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EARTHQUAKES




INDIANS DANCING TO CELEBRATE THE DESTRUCTION OF THE WORLD.



EARTHQUAKES

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH OF

ARNOLD BOSCOWITZ



C. B. PITMAN




VILLAGE, FOREST, AND FIELDS DISAPPEARING IN AN ABYSS



WITH FIFTY-SEVEN ILLUSTRATIONS



LONDON
GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS

BROADWAY, LUDGATE HILL

GLASGOW, MANCHESTER, AND NEW YORK

1890



LONDON I
BRADBURY, AGNEW, & CO., PRINTERS, WHITEFRIARS.



CONTENTS.



EARTHQUAKES.

Impression made upon Men and Animals. Suddenness of
the Catastrophe .........



THE FOREWARNINGS.

The Ancients believed that Earthquakes were preceded by
phenomena of various kinds. Earthquakes followed or
preceded by Meteors. Anxiety of certain animals previous
to a severe earthquake. Instruments giving warning of the
imminence of Volcan : c Eruptions and Earthquakes . .



THE CATASTROPHE ITSELF.
I. THE SHOCKS.

Difficulty of observing the motions of the soil during severe
Earthquakes. Three different motions. Undulations and
Earthquake Shocks in Calabria in 1783. Motions of the
ground which destroyed the town of Riobamba, in Ecuador.
Duration of shocks . . . . . . 18

II. THE UNDERGROUND NOISE.

Earthquakes are not always preceded by underground noises.
Nature and Explanation of the latter 30

III. GULFS AND CREVICES.

Earthquakes create deep fissures in the soil. Crevices sud-
denly formed . 34



vi CONTENTS.



IV. SPRINGS, LAKES, AND RIVERS.

Rivers suddenly change their course. Movement of Lakes.
Modification of springs ........ 39



V. ERUPTIONS OF LAVA, FLAMES, AND EFFLUVIA.

Streams of mud descend from the mountains and submerge
the plains. Catastrophe upon the upper plateau of Rio-
bamba. Burning gases issue from the ground. Exhala-
tions injurious to plants and animals . . .- . .43



VI. EXTENT OF THE DISTURBANCE.

Undulation of the water and terrestrial undulations. Nothing
arrests the spread of the destroyer. Earthquakes which
have extended to a great part of the earth's surface . . 48



THE UPHEAVAL, SUBSIDENCE, AND SLOW
UNDULATION OF THE SOIL.

I.

The coasts of Chili upheaved by underground shocks. A
territory suddenly upheaved in New Zealand . . 5 1

II.

Subsidence of the Valley of St. Eufemia. Disappearance of
the Town. Great disturbance of the territory of Cutch, in
India. How the Japanese Lake of Biva was formed . . 55

III.

Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. The story of Lot's
wife. Aspect of the region. The Dead Sea. The Jordan . 58

IV
The coast of Puzuoli. The Temple of Serapis ... 65



CONTENTS. vii



V.

Measured undulations of the soil. Pressure exercised upon
the soil by the ocean and the atmosphere. While one
portion of the globe is slowly being raised, the other portion
is gradually being lowered. Character of this slow and
universal undulation 68



SEA-QUAKES AND DELUGES.

I.

Vessels meeting shocks while at Sea. The agitation of the
Sea. Waves raised up by the disturbance in the bed of the
Ocean. The great wave during the St. Thomas earthquake.
The Russian frigate Diana in the Bay of Simoda.
Flooding of the Peruvian coast. Marine undulatons
caused by earthquakes 75

II.

Deluges and Earthquakes in Greece and China. Atlantis
swallowed up in the Ocean. The Universal Deluge . . 85



EARTHQUAKES IN THE ISLAND OF
ST. THOMAS.



The Virgin Islands. St. Thomas, the most beautiful island
of the group. Often visited by cyclones and earthquakes.
Cyclone and earthquake in 1837 . . . ... 94

II.

Cyclone of Oct. 29, 1867. Energy of the Inhabitants.
Earthquake of Nov. 18, 1867. Weather very calm at the
time. Underground mutterings. Violence of the shocks.
Collapse of the town. An enormous wave rise sup in mid
sea. Terror of the inhabitants. The wave invades the
ruins of the town . . . 102



viii CONTENTS.



VOLCANO FIRES AND EARTHQUAKES.

I.

Volcanic eruptions followed by violent shocks. Earthquake
in the island of Java, and eruption of the Maunaloa volcano.
Shocks and volcanic eruptions in the islands of the
Indian Ocean . , . . . . . .114

II.

The craters in ebullition regarded as safety-valves. The
Pasto volcano and the Riobamba earthquake. 'The Ger-
man traveller Reiss at Pasto 117

III.

A mutual law seems to exist between volcanic eruptions and
earthquakes 120

IV.

