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the estate passed to William de Veteriponte or Vipont, who
continued to these monks the Church with its tithes and lands."
" The first Vipont was succeeded by his eldest son by his first
wife, Emma de St Hilary, and this family continued Lords of
Langton till Sir William Vipont was killed at Bannockburn
in 1 3 14. Immediately after this the estate passed into the
family of Cockburn by marriage with the heiress of Vipont."
The family seems to have extended itself to a considerable
degree, but never rose to any great eminence in Scotland.
Scott \ rather ridicules the Vipont character in Ivanhoe. The
Ivon de Veteripont mentioned above must have lived before
1 1 89, and seems to have been alive in 1230. § (See also
" Glengelt " below.)

In Charter No. 191 (no date) John de Sinclair promises in

* Documents Illustrative of the History of Scotland. (Rev. Jos.
Stevenson.) Vol. ii., p. 169.

t New Statistical Account^ " Berwickshire," p. 237.

X Ivanhoe, chap. viii.

§ Calendar of Documents, vol. i., p. 203.



72 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

similar terms to those of Henry de Mundeville, that the
Mother Churches of Channelkirk and Salton shall not suJEfer
injury from the chapels which he holds in Carfrae and Herd-
manston, and certain feast days of the church are specified
when neither divine service is to be heard nor mass celebrated
in these chapels. And in recognition of the right of both
Mother Churches he confirms two acres of land to Dryburgh
Abbey in his territory of Herdmanston.

The Sinclairs of Carfrae seem to have been actively en-
gaged in the thirteenth century in the affairs of Upper Lauder-
dale. Concerning the origin of the family, it appears, that
like so many others, the Sinclairs came over with the Con-
queror. They branch out into distinct divisions during the
twelfth century, viz., the Sinclairs of Roslin and the Sinclairs
of Herdmanston.

William de St Clair obtained the manor of Roslin in
Lothian, where he settled in David the First's reign. He
seems to be the first of the Sinclairs to rise into historical
notice. This branch gave the Sinclairs the Earls of Orkney ;
the Earl Sinclairs of Caithness ; Sinclair, Lord Sinclair ;
Sinclair of Longformacus ; and others.*

The second branch is the one which connects itself with
Channelkirk.

Henry de Sinclair, Sheriff to Richard de Morville of
Lauderdale, Constable of Scotland, seems to have been a son
of the first William de Sinclair of Roslin. The Sinclairs of
Herdmanston and Carfrae derive their less remote origin from
him.

Henry de Sinclair was succeeded by his son Allan, who
appears with his father in the Charters of the De Morvilles.
It is this Allan who obtained from William de Morville, son
* Douglas's Peerage^ p. 112.



THE CHARTERS • 73

of Richard de Morville, the lands of Carfrae in the parish of
Channelkirk, in marriage with Matilda de Windefore, and
this is confirmed by Roland the Constable, who died
I2CX) A.D.*

John de Sinclair, who in the above-mentioned charter
grants an indemnity to the Mother Churches of Salton and
Channelkirk, was successor to Allan de Sinclair in his estates.
We find him in 1296, on loth July, sending in his sub-
mission to King Edward I., when he invaded Scotland to
quell Wallace's rebellion.i*

Charter No. 237 (about 1200) is chiefly interesting here
for its mention of Oxton, the mill of which seems to have
been held, along with several others, in the hands of Bishop
William Malvoisine, St Andrews (1202-38), and regarding
which something more will be said below in narrating the
history of the village of Oxton.

In 1 22 1 (Charter 234), James, brother of the Lord Pope,
Penitentiary and Chaplain of the Apostolic See, Legate to
the beloved brethren in Christ, the Abbot and Canons of
Dryburgh, grants confirmation concerning all their churches,
lands, and possessions, and the church of Channelkirk appears
in the list in the usual way.

Charter No. 251, dated 1228, contains a general confirma-
tion of the Abbey's possessions, and mention is made of " the
place itself on which the foresaid monastery stands." As
already noticed, it is disputed whether Hugh de Morville had
land to give for ecclesiastical purposes so far south as Dry-
burgh Abbey, and therefore if he had not, could not have
been its founder. This charter does not mention the giver of
the site. Channelkirk is catalogued as belonging to Dryburgh
Abbey.

* Dip. Scotia;, pi. 81. f Palgravc's Documents and Records, p. 169.



