn — Suffers "great miserie " — Preaches at
Earlston — His Lawsuit — His Restoration to Channelkirk
— His Death, ....... 135

CHAPTER VI

THE MINISTERS AND THEIR TIMES — continued

After the Reformation

Professor David Liddell — Cromwell's Soldiers at Channelkirk
— At Lauder and Bemersyde — First Glimpse of Channelkirk
People — The Kirk Records — Divine Right of Kings, Prelacy,
and Presbyterianism — Terror and Desolation — Divot Renova-
tion of Kirks — Collections and Old Customs — The Lord's
Supper — Liddell's " Laus Deo" and Promotion — Walter
Keith — Earlston Presbytery and Prelatic Presbyterianism
— Kirkton on Keith — WiLLlAM Arrot — Received into
Presbyterian Communion from Prelacy — His High Character
— Called to Montrose, . . . . . '159

CHAPTER VH

THE VACANCY

An Ecclesiastical Five Years' War — fune \6gy-Sept. 1702

Election of Ministers, Past and Present — John Story - Charles
Lindsay, Lord Marchmont's Nominee — The Patron or The
People ? — The Presbytery and the Lord High Chancellor —
John Thorburn — Case Referred to Synod — Referred to Com-
mission of Assembly — New Elders — New Candidates —
Presbytery Distracted — Foiled Attempt to Elect — Presbytery
Obsequious to Lord Marchmont — William Knox— A Day of
Decision — Heritors and Elders of Channelkirk — Election of
Henry Home— Deplorable State of Religion — Presbytery to
be Blamed — Culpability of Marchmont, . . . .192



xiv CONTENTS

CHAPTER VIII

THE MINISTERS AND THEIR TIMES — continued

PAGE

Henry Home — The Records— Lithuania— Home as a Preacher
— Public and Domestic Troubles— Libelled by Presbytery —
Death Decides— The Rebellion of 1745 — Cope's Halt at
Channelkirk— Prince Charlie at Channelkirk — Church Disci-
pline — David Scott — Church Property — Scott's Description
of the Church— Stipend Troubles — New School — Declining
Health and Death— Thomas Murray— Heresy Hunting-
Recalcitrant Parishioners — Sabbath-Breaking — Becomes a
Heritor — Stipend Troubles — Farmers in Channelkirk in 1800, 208

CHAPTER IX

THE MINISTERS AND THEIR TIMES — continued

Rev. John Brown — Characteristics — Stipend Troubles — Odious
to Heritors — Litigation — Deficiencies in the Manse — Parsi-
mony and Law-cases — Glebe Worries — Church Ruinous —
Refuses to Preach — Church Courts — New Church — Muscular
Christianity — Behaviour in Church — His Death — Rev. James
Rutherford — Character— Ingenuous and Injudicial — Re-
cords—Assistants—Portrait—Rev. James Walker— Parish
and Presbytery Complications — Testimony of the Records-
Resignation and Emigration— Rev. JOSEPH LowE— Student,
Assistant, and Minister — Church Declension— Resignation, . 236

CHAPTER X

THE ELDERS, BEADLES, CHURCH, AND CHURCHYARD

Elders since 1650— Beadles since 1654— The Mortcloths— Salary
—The Church— Style of Architecture— Mode of Worship
— Kirk Bell — Rural Religion — Attendances at Church — The
Roll — Church Patrons — The Churchyard — Consecration —
Notable Tombstones — Resurrectionists, . . . 256



CONTENTS XV

CHAPTER XI

THE STIPEND page

Its "Bad Eminence" in Church Histories— In Twelfth and
Thirteenth Centuries — Worth and Wealth of the Monks —
Drj'burgh Abbey and the Titulars of Channelkirk — Stipend
during the Years 1620-1900 — Heritors and Agents — Cess
Rolls, ........ 291

CHAPTER XH

SCHOOLS AND SCHOOLMASTERS
Education, Priests, Protestants, and Acts of Parliament — Knox's
Dream — First Glimpse of Channelkirk Schoolmaster —
Nether Howden School — Patrick Anderson — Hugh Wilson
— Carfraemill School — Andrew Vetch — John Lang — Cess for
Schoolmaster's Salary — Lancelot Whale — Robert Neill —
Channelkirk School and its Furnishings in 1760 — John
M'Dougall — Removal of School to Oxton — Nichol Dodds —
Alexander Denholm — Alexander Davidson — Henry Marshall
Liddell, ........ 319