Earthquakes in South America. Are they due to the filling
up of underground caverns ? Close connection between
earthquakes and volcano fires 122



THE CATASTROPHE OF CARACAS.

The upper valley of Caracas. The town of Caracas before
the catastrophe. Suddenness of the earthquake. Violence
and duration of the shocks. Destruction of the town.
Number of victims. The tending of the wounded. Mag-
nitude o<" the disaster . .129



AN EARTHQUAKE IN HONDURAS.

Volcanoes of Central America. Frequency of the shocks.
The Lagoon of Criba. Gust of wind and earthquake.
The waters of the lagoon are upheaved. Immense column
of water .... V * . . . V . 140

II.

Aspect of a virgin forest after the catastrophe. Destruction
of the town of San Josd. Emigration of the inhabitants . 147



CONTENTS. ix



THE CATASTROPHE OF SAN SALVADOR . 150



HOW THE EARTHQUAKE EXTENDS.

I.

Motion of the soil at the centre of the shock. Terrestrial
waves running parallel with mountain chains. Velocity of
the waves athwart rocks. Wells and grottoes weaken the
shocks. The wells of the capitol. The crevices and

grottoes of Quito . 162

II.

Central earthquakes. Linear earthquakes. How their waves
skirt obstacles in the way 167

III.

Difficulty of giving with precision the average speed of the
terrestrial waves 169

IV.

Simultaneousness of the shocks. Earthquakes occurring at
the same time in places very far apart. Is there a con-
nection between them ? . . . 170

V.

At what distance from the surface do the shocks originate ?
The method employed for fixing this distance . . .174

VI.

Land prone to be disturbed. Why buildings of stone and
masonry cannot withstand violent shocks. The best way
to build houses in regions prone to trepidation . . . 176



THE LISBON EARTHQUAKE.

I.

Three shocks destroy Lisbon. All Saints' day. The
numerous deaths in the churches. Aspect of the city in
ruins. The bed of the Tagus is upheaved. Falling in of
the principal quay. Tumultuous motion of the sea. The
King at Lisbon. Flames and smoke. Oscillations of the
soil in Spain 180



CONTENTS.



II.

Extent of the earthquake's sphere of action. Part of Europe
is disturbed. Violent undulation of the Atlantic Ocean.
The island of Madeira. Agitation of the Caribbean Sea .



THE EARTHQUAKES IN CALABRIA.

Calabria. Earthquakes of 1738 and 1693. The catastrophe
of 1783. The catastrophe of Polistena. The rock of Scylla
and the Prince of Scylla. Victims buried beneath the ruins 194



THE ISCHIA CATASTROPHE.
I.

The Island of Ischia. Mount Epomeo. Greek colonies.
Eruption of Mount Epomeo. Ancient disasters. The
shocks of 1883. The catastrophe of 1884. Incidents at
the theatre of Casamicciola and the Picciola Sentinella
hotel. Child saving its mother. Acts of heroism. The
Bishop of Caserta. Girls rescued after remaining under-
ground several days. Hallucinations of other persons
rescued. The King of Italy's visit. The cause of the dis-
aster. Future catastrophes . ., . . . . . 204



THE ANDALUSIAN EARTHQUAKES.

The provinces which suffered. Earthquake of Dec. 1884.
Panic at Seville. The Giralda. The disasters of the town
and province of Granada. Localities affected by it. The
crevice of the Cerro de Gogollos. Destruction of Alhama
and Abumelas. Voyage of the King of Spain. Cause of
the shock 232



CONTENTS. xi



PAGE

THE GROUPING OF EARTHQUAKES.
I.

Volcanic earthquakes and Plutonian earthquakes. How to
distinguish them 243

II.

A third group of earthquakes. Fall of subterranean caverns.
Action of springs. Settling down of mountains . . . 246



THE VALAIS EARTHQUAKE.

The Valais. The valley of Viege. Shock of July 25, 1855.
Destruction of towns and villages in the valleys and on the
mountains. The town of Grechen. Fall of enormous rocks
and blocks of ice. Avalanche. Propagation of the shock.
Child crushed to death 250



FREQUENCY OF SHOCKS AND THEIR
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION.

I.

Earthquakes are more frequent than is generally believed.
Periodicity of some earthquakes. No country is certain of
immunity 256

II.

How people get accustomed to earthquake shocks. Fre-
quency of the shocks in South America .... 259

III.

Shocks in Switzerland and Italy. Destruction of the finest
monuments in Greece . . ;-. -v . . . . 263

IV.
Shocks in Egypt and along the coast of Africa . . 265



xii CONTENTS.



V.