74 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

Charters 257 and 262, with the above, are from Pope
Gregory IX., and bear the same import. They also tell us
that the brethren of Dryburgh Abbey were of the Premon-
stratensian Order. This Order was founded in the first half
of the twelfth century by Norbert, and derived its name from
Premontre, where its first monastery was founded in 1 121. It
spread through all countries, and wielded great influence.
The rules were those of Augustine ; religious practices were
very severe; fasts were frequent, and scourgings common.
Flesh was altogether forbidden. Their life at Dryburgh
Abbey was therefore no path of roses. They were usually
called white canons from the colour of their dress. To call up
to fancy what they looked like as they went in and out on
their various duties, we have to imagine a person in a white
cassock with a rocket and cape over it, a long white cloak,
and a square hat or bonnet of white felt. They wore breeches
and shoes, but no shirt. The abbot wore red shoes, and a
short cloak, and carried a pastoral staff like a shepherd's
crook. They were poor at first and lived by their labour,
but their piety soon gained them benefactors. Their privi-
leges were many, and in those days, invaluable. They
paid no tithes, they could not be summoned before
any secular tribunal, and neither were they under the
Bishop's jurisdiction. Their work meant religious exer-
cises, copying books, and reading, attending to the
household offices, and working in the fields. They held
devotions seven times a day.

In 1230 A,D., Alexander II. confirms the Church of
Channelkirk to Dryburgh Abbey (Charter No. 242), and we
leave the Register of Dryburgh for a little to include an
important event which transpired in the history of this
church in A.D. [241, This was its dedication by David de



THE CHARTERS 75

Bernham, Bishop of St Andrews.* A notable event. Be-
tween 1239 and 1253, Bishop de Bernham consecrated no less
than 140 churches in his large diocese, and the reason of his
activity, apart from his own laudable zeal, is found in the
interest which Cardinal Otho had taken in the question.
We cull the following notes from the Pontificale as quoted.
"In the year 1239 Cardinal Otho held a Legislative Council
in Edinburgh. Unfortunately the records of this Synod are
lost, but it seems highly probable that the Cardinal should
have issued among others a constitution, relating to the
neglect of consecration of churches. We know that this was
a subject which had been in Otho's mind, and that only a
year or two before he had promulgated an order dealing
with that subject at the head of his constitutions for England
in 1237. The following extract from Johnson's English
Canons f will give an idea of the nature of the document :
' Now, because we have ourselves seen and heard by many
that so wholesome a mystery is despised, at least neglected
by some (for we have found many churches and some
cathedrals not consecrated with holy oil though built of
wood), we, therefore, being desirous to obviate so great a
neglect, do ordain and give in charge that all cathedral,
conventual and parochial churches which are ready built, and
their walls perfected, be consecrated by the diocesan bishops
to whom they belong, or others authorised by them within
two years.'"

On 3rd June 1239 David de Bernham was elected
Bishop of St Andrews. On the 22nd day of January

* De Bernham's Pontificale^ etc. Edinburgh Pitsligo Press, 1885.
Introduction by Chr. Wordsworth, Rector of Glaston. Rev. Dr Jas.
Gammack's " Itinerary of De Bernham," in The Scottish Guardian^ Feb.
1883.

\ An^lo-Catholic Library, Part II., p. 151.



76 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

in 1240, he himself was consecrated by the bishops of
Glasgow, Caithness, and Brechin. Like a true shepherd, he
at once zealously set about visiting his large diocese, which
extended along the east coast of all Scotland from the
Tweed to the Dee. The service book which he used was
fortunately preserved in Paris, and it contains the roll of his
church dedications up till 1253. The dates and places are
only recorded, the titles of the churches, that is, the names
of the saints to whom dedicated, being omitted. These have
to be sought in other records. Early in the spring, on the
14th day of March 1241, he is at Mid-Calder ; on the i6th he
dedicates St Cuthbert's Church, Edinburgh. He then passes
up the valley between the Pentlands and the Lammermoors,
and descends into Berwickshire by Soutra and Lauderdale.
If the March of that year was as tempestuous as that month
usually is now, his journey would truly be a bitter one, and
his sense of duty must have been strong to brave it. It is
then, notwithstanding, that on the 23rd of March he arrives
at Channelkirk and dedicates that church, passing on to
Gordon on the 28th and Stitchill on the 30th. Lauder is not
mentioned in the list of dedications, for a reason which
becomes apparent in the chapter following.

With regard to the year, it is as well to note that the
ecclesiastical year in Europe generally commenced on 25th
March. Strictly speaking, the year of our dedication would
thus be 23rd March 1242 according to our reckoning. But
we retain De Bernham's mode of dating.

