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HAZELDEAN 429

with a web, and was returning home when he got entangled
in the fairy enchantments ! But the tune has died away, and
it seems that fairy music has no greater immortality than that
of human beings. The web was perhaps a " drookit ane."
If so, the music is easily understood.

HAZELDEAN

The association of the name of this place with the shrub
or tree called the fiazel doubtless supplies us with a deriva-
tion which is sufficiently satisfactory. The " dean " refers,
we believe, to the long deep ravine to the immediate south
of Tollishill, at the mouth of which Haseldean, or Hazeldean,
seems to have been situated. It is now extinct, but traces
of its wall-foundations are yet apparent. It has no connec-
tion with Scott's famous song, "Jock o' Hazeldean." It
comes into view first in 1617. On the 17th December of
that year, James Haig, Bemersyde, is served heir to Robert
Haig, his father, in the " lands of Hissildans, in the barony of
Hermestoune, lordship of Carfra." This owner of Haseldean
is interesting in several ways. He led a violent and erratic
life, and seems to have been reckless in his behaviour to all
who crossed his path. When we first become acquainted
with him as the proprietor of Haseldean he had but few
years to live, as he is said to have died about 1620, whether
travelling in Germany or at home, it is not known. An
incident in which he was chief actor, and which combined
both comic and tragic elements, has already been referred to
under " Carfrae." John Knox was tenant in Hissildoune in
1631.

In 1627 it is valued "in stok 200 merkis ; personage, 20
merkis ; viccarage, 40 merkis." Thomas Thomson was
tenant in " Hizeldean" in 1664, and the key of the poor's



430 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

box of Channelkirk Church is entrusted to his care, while
the teacher keeps the box itself. There are few references
to the place itself, and its individuality is obscured all down
the centuries, under the greater name of Carfrae. In 1800 it
was farmed by Edmund Bertram. His memory is yet green
in the parish, and it seems he was much esteemed. His
obliging disposition, and unfailing kindness to the poor, made
him a prime favourite, and it is remembered that when his
corn needed to be harvested, the villagers used to flock to his
place to render him the necessary assistance. He was buried
in Channelkirk on the 31st August 18 17. He died on the
27th, aged seventy-two. The family tombstone says of him,
" late tenant of Hazeldean." His father, Peter Bertram, had
farmed Hazeldean before him. His wife, Janet Watson, died
when she was but thirty-six, on i6th November 1758, and he
himself on 2nd August 1782, aged seventy-six. The tomb-
stone in Channelkirk churchyard is the centre one of three,
the eastmost, which stand on the south side of the path which
leads to the church door from the east gate. Edmund was
one of the signatories to a petition, presented by Chaimelkirk
parishioners in March 18 16, to have the church removed to
Oxton.

Our last sight of Hazeldean is in 1841, when Adam
Armstrong, labourer, is reported on the " Roll of the Male
Heads of Families" belonging to Channelkirk Church, as
dwelling there. One Johnston was the last tenant. We pre-
sume that the place soon afterwards became a ruin, and dis-
appeared.

Friarsknowes : Freersnose : " The Noss."

Under the shadow of Lammer Law, at the head of
Kelphope Burn, in the loneliest spot of the parish, stands



FRIARSKNOWES 431

Friarsknowes. The name proclaims its own meaning and
has the sound of ancient days in it. But " The Noss "
seems to have been its earliest appellation. In the will of
Alexander Sutherland, Dunbeath, Caithness, we have
among those in his debt — " Item, the Lord of Hyrdmanston
XX lib. the quhilkis, gif he payis nocht sal ryn apon the
landis of Noss." This was in 1456. {Bannatjne Miscellany.)
It is commonly pronounced locally " The Nose " or " Freers-
nose," and we have here unmistakably the Old English
" Frere," Friar ; and, the " nose " which appears in so many
place-names as " ness," meaning promontory or headland.
The earliest spelling of the name in its present forms, so
far as we know, is Frierneise in 1627. Friarness is about
the same time, and although " knowes " (knolls) might
seem the more appropriate, the obvious meaning is evidently
" nose," or " ness ;" the " nese " of Piers Plowman. Instances
where " ness " ; is applied to inland places situated on
waters similar to " Friarness " are found in Crichness on
Bothwell Water, Haddington, and Coltness on South Calder
Water, Lanark. Of course, the term is usually found
attached to points of land, small or great, running into the
sea, as Fife Ness or Caithness.

Whatever it may have been in bygone times, Friars-
knowes is now a single cottage, usually occupied by a
shepherd, and is necessary as a centre for the broad tract
of sheep-walk which stretches far and wide along the sides
of Lammer Law, the highest of the Lammermuir range
of hills. At present it is untenanted.