Earthquakes in Asia Minor and Syria. Earthquake which
rent the veil of the temple at Jerusalem. Destruction of
the city of Antioch. Earthquakes in the extreme East.
Regions where shocks are unknown or very rare . . . 266



THE CATASTROPHE OF MENDOZA.

The town of Mendoza before the catastrophe. The disaster
of 1861. Incidents. Rescues due to the intelligence and
fidelity of dogs. A French traveller had foreseen and pre-
dicted the catastrophe. Recent warning. Disquieting
symptoms in the volcanic region around the town . . 272



THE EARTHQUAKE IN THE ISLAND OF OHIO.

Chio, the pearl of the Greek archipelago. Patriotism of the
inhabitants. Earthquake in 1883. The capital is
destroyed. Prompt supply of relief. Fresh shocks . . 285



EARTHQUAKES AND THE SEASONS OF
THE YEAR.

Popular beliefs as to earthquakes and the seasons. They are
confirmed by recent researches. Seasons during which
earthquakes are most frequent. Number of shocks winter
and summer, and also day and night ..... 290



THE UNDERGROUND FORCES OF THE
ATMOSPHERE.

I. THE TEMPERATURE.

Brusque changes in the temperature during shocks. Great
decrease in the temperature during earthquakes in Sweden
and elsewhere 298



CONTENTS. xiii



II. THE PRESSURE OF THE ATMOSPHERE.

Observation made during the Calabrian earthquake. Sudden
drop of the barometer at the time of an earthquake. How
Humboldt accounts for this. Great atmospheric wave pro-
duced by the Java earthquake. Seismometer or seismo-
graphs, instruments indicating the motions of the soil. M.
d'Abbadie's seismometer. The seismometer and the micro-
phone. Microseisms, or very slight trepidations of the
ground. Their analogy with severe shocks . . . 302



III. UNDERGROUND STORMS AND AERIAL STORMS.

Earthquakes accompanied by tempests and storms. Cyclones
and earthquakes at the mouth of the Ganges and in the
West Indies. Fireballs and strange lights during the
Cumana earthquake of 1799. Ozone and the earthquake in
Andalusia. What ozone really is . . . . . . 310



IV. ELECTRICITY IN THE ATMOSPHERE AND
MAGNETIC STOKMS.

Influence of shocks upon the electric state of the atmosphere.
Action of shocks upon the electric needle. Red lights
frequently observed at the time of severe earthquakes.
Nature of this light. Magnetic storm following close upon
earthquake shocks 318



EARTHQUAKES AT CUMANA.

Alexander von Humboldt at Cumana. Destruction of the
.own in 1766. The shocks of 1799. Aspect of the sun.
Electric state of the atmosphere. Action upon the
compass. Extraordinary phenomena. Thunderstorm.
Bolids. Strange light in the sky. Impression produced
upon Humboldt and Bonpland. Panic of the inhabitants . 324



xiv CONTENTS.



EARTHQUAKES AND THE HEAVENLY BODIES.

The sun and the earth. Solar spots. Herschel's hypothesis.
The spectroscope. The sun is a fiery body. Photo-
sphere, chromosphere, and corona. Cyclone and storm in
the sun. Volcanic eruptions in the sun. Observations of
Father Secchi, Trouvelot, and Janssen. The solar spots
and the clusters of asteroids. Immense discharge of solar
electricity. Connexion between these solar phenomena,
magnetic storms and earthquakes. Influence of the
heavenly bodies upon the destiny of the earth. Action of
the planets, the moon, and the sun upon the subterranean
forces. The cycle of Saros. Astronomical time-table of
earthquakes and of the dangerous period. Observations
and researches of Alexis Perrey, Falbe, and Delauney.
The moon and the subterranean forces. Ocean tides and
subterranean tides ........ 333



THE EARTHQUAKE IN THE STRAIT
. OF SUNDA.

The Islands of the Indian Ocean. The Strait of Sunda.
Java and Sumatra. Frequency of earthquakes in the Strait
of Sunda. Catastrophe of 1883. Eruption of the volcano
of Krakatoa. Shocks at Sumatra and Java. Destruction
of towns and villages. -Mainland and islands disappear in
the waters. New isles are upheaved. Eruption of the
volcanoes of Java and Sumatra. Enormous waves swallow
up the towns of Anjer and Telok-Betong. Destruction of
the finest Buddhic temples. The number of the killed.
Marine undulation. An atmospheric wave oscillates
around the earth. The underground noises are heard at
enormous distances. Aspect of the sun during the earth-
quake. Crepuscular lights . 348



EARTHQUAKE IN NEW ZEALAND.
"THE EIGHTH WONDER OF THE WORLD!" . . .367



CONTENTS. xv



THEORIES AND CONCLUSION.
I.