In stating " facts and figures " in this way we naturally
lose something of the solemnity with which the lapse of time
should impress us. When Bishop de Bernham stood on the
hillside intent on consecrating Channelkirk Church, and
when the ancient inhabitants of the parish wended their



THE CHARTERS 77

toilsome path upwards to take part in the religious mysteries
of that day of March 1 241, we scarcely pause to remember
that the world was very much smaller to them than it is now
to us, and that hardly any of the well-known landmarks to
which we are accustomed in history were then visible.
America was unknown. No one had heard of Australia.
India was a hearsay. A few had heard of China. Sir
William Wallace and King Robert the Bruce were not born.
The Parliament as we have it now, in its two great branches,
did not exist. John Knox and the Reformation did not
dawn on Scotland till 319 years afterwards, and if the people
of Channelkirk had been gifted then with a glimpse into the
future, they would have required to look almost as far forward
to the memorable days of Queen Mary and Knox as we now
need to look backward. About the time when Channelkirk
was dedicated, candles came into vogue, linen was introduced,
a licence to dig coal was first granted to Newcastle, and gold
coinage took its rise some time later. Roger Bacon was busy
with his chemicals and magnifying glasses, and, as some think,
inventing gunpowder, while the compass began to be first
known. But if physical developments were then but in an
embryonic condition, the growth of spiritual power was
immense. It was the noontime of papal glory. Never
before or since has Roman Catholicism gained such an
ascendency over the entire world. No nation was exempt
from her rule, and kings and peoples alike bowed before her
imperious authority. The slightest whisper of the Pope
made a kingdom shake. His deliverance was law, and
whether it ran along the shores of the Mediterranean, the
Thames, or the sequestered stream of the Leader, his power
was equally invincible, and submission to it inevitable. An
illustrative case of this occurs in our dale about seven or eight



78 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

years after Channelkirk dedication, and must have been
pending as an ecclesiastical dispute when De Bernham passed
through it, as is shown in next chapter.

From De Bernham's Pontificale we can partly call up to
our imagination the scene that was enacted at the consecra-
tion of the church. In such a remote place, the ceremony
might not be so elaborate or complete as it is given there,
but the essentials were never omitted in any case. The
articles required in the service were crosses, candelabra and
wax candles, vases for water, keys, holy oil, chrisma, hyssop,
sand or ashes, wine, salt, incense, bread. After robing
and psalm-chanting, the Bishop and procession came
singing to the church door, "Zaccheus, make haste," etc.
Twelve wax lights were lit and placed outside in a
circuit around the Church and the same number within.
The procession then went round the Church carrying the
relicts of the saint and singing the litany. A deacon then
entered the Church and shut the door to ask the question,
" Who is the King of Glory ? " in reply to the Bishop's knock,
Lift up your heads," etc., after he had walked round the
Church three times. The door being opened, the Bishop and
procession entered bearing the cross, while the chest with the
saint's relics was held before the door by priests. A sign of
the cross the length and breadth of the floor was then made,
and the cross of the Bishop fixed in the centre of the Church,
and formulas, prayers, genuflections, chants, litany, etc.,
followed. After this the Greek alphabet was written across
the floor from the left corner in the east to the right
corner in the west, and a cross made with this by the
Latin alphabet written from the east right corner to the west
left. Then followed the consecration of salt, the ashes, holy
water, the wine, and the altar. Then beginning in the east



THE CHARTERS 79

left-hand corner, as with the Greek alphabet, the Bishop went
once round the church sprinkHng the walls. This was done
other twice, each time a higher sprinkling being given, till the
wall-tops were reached. He enacted the same ceremony out-
side, chanting and defying, in the language of Scripture, the
winds and waters to move the walls, till finally he sprinkled
the very ridge, singing : " Jacob saw a ladder which touched
the highest heavens, and angels descended upon it." The
consecration of the churchyard (when required ; Channelkirk
churchyard would be consecrated long before this) seems
then to have come next in order, with candles set in the four
corners, and much ceremony and singing. After this was
done, the Bishop again entered the church. Holy water was
sprinkled over the floor, the altar was consecrated with water,
oil, and the chrisma, the crosses to be used blessed, and the
incense. Here followed, perhaps, the most important part of
the whole service, viz., the exposing of the relics. They were
brought out from the altar, a veil being put up between the
priests and the people (this being the first time that the
people are noticed in the service), a place was dug and
anointed at its four corners with the chrisma, and incense
burned, and then the Bishop received into his own hands the
sacred relics, and deposited them, singing meanwhile an anti-
phonal, " The saints shall exalt in glory, in their graves they
.shall rejoice." A table having been placed over the relics, it
was daubed with lime as the Bishop sang : " The bodies of the
saints sleep in peace, and their names shall live thro' eternity."
The actual dedication closed with the demand for a gift to
the Church. No church could be dedicated without it, and it
was usually given by the lord who owned the land. He
himself placed it on the altar with a small knife or baton, the
clergy following the act, by singing : " Confirm this which has