The minister of Channelkirk says of it in 1627 : " Frier-
neise, holding of Ecles, in stok fowrscoir lib., personag 6
lib., viccarage ten merkis," or in stock it was worth
£^, 13s. 4d., in parsonage teind los., and in vicarage teind



432 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

IIS. ifd. money sterling. "Of Ecles" means in all likeli-
hood, "of the Laird of Eccles." As late as 1781 the Earl
of Marchmont gets resignation ad remanentiam on pro-
curatory resignation in disposition by Sir John Patterson
of Eccles, of the lands of Kelphope, the neighbouring
lands of Friarsknowes, and in the same barony of Carfrae.*
The Lairds of Eccles seem to have held Friarsknowes on
the same footing at an earlier date. It has long been the
property of the Most Noble the Marquis of Tweeddale. It
is at present farmed by Mr Dickinson, Longcroft, by Lauder.

Fairnielees

We do not doubt that the name of this place is primarily
derived from the fern plant, which must always have been
abundant in its neighbourhood, and is yet plentiful enough
to the present day. The Anglo-Saxon of " fern " is /earn,
and it evinces the conservation of sounds when we have
this place-name pronounced fairn in the earliest example
which we have been able to find. In 1627 the minister of
the parish declares " Fairnielies " to be worth " in stok
200 merkis, personage 20 lib., viccarage xl merkis." " Lies,"
" lees," or " lie," is, of course, the Old English lay, sward-land,
so familiar in Burns's

" I'll meet thee on the /ea-ng."

and in Gray —

" The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the /ea."

Fairnielees stands 1076 ft. above sea-level, on a steep
broad upland rising away from Hillhouse Burn, and com-
mands an extensive view of the borderland. The lands
* G. R., 389, 189.



HILLHOUSE 433

are almost entirely pasture-ground for sheep, and the
dwelling is now, as it seems ever to have been, the
shealing of the shepherd who tends them. " Phairnielees,"
in 1630, is noticed as worth "ii'= merkis." In 1631 the
teind worth was put at one half bole of bear and four teind
lambs, with two pounds of wool to each lamb, price of each
lamb with the wool being 33s. 4d. Scots, or 2s. 9yVc1- sterling.
From having been, from the beginning, under Carfrae
barony, its individuality is never very conspicuous, and its
name does not occur frequently in the usual channels of
information. Its history is practically stated in that of
Carfrae. In 1788, and in 18 16, it is mentioned among the
Marquis of Tweeddale's properties as "Fairnielee." As yield-
ing teind money to the Kers of Morriestoun it is mentioned
in 1676 as " Fairnielees," in 1687 as " Fairniliey," and in
1692 as " Fernielees." It is now included in the farm of
Hillhouse.

HiLLHOUSE

" Hillhouse quhilk perteines to the Laird of Herdmies-
stoune," " ane chaplanrie of Hermeisstoune in stok 400 merkis,
personage 50 merkis, viccarage 50 merkis." This is the
minister's statement regarding it in 1627. He describes
it as one of the kirk lands in his parish. When Sir John
Sinclair of Herdmanston built a chapel at Carfrae, these
lands of Hillhouse had, to all appearance, been set aside
for its endowment. But at what time it came into exist-
ence under its present name it were hard to affirm. It
has always been under Carfrae barony, and was included
originally in Carfrae lands, and has constantly had the same
owners. Its teind rent was before both Sub-Commissioners
and High Commissioners in 1630 and i63i,and was valued

2 E



434 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

then. Half of this rent was drawn by the Kers of
Morrieston, and at various periods, such as in 1676, 1687,
and 1692, this fact is retoured, and Hillhouse is named.
It is called " a very considerable farm" in 1784. In i8cx)
Archibald Somerville was its tenant, who also farmed
" Elsinford " on the other side of Lammer Law. He lived
in the latter place for most part, and at the time when
the country was roused over the proposed Napoleonic
Invasion, and bands of yeomanry were called out, he
courageously took the field, a leading spirit, and is yet
remembered for the " langitch " he applied to the laggards
and less patriotic ! He died in December of 1821. Robert
Kelly was his steward in Hillhouse for a long time. The
next tenant was Alexander Taylor. He died at Pathhead
Ford. Mr Dickinson, Longcroft, succeeded in the tenancy,
and during that time, as mentioned above, it has been a
" led " farm. The farmhouse stands 800 ft. above sea-level,
but the Camp Hill close to the northwards of it shoots
up to 1000, and half-a-mile still further north. Ditcher Law
reaches the height of 1202 ft. It is pleasantly situated
between Kelphope and Hillhouse Burns, which meet on
the lower ground a little to the south, before they join the
Leader at Carfrae Mill. A considerable portion of the
farm is ploughed. There are twenty souls on the place.
The interesting camp in the immediate neighbourhood is
noticed in Chapter XX HI on "Antiquities."