CHAPTER XHI

THE BARONIES
Oxton — The Name, Origin, Meaning, and History — The Proprietors
— Oxton "Territory" — Kelso Abbey — The Abernethies — The
Setons — Home of Hemiecleuch — Ugston and Lyleston —
Heriots of Trabrown — The Templar Lands of Ugston —
James Cheyne — James Achieson — Division of Ugston Lands
— Wideopen Common — Inhabitants of Oxton — Trades in 1794
and in 1900 — Gentry, Tradesmen, Merchants, etc., in 1825
and in 1866 — Oxton Church — Societies, . . . 354

CHAPTER XIV

THE BARONIES — continued
The Name " Carfrae " — Ancient Boundaries of Carfrae Lands —
The Sinclairs of Herdmanston — Serfdom at Carfrae —
Division of Lands — The Homes — The Maitlands — The Haigs •
of Bemersyde and Hazeldean — The Tweeddales and Carfrae
— Tenants — Robert Hogarth — The Wights — Headshaw —
Hemiecleuch — Hazeldean — Friarsknovves — Fairnielees — Hill-
house — Kelphope — ToUishill, ..... 402



CONTENTS

CHAPTER XV
THE BARONIES — continued



PAGE



Hartside, the Name — Early Proprietors — Extent of Land-
House of Seton — Nether Hartside — Clints — Over Hartside —
Trinity College and the Superiority of Hartside and Clints —
The Riddells of Haining — Barony of Hartside — Hepburn of
Humbie — Hope of Hopetoun — Henryson — Dalziel — Borth-
wick of Crookston — Lord Tweeddale — The Original
Hartside — Barony of Glengelt — The Name — The Veteriponts
and Mundevilles— The Lord Borthwick— Raid of Glengelt
— Lawless Lauderdale — Hepburn of Humbie — The Ed-
monstons — Sleigh — Cockburn — Robertson — Mathie —
Hunter — Borthwick of Crookston — Tenants — The Den, . 440



CHAPTER XVI

COLLIELAW

The Name — Residence in 1206 — Sir Vivian de Mulineys —
Thomas the Cleric — The Borthwicks — The Heriots — Re-
duplication of Place-Names — The Kers of Morristoun —
House of Binning and Byres — Fairgrieve — Adinston of
Carcant — The Scottish Episcopal Fund — Earl of Lauderdale
— Tenants, . . . . . . .481



CHAPTER XVn

Air HO USE — Arowes, Arwys, Arus, A r rot's, Arras, Artits.

The Name— Adam del Airwis— Strife at Arrois in 1476— The
Hoppringles— The Heriots of Arrois— The Somervilles of
Airhouse, 1654— "Arras, now called Airhouse," 1773— Kirk-
Session Squabbles — Gloomy Days at Airhouse — Lord Lauder-
dale— Situation and Area of Airhouse— Tenants — Parkfoot —
Tenants, ........ 500



CONTENTS xvii



CHAPTER XVIII

OVER HOWDEN — KIRKTONHILL — JUSTICEHALL

PACE

Howden, the Name — In Oxton Territory — Kirk Land — John
Tennent — The Heriots — The Kers of Cesford — Sir Adam
Hepburn, Lord Humbie — John Sleigh — The Watherstones —
The Polwarth Scotts — Justice of Justicehall — Dr Peter
Niddrie — Situation and Area of Over' Howden — Tenants.

Kirktonhill — The Moubrays and Pringles — Murehous — The
Lawsons of Humbie — The Henrysons — Teind Troubles —
The Watterstones — Captain Torrance — Robert Sheppard —
His Peculiarities — William Patrick — Borthwick of Crookston
— Area of Kirktonhill and Mountmill — Tenants — Redwick
and Rauchy.

Justicehall — Sir James Justice of Crichton — James Justice of
Justicehall — Captain Justice — Miss Justice — Sir John
Calender — Sir James Spittal — The " Halves " of Ugston —
The Parkers — Situation and Area, .... 523



CHAPTER XIX

THREEBURNFORD — NETHER HOWDEN — BOWERHOUSE —
HERIOTSHALL

Threbumeforde in 1569^ Anciently called Futhewethynis or
Fulewithnis — Trinity College, Edinburgh — Wedaleford —
The Three Bums — The Borthwicks' Possession — The Allans,
Portioners — John Cumming, Minister at Humbie — Alexander
Pierie, Writer — The Falconers of Woodcote Park — The
Taylors — Situation and Area — Tenants.