80 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

been done, O God, through us to Thy holy temple which is in
Jerusalem. Hallelujah." The Bishop then raised his right
hand and blessed the church with the usual formal benedic-
tion. The gospels were then read to the people, and the
Bishop preached. He explained the meaning of the dedica-
tion, exhorted them to come and go to church in peace, an
injunction which was not altogether unnecessary, as in
Berwick Church, about this time, there had been bloodshed.
He enjoined them to observe the anniversary of the dedica-
tion as a holy day, and to give legitimate gifts to the church.
Mass was then celebrated : the singers sang " How terrible
is this place : this is none other than the House of God, the
very gate of heaven." A lesson was read from Revelation,
the Bishop blessed the people, and the whole service ter-
minated.

Channelkirk witnessed this in the wild March month of
1 241. Inexpressibly beautiful and impressive must have been
the sight. Looking out on the church to-day in this last year
of a dying century, one experiences a wistful sense of some-
thing awanting. Whether it is that distance lends enchant-
ment, or that the wings of Time, stretched over those far-away
days, cast a more mystic shadow over them than we can see
over our own, certain it is that a majesty and beauty have
faded from our religious services which one would not wholly
despise if they were to be restored. But, perhaps, for them,
as for these old days themselves, there is now no returning.



CHAPTER III

THE PARISH KIRK OF LAUDERDALE

Ecclesiastical Disputes in the Thirteenth Century — The Lauder Case —
Struggle for Teinds — Lord Andrew Moray — Eymeric, Lauder Priest
— Judicial Proceedings — -The Pope's SeYitence and Suspension of
Eymeric — Resistance of Eymeric — Final Settlement Concerning the
Chapel of Lauder — Channelkirk Church, the Mother and Parish
Church of the Whole Valley — Triumph of Dryburgh Abbey— The
" Parish " of the Twelfth Century — First Mention of Lauder Church
— Its Patrons — Channelkirk Priests and Lauder — Lauder Church or
Chapel — Its Status before the Reformation.

At Jedburgh, in the year 1230, King Alexander II. grants a
general confirmation to Dryburgh Abbey * of all her churches
and other possessions, among which, as a matter of course, is
duly mentioned the Church of Childinchurch. This Charter
(No. 242) does not afford us any more information con-
cerning ourselves, but in a deliverance of the delegates of the
Pope regarding the dispute about Lauder Church (No. 279),
Channelkirk comes into rather interesting prominence. As
is not uncommon, the light which enables us to discern
Lauder and Channelkirk Churches so clearly at that dim
distance, shines from the fires of an ecclesiastical quarrel.
The thirteenth century, indeed, is somewhat notorious for
its ecclesiastical recriminations. In 1220, just when Lauder
dispute was in a state of incubation, the Bishop of Glasgow
and the Canons of Jedburgh were settling an embroilment

* IJhcr de Dryburgh,

F



82 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

before arbitrators in the Chapel of Nesbit. The Pope, in
1228, comes in between Roger, rector of Ellesden, and Kelso
Abbey, lest trouble should increase ; and in 1203, Lord William
de Veteriponte and the monks of Kelso have warm debatings
over certain shealings in Lammermoor. Earlier, in 11 80,*
the Melrose monks have a first-class combat with Richard
de Morville of Lauderdale, concerning rights of pasture and
forest lying between Gala Water and Leader. Neither did
this quarrel soon die. As late as 1268, the Abbot of Melrose
and a great part of his Convent were excommunicated by a
Provincial Council held at Perth,*!" fo'' violating the venerable
sanctuary of Stow in Wedale, by breaking into the house of
the Bishop of St Andrews, and slaying a clerk, and wounding
many others. Friction between the nobles and the religious
houses seems to have been very great about this period ; but
the rapacity which characterised the former in the later days
of the Reformation, found a firmer resistance from the papist
than was possible to the Protestant. Arbitration, it may be
noted, seems to have been generally recommended and
followed in these contentions as the best method of establish-
ing peace. As a rule, the system seems to have worked well,
but in the Lauder case, which is our immediate interest here,
it utterly failed. The antagonism was too deep-rooted.