Kelphope

This place appears to derive its name from the Gaelic
cailpeach, calpach, colpacJi, a heifer, steer, colt ; colpa, a cow
or horse. In Scotch mythology the cailpeach was an
imaginary spirit of the waters, horselike in form, which



KELPHOPE 435

was believed to warn, by sounds and lights, those who were
to be drowned. There is a slight tendency also to alter
any name to "hope" which has the least sound similar to
it. Langild^ Langat, Langhope^ in this parish is one instance.
" Hope," of course, js common through all the Borders in
place-names. It was part, originally, of the Carfrae estate,
and was probably a croft or farm about the close of the
fifteenth century, when all the neighbouring places lying on
the Mossburn (now Kelphope Water) came into existence.
Patrick Levingtoun of Saltcottis, heir of Patrick Levingtoun,
his father, holds Kelphope lands in 1613.* In 1627 it is
noted as being in value " in stok 300 merkis, personage 20
lib., viccarage xl lib." Robert Dodds is tenant there in
1630, and makes declaration that it is worth only 250
merks. Alexander Levingtoun de Saltcoats, heir of Patrick
Levingtoun de Saltcoats, his father, is retoured in the lands
of Kelphope in the lordship of Carfrae, bailiary of Lauder-
dale, on the 14th May 1640.^ George Levingtoun, his
heir, obtains them i6th November 1657.J In 1683 another
Alexander Livingtoune de Saltcoats is retoured heir of
George Levingtoune de Saltcoats, his father, in the same
lands. They are in Livingtoune's pos.session in 1691, and
seem to have remained with that family until purchased by
the Rev. Henry Home, minister at Channelkirk about
1725. § On 30th April 1723 he acquired the just and equal
half of the Kelphope teinds from Andrew Ker of Morieston,
and was taken bound to contribute certain " money pay-
able furth of the said lands to the Lords of Session," and
a " proportional payment of the expense for repairing and

* Retours. f Ibid.

X General Register of Sasines, fol. 316, vol, xiii.
\ Decreet of Locality, p. 151.



436 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

upholding the quire, or of the third part of the Kirk of
Channelkirk, or kirk dykes," and " others " more particularly
mentioned in the said disposition.* George Hall was its
tenant then, and James Miller an indweller. When Mr
Home died in 175 1, the property came into the hands
of his son-in-law, William Eckford, and he is assessed for
the minister's stipend in 1752. He died in 1764. Hugh,
Earl of Marchmont, appears to have acquired Kelphope
about 1780, and on 15th September 1781 gets Resignation
ad Rem. on Proc. Resig. in Disp. by Sir John Patterson
of Eccles. Kelphope still remains with the House of
Marchmont. Mr Patterson was tenant about the close
of this century. George Brown, Chesters, followed. After
him Mr Lyal came in, then Mr Taylor, and in our time
Walter Stobie, whose widow now farms it.

The rent of the farm at present is ^153 per annum,
and that of the farmhouse £\2. It is one of the most
remote places in Channelkirk parish, lying towards Lammer
Law, on the Kelphope Water, and is rather inaccessible
during winter, owing to flooding and snowstorms. In
Blaeu's Atlas (1654) "Kelfhoope" is placed on the east
side of Kelphope Burn, and at this date the house may
have been so situated. It is now on the west side.

Kelphope lies at the foot of Tollishill, a place which,
though not in Channelkirk parish, should not be left
unnoticed. The same tenant has sometimes farmed both
places, the Kelphope Water being the dividing line between
them. Tollishill at the end of last century came into
possession of George BroVn, Chesters, who, after Mr
Patterson's death (his uncle), obtained the leases of Tollis-
hill and Kelphope. He ploughed up and sowed with crop

*Sasines, 1725,



KELPHOPE 437

a considerable part of land on the former place, and
incurred the displeasure of the Marquis of Tweeddale for
so doing. He was taken to the Court of Session, and
ultimately to the House of Lords, over the affair, but
gained his case in both instances, and was awarded
expenses also.

Tullius' Hill, as it is sometimes called ; " Tullis, Over
and Nether" of the charters, has an ancient record in the
camp or fort of the " British " denomination in its vicinity.
But it is best known in the story which comes down to
us from the days of John, Duke of Lauderdale, amplified
and added to in Wilson's Tales of the Borders and
several other works, and which from its combination of
history and romance, wealth and poverty, the palace and
the cottage, national events and farm failures, has just
that touch of candle-light homeliness which gives to every
fireside tale of " lords and ladies gay " a witching fascina-
tion and a halo of truth.