Nether Howden — Kirk Lands — The Kers — The Mill —
William Murray — The Achesons — William Hunter — Charles
Binning — Rev. Dr Webster — Lord Tweeddale — The Tenants.

Bowerhouse — The name — Possessed by the Borthwicks — Andro
Law — Kers of Morriestoun — Charles Binning — The Thomsons
— Fairholm — Lord Marchmont — The Earl of Lauderdale —
The Robertsons — Ten Rigs — Situation and Area — Tenants.

Heriotshall from 1742 — The Two Husband Lands of Ugston
— The Heriots — The Forty-Shilling Lands of Ugston —
The Murrays of Wooplaw — Rev. Thomas Murray — The
Dobsons — The Masons — Situation and Area — Tenants, . 562



CONTENTS



CHAPTER XX

THE MILLS

PAGE

The Miller— Thirlage— The Mills of the Parish and their Sucken
— Mill of Oxton — Proprietary — Carfrae Mill— Adam the Mill-
knave — Carfrae Mill Inn — Tenants — Area of Farm — Wiselaw
Mill — History and Name^Tenants, .... 594

CHAPTER XXI

SHIELFIELD— OXTON MAINS — MIDBURN — BURNFOOT —
PARKFOOT — BRAEFOOT — ANNFIELD— INCHKEITH.

Shielfield — The Erskines — Over and Nether Shielfield — Kirk
Land — Area and Situation ; Oxton Mains — Proprietors-
Area, Situation and Tenants ; Midburn— Soil and Area ;
Burnfoot — Carsemyres — Ugston Shotts — Tenants ; Parkfoot ;
Braefoot ; Annfield ; Inchkeith, . . . . 614

CHAPTER XXn

EXTINCT PLACES

Sumuindnight — Venneshende — Langsyde — Channelkirk Village —
Muirhouse — Peasmountford — Pickieston — Old Collielaw —
The Dass — Bain's Croft — Rigside — Midlie — Southfield —
Butterdean — Longhope — Hillhouse Dodfoot — Carfrae
Common — Carfraegate — Upper Carfraegate — Headshaw
Hauch — Ugston Shotts — Ten Rigs — Walker's Croft —
Oxton Brig End — Rednick — Alderhope — Rauchy — Long-
cleuch — Herniecleuch — Hazeldean — The King's Inch — Malt-
Barns, ........ 629

CHAPTER XXHI

ANTIQUITIES

The Camps — at Channelkirk — at Kirktonhill— at Hillhouse — at
Carfrae ; Carfrae Peel — Ancient Burial — Bowerhouse — Over
Howden — Nether Howden — The Roman Road — The
Girthgate — Resting House — Holy Water Cleuch — Stone
Cross at Midburn — Curious Memorial Stone at Threebumford
— The Kirk Cross and Sundial — Old Roads, . . . 639



CONTENTS xix

CHAPTER XXIV

CHANNELKIRK TO-DAY

PAGE

The Lammermoors — Skelton and Carlyle — Area of Channelkirk
Parish — Population from 1755 — Industry' — Soil and Sheep —
Shepherding — The Fanners and the Land — The Agricultural
Labourer — Prices of Stock in 1490 and 1656 — The Game —
The Weather— Our Public Men— The Railway, . . 674



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



CHANNELKIRK CHURCH ... . Frontispiece

DISTRICT AROUND OXTON VILLAGE (from THE west) Face page 354

DISTRICT AROUND OXTON VILLAGE (FROM THE NORTH) „ 400

RUINS OF CARFRAE PEEL

NETHER HARTSIDE

GLENGELT

SITE OF OLD COLLIELAW

AIRHOUSE

OVER HOWDEN .

KIRKTONHILL

THREEBURNFORD

BOWERHOUSE

MOUNTMILL, SITE OF THE

CARFRAE MILL .

CAMP AT KIRKTONHILL

CAMP AT HILLHOUSE

RESHILAW OR RESTING HOUSE

THE HOLY WATER CLEUCH

VIEW OF UPPER LAUDERDALE FRO?kI ABOVE MOUNTMILL



" MILL OF ULFKILSTON "



11


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440


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462


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482


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500


11


524


11


536


11


562


11


580


))


600


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604


11


648


11


652


11


668


11


668


L „


674



HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

INTRODUCTION

Natural Agencies — Geological View of Lauderdale — Twice a Valley —
The Leader — Prehistoric Man — Stone and Bronze Ages — Population
of the Dale in the Second Century — Iberians — Goidels — Brythons —
Picti — Scotti — Saxons — Cuthbert — Kingdom of Bernicia — War and
Religion — A Common Faith — Lauderdale in Cuthbert's Day — Coming
of Cuthbert to Channelkirk — Norse Names in Upper Lauderdale-
Lauderdale in England — Parish Boundaries of Channelkirk — The
Lords of Lauderdale.