The parties and religious houses concerned were widely
scattered, a>d included Lauder priest, who was called
Eymeric ; the Abbeys of Kilwinning and Dryburgh ; the
Bishop of St Andrews ; the Priory of May ; Lord Andrew de
Moravia, bishop ; and the great De Morville family. The
cause of war was the teinds of Lauder Church. Who should
uplift and possess them ?

* Liber de Melrose^ Chronica de Mailros.
f Concilia Scoficattce, p. \\\\.



THE PARISH KIRK OF LAUDERDALE 83

In 1 220, Kilwinning Abbey, founded in 1140 by Hugh de
Morville, opens a triangular fight between Dryburgh Abbey
and certain others in Glasgow and of the diocese of St
Andrews, concerning the tithes of Lauder Church. A con-
vention is then made between Kilwinning and Dryburgh, and
the affair is harmonised for the time. When ten years roll
past, the smouldering embers burst forth in fiercer flame, and
give light strong enough to define the situation more clearly.
In 1230 the Bishop of St Andrews, William Malvoisine, who
was also, previous to A.D, 1200, Bishop of Glasgow, grants to
Dryburgh Abbey a charter confirming the right of teinds
which the canons of that house held in Lauder parish. By it
all are given to understand, " that we (Bishop William, viz.),
under the influence of divine piety, have granted, and by
episcopal authority have confirmed, to our beloved sons of
the Abbey and Convent of Dryburgh the whole half share
which Lord Andrew de Moravia held in the Parish Church of
Lauder, to be held quietly in perpetual possession, with reser-
vation of the tenure of Symon of Nusiac, who holds it at
present by gift of the said canons, for the rest of his life.
But in the case of his yielding it up, or dying, we grant the
said half share to the foresaid canons, and confirm it for their
own free use, and with the full completion of their Title, that
it be directed and held by them without opposition, as it is
contained in the declaration of the judges, in the instrument
of the delegates which they have beside them, namely : the
half of every kind of teinds from Treburne, from Pilmuir, from
the land of Walter Hostarius {i.e., the Doorward), from the
land of Martin, viz., Withlaw and Langelt (Whitelaw and
Langalt), and from the land of Utred of Langelt and from
Ailinispeth, and from the land of Samson, viz., Todlaw,
Aldinstoun, Welplaw, Lyalstoun, and Burncastell, and if



84 HISTORY OF CHANNELKIRK

anything new should arise within the bounds of these villages,
the other revenues of the Church of Lauder are to be re-
served. Moreover, we decree that he who for the time may
hold office in the said Church of Lauder shall in no way in
anything give any trouble or annoyance to the same canons
concerning the portion belonging to them." This charter of
confirmation receives " perpetual validity " by the affixment
of the seal of the Bishop.

There is no doubt here as to the .strained state of matters.
The canons of Dryburgh claim a " whole half share " of the
teinds derived from the above lands which seem to have
belonged formerly to Lord Andrew Moray. But the Lauder
priest gives trouble and annoyance to them in uplifting them,
and the canons bring pressure to bear upon Bishop William
of St Andrews, whose diocese stretches over Lauderdale, to
make it clear to Eymeric that his protest against their actiqn
is hopeless, and that he is utterly in the wrong. The case
had, doubtless, been contested at an earlier date, as a refer-
ence to " the instrument of the delegates " in the hands of the
judges seems to warrant us in assuming.

The *' Lord Andrew de Moravia " mentioned is the well-
known Bishop Andrew Moray, founder of Elgin Cathedral,
Dean of Moray, 1 221-1242, and the seventh bishop in that
diocese. He was very wealthy and munificent in his gifts to
the Church, helped doubtless by his close connection with the
house of Duffus. His possessions, as we see, embraced a
considerable part of Lauder parish, mentioned by the names
of the separate farms, all or nearly all of which still preserve
the same nomenclature with but little alteration.* It is
*" Walter de Moray, in 1278, exempted the Dryburgh canons from
multure for their corn grown on the above land (the land — a ploughgate
—and pasture for 300 sheep given by David Oliford in Smalham), and on
their ground at Smalham MWn."— Monastic Annals of Teviotdale, p. 305.



k



THE PARISH KIRK OF LAUDERDALE 85

accepted that Hugh de Morville possessed all Lauderdale



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