In the stirring days of John, Duke of Lauderdale, one
of his tenants was Thomas Hardie, in Tullos Farm, on
Tullos or Tollis Hill. It was known also as the Midside
Farm. Mrs Hardie's maiden name was Margaret Lyleston,
the " Midside Maggie " of the Tales of the Borders. A
severe snowy season destroyed the flock, and Hardie
found himself at rent-time unable to " meet the factor."
Mrs Hardie courageously took the circumstances in hand,
and went personally to Thirlestane Castle to lay the
matter before the " Yirl." The great John, who had more
heart in him than he has been credited with, did not fail
to acknowledge the sincerity of the distress, and jocularly
bargained with " Maggie " to wipe out the rent score if
she would produce to him a snowball in June. Tollishill



438 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

cleuchs, jammed full of winter's snow, proved equal to this
condition, and with legal precision Maggie carried the
snowball duly tot he castle and obtained relief By-and-by,
fortune kicked the ball the other way, and while the
Hardies afterwards prospered, Lauderdale, following the
Royalist cause, found himself a prisoner in 1651, and
lodged in the Tower of London. But the honest hearts
in Tollishill did not consider themselves free from their
obligations, though the " Yirl's " back was at the wa', and
steadily every year laid past the rent due to him. The
heroic wife, out of gratitude and sympathy over her fallen
lord, then baked the rent total of gold pieces in a bannock,
carried them to London, and conveyed them to the hands
of the imprisoned Earl. Many days passed away, and
Lord Lauderdale was released, and in course of time
returned to his castle on Leader Water. He, it is said,
soon sought out the leal tenants of the Midside Farm, and
presented the noble Maggie with a silver girdle, and at
the same time granted to her and her children to hold
the farm rent free for their lives, remarking that " every
bannock had its maik but the bannock of Tollishill."

The girdle and chain, after passing through many
hands, found a permanent resting place in the National
Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh. (See Proceedings of
the Society of Antiquaries^ 1897-98, p. 195.)

Mr Patterson cultivated a considerable deal of Tollis-
hill land at one time, and kept two or three pairs of
horses. A Mr Usher also was tenant in it. His son John,
who also had it, was a favourite with Sir Walter Scott, as
he was somewhat of a poet, and the Great Wizard made
him a present of a pony. Usher was also tenant in
Quarryford Mill in Haddingtonshire.



KELPHOPE 439

There are four rough track roads across the Lammer-
moors to Carfraemill in this parish: — i. By Long Yester,
skirting the east side of Lammer Law, and passable for
gigs and carts ; 2. by Cairnie Haugh ; 3. by Longnewton
and Kidlaw ; and 4. by Stobshiels and Wanside. The
first two pass TolHshill steading.



CHAPTER XV

THE BARONIES — Continued

Hartside.— Glengelt

Hartside, the Name — Early Proprietors — Extent of Land — House of
Seton — Nether Hartside — Clints — Over Hartside — Trinity College
and the Superiority of Hartside and Clints — The Riddells of Haining
— Barony of Hartside^ — Hepburn of Humbie — Hope of Hopetoun —
Henryson — Dalziel — Borthwick of Crookston — Lord Tweeddale —
The Original Hartside — Barony of Glengelt — The Name — The
Veteriponts and Mundevilles — The Lord Borthwick — Raid of
Glengelt — Lawless Lauderdale — Hepburn of Humbie — The Ed-
monstons — Sleigh — Cockburn — Robertson — Mathie — Hunter —
Borthwick of Crookston — Tenants — The Den.

The name of Hartside, like that of the parish, has descended
to the present generation somewhat transformed from its
origmal shape. The earliest spelling is " Hertesheued."
It must not be confounded with the " Hertesheued " which,
in old writings, is often mentioned with Spott, Haddington.
It means Hart's Head, i.e., the head of the hart (Lat. cervus).
The Old English of " heart " is " harte " or " herte," and from
the latter we might suppose " Hertes-heued " to have been
derived. But in the twelfth century it seems the genitive
of Heartshead was " herten-heued," not " hertesheued," being
feminine. The name was originally, therefore, " Hartshead,"
and " Hart-side " is a corruption. The latter, indeed, does
not come into use until two or three hundred years after