The history of a parish, in the most extended sense, begins
properly, not with its people, though the study of man is
to men the first of studies, nor with its Church or the move-
ments of religion, but with a consideration, however brief,
of those natural forces which through vast ages have raised
its hills, hollowed out its plains, sent forth and directed
its streams, given to it soil and vegetation, and modelled
its varied area into the general geographical conformation of
landscape which is presented to the eye of the interested
spectator. The profound researches of the past hundred
and thirty years have happily rendered this a task of com-
paratively easy accomplishment. The earth as well as the
heavens has sent forth a revelation, and the geological re-
cord has now proved itself no mere wild speculation, but a
veritable apprehension of truth and fact, which, though

A



2 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

necessarily characterised by stupendous horizons proportionate
to the gigantic changes effected within them, cannot hence-
forth be deemed unworthy a place on the same lofty emin-
ence occupied by our most sacred beliefs. The Creator, long
before Moses' day, wrote upon tables of stone.

When, however, we say that Channelkirk stands upon
Lower Silurian rock, which composes generally the higher
crests of the Lammermoor range, that Lauderdale is for the
most part surrounded by hills of Upper Silurian composition,
that the upper surface of the dale is of Old Red Sandstone
lying upon a bed of Silurian, we are aware that we are
touching upon spaces so vast and periods of time so remote
as, for all historical purposes, to be beyond the ken of the
boldest imagination. "The more the subject is pondered
over," says an authority,* "the more remote does the first
origin of the present topography become — the farther back
are we led into the geological past, and the greater are the
demands on our imagination in picturing to ourselves con-
ditions of geography and forms of surface that preceded
those which now prevail." When the Silurian rocks which
now compose the hills of Lammermoor were being moulded
in Nature's kneading trough, Lauderdale, like all Scotland,
was deep under sea,-f- and though the hills on either side of
the dale are only differentiated from the summits of Lammer-
moor by the respective terms of Lower and Upper Silurian,
the periods of time embraced in theij- separate formation
must be reckoned perhaps by millions of years. We should
also grasp but a feeble view of the actual facts did we
imagine that Lauderdale, with its graceful outline of mountain
steep and winding glen, rose out of the bosom of the primitive

* Scenery of Scotland^ p. ii., Sir A. Geikie. London, 1887.
+ Catalogue of Western Scottish Fossils^ p. 9. Glasgow, 1876.



INTRODUCTION 3

ocean wearing the same contour and general aspect which
we behold to-day. There is clear evidence that it has been
twice a level expanse and twice a valley. Our best authority
on the question thus discourses concerning it * : " It is in-
teresting to note that, in some instances, the existing valleys
coincide more or less markedly with valleys that were ex-
cavated in ancient geological times, and were subsequently
buried under piles of debris. The depression that now forms
the vale of Lauderdale, for example, is at least as old as the
Upper Old Red Sandstone period. Even at that early time
it had been worn out of the Silurian tableland. Masses of
gravel and sand, washed down from the slopes on either
hand, gathered on its floor. A little volcano, contempora-
neous with the larger outbursts of the Eildon Hills and the
Merse of Berwickshire, broke out at its upper end, but was
at last buried under the accumulating heaps of detritus,
which in the end filled up the valley and spread over the
surrounding hills. In the course of later geological revolu-
tions, this region has once more been upraised, denudation
has been resumed, the Old Red Sandstone has been in great
measure stripped off the hills, and at last the long hollow,
once more exposed to the air, has again become a valley
that gathers the drainage of the surrounding high grounds."
The view which, it seems, we must try to comprehend, is
that, millions of years ago, what we now know as Lammer-
moor, Lauderdale, and Merse, was part of a vast plain com-
posed of Lower Silurian deposit. The interior forces of the
earth plicated this level sea-bottom so as to tilt and crumple
and invert it in every conceivable way. Air, rain, springs,
frost, and changes of temperature attacked these, and through
many ages the first Lauderdale valley was formed by such

* Scenery of Scotland^ p. 306.



4 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

processes of disintegration, or were, as Professor Geikie puts
it, " worn out of the Silurian tableland." Then came the time
when over all this the conglomerates and Lower Red Sand-



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