HARTSIDE 441

the time when " Hertesheued " is found. The name is
first noticed about 1189A.D. We obtain it from the charter
which follows : — " Charter whereby William de Morvill,
constable of the King of Scotland, grants and confirms to
William de Hertesheued the whole land which Heden and
Hemming held in Hertesheued, viz., on the east side of
the road from Wedale to Derestre (te), to be holden by him
and his heirs of the hospital of the Holy Trinity at Soltre,
and the brethren thereof, in fee and heritage, as the charter
of the Procurator of Soletre and of the brethren of the same
place bears witness, saving always the service due to the
granter. Witnesses — Christiana, spouse of the granter,
Ketell de Letham, William Mansell, Henry de Sainclair,
Alan de Thirlestane, Peter de la Hage, Albinus, the chap-
lain, Richard de Nith, Duncan, son of Earl Duncan, Ingeram
Haring, Richard Mansell, Alan de Clephan."* We give
the writing in full, because it is necessary for a clear under-
standing of its several facts. William de Morville was the
last of the De Morville house who was Lord of Lauderdale.
As possessor of the lands of Hertesheued, as of nearly all
Lauderdale for that matter, he was " Superior," and the
Hospital of Soutra the " Mid-superior," and William of
Hertesheued was ' to hold his lands of both, paying rent or
other dues to the Hospital, while the " service due to the
granter" probably meant military service. It is clear that
De Morville had granted the lands to the Hospital, so that
they could derive benefit from them, and the Hospital had
granted a charter of the lands to William of Hartside, to
be held of them for certain dues, and their charter is here
confirmed by De Morville in the above writ. The De
Morville interest ceased with national changes, but nothing
♦Original Charters, No. 12, vol. i. Register House, Edinburgh.



442 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

leads us to suppose that the Hospital ever afterwards re-
linquished their rights in Hartside.

But William of Hartside was preceded in the proprietary
by Heden and Hemming, and the names at once point to
a Norse origin ; and when we remember that the village
name is also derived from a Norse source, it becomes evident
that before this time of transference of the Hartside lands,
Upper Lauderdale had mostly been in the hands of men
of Scandinavian descent. It is, of course, quite conceivable
that these descendants of Norsemen might have come into
Lauderdale under the patronage of the Saxon De Morvilles,
but it is more feasible to suppose that as Berwickshire
was often raided by these sea-rovers, a- few of them had
settled down in the quiet uplands of the dale of Leader
during the immediately preceding centuries, and by-and-by
had yielded in their turn to the superior forces which were
swayed by the Saxons.

The extent of property which is here set forth is rather
a matter of difficulty to us. " The whole land ... on the
east side of the road from Wedale to Derestre " is vague
enough. " Wedale " is traditionally derived, according to
competent writers like Dr Skene and Prof Veitch, from
the great battle, so disastrous to the Saxons, which was
fought between them and King Arthur's army, between
Heriotwater and Lugate. The vale of " wae " it ever after-
wards meant to the inhabitants of that district, and seems
to have been applied two or three centuries later to the
whole Gala valley. " Derestre," which we conclude can
only mean " Derestrete " with part of the name deleted
in the charter, was the well-known road or street which
ran to Deira, one of the divisions of Northumbria. This
'' street " has been considered as the " Roman Road,"



HARTSIDE 443

" Malcolm's Rode," and the " Royal Road," which under
the second and third of these appellations is frequently
mentioned in connection with Lauderdale and Soutra law
documents of the twelfth century. It is reputed to have
passed through Old Lauder, thence to Blackchester, thence
to Channelkirk Church, and thence across Soutra Hill.
The road from Wedale to this Roman Road, therefore, was
one connecting the valley in the neighbourhood of Heriot
and Lugate with the road crossing Soutra Hill. This road
seems to have taken the course of the Armet Water in a
general outline running from the Gala Water to the place
which is now called the Soutra Isle, the ancient " Hospital
of the Holy Trinity of Soltre." The " whole land " to the
east of this road would consequently mean what is generally
considered to this day as " the lands of Hartside and Glints."
It is to be observed that the eastern limits of these chartered
lands are not given, probably because the other properties
which were to be encountered on that side were too well
defined by that time to require further description. Glengelt
lands and Ghannelkirk Ghurch lands were the only possible
boundaries on the east of them, and these seem to have
been distinctly understood even before 1189 A.D. These
lands, then, if we are correct in so understanding the charter,
were to be " holden by William and his heirs, of the Hospital "
of Soltre, " as in their charter to the said William." Charters
appear to have been necessary from both superiorities,
the secular and the sacred, in order to security of tenure.
William of Hartside thus held of De Morville, but he also
held by charter of the brethren of Soltre Hospital. In like
manner, in olden times, feu-duties were wont to be collected
separately by both secular and sacred superiorities. This



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