The central fire. Theories and hypotheses which it has
suggested. Why the existence of the central fire is
admitted. What the interior of the earth might be like.
A sun concealed in the bowels of the earth. Gradual con-
traction of the earth's crust. Falling in of caverns and
settling down of rocks. Electricity considered to be a
cause of earthquakes. The cycle of the seasons. The
sidereal influences 375

II.

Underground heat the main cause of earthquakes. The
underground thunder and the disturbance of the soil.
The earth and the heavenly bodies. Incalculable energy
of the forces which the earth nurses within her . . . 391



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE

INDIANS DANCING TO CELEBRATE THE DESTRUCTION OF

THE WORLD (Frontispiece.}

After the Catastrophe. A family escaping through the ruins

of a town I

The sky streaked with lightning flashes and meteors. The

inhabitants regard them with terror, as presages of an

earthquake i.i

Forest agitated by earthquake shocks in Central America . 19
INHABITANTS OF RIOBAMBA DISPUTING POSSESSION OF

FURNITURE AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE . . To face 27
A traveller listening to underground noises . . ..31

Village, forest, and fields disappearing in an abyss . . 35

Circular crevices and wells formed during an earthquake . . 38
Violent upheaval of the waters of a river during earthquake

shocks 41

Flames and effluvia issuing suddenly from the ground . . 45

Map showing the sea and continents disturbed in 1755 . . 49

DESTRUCTION OF SODOM To face 58

Columns at the Temple of Serapis, near Puzuoli ... 67

The scourge an allegory . v . . . . . . 75

"THE RUSSIAN FRIGATE DIANA TURNED ROUND LIKE A

TOP" . , . ... . . . To face 76

LAND ENGULFED BY THE WATERS OF THE OCEAN DURING

AN EARTHQUAKE . . c . . . . . -_. . To face 88
FAMILY TAKING FLIGHT UP A MOUNTAIN DURING A

HURRICANE AND EARTHQUAKE ... .- . To face 98



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. xvii



PAGE



Immense ocean wave lashed up by earthquake shocks . . 105
" CARRYING AWAY SHIPS, AND COVERING WITH ITS HOARSE

ROAR THE DESPAIRING SHRIEKS OF SAILORS" To face IO6

Distant Volcanoes causing earthquake shocks . . . 115
The Upper Valley of Caracas, the two pyramids of the

mountain of Avila . . . . . . . . . 130

NIGHT-TIME, AFTER THE CARACAS CATASTROPHE To face 132
Waters of a Lagoon Upheaved during an Earthquake . . 141
An Emigrant and Vagrant Family, after an Earthquake . 143
Inhabitants of San Salvador on their knees during the Earth-
quake 148

INDIAN MARAUDERS LOOTING THE RUINS OF SAN

SALVADOR To face 156

Underground Grotto giving way 163

The Town of Quito, Ecuador 165

RUINS OF LISBON CATHEDRAL, AFTER A DRAWING OF

1755 To face 180

A Ruin in Lisbon, 1755 .185

INHABITANTS OF REGGIO AMONG THE RUINS . To face 196
The population of Polistena, Calabria, flying from an Earth-
quake . . . 199

Eruption of Mount Epomeo in 1302 205

THE POPULATION OF CASAMICCIOLA TAKING TO FLIGHT.
ACTOR FATALLY INJURED, IN HIS COSTUME AS " PUL-

CHINELLO" ..-. * . . . . To fact 217

Ruins of Abumelas, Spain ... . . . . . . 233

EARTHQUAKE IN THE MQUNTAINS OF ANDALUSIA To face 234
THE TOWN OF ALHAMA, AFTER THE DISASTER. SEARCH-
ING AMONG THE RUINS . . . . . To face 238

Fall of Rocks in the Interior of the Earth , . . ' 9 .245

Child Crushed during the Viege Earthquake . ... . 251

A VIEW OF THE VALAIS To face 252

Traveller accompanied by Indians in the Andes . . . 257



xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE



Ruins of a Greek Temple in the Island of Delos . . ~. 264

Monuments Destroyed by Earthquake at Antioch . . . 269

Dog Sniffing the Body of his Master . . ..-". . 275

RESCUE DUE TO THE INTELLIGENCE OF A DOG . To face 278
DISTRIBUTION OF RELIEF AFTER THE CHIO EARTHQUAKE

To face 286

The Port of Chio V ;'* ..- . 289

A Family Wandering in the Snow, to avoid an Earthquake

Shock . J? - . 299

Hurricane and Tempest .302

Storm and Lightning in the Interior of the Earth . .. .311
CYCLONE AND EARTHQUAKE AT THE MOUTH OF THE

GANGES . . To face 312

Magnetic Storm and Electric Storm . . . _"_. ; ; 319

Portrait of Alexander von Humboldt ... .... 324

CHINESE FLYING FROM AN EARTHQUAKE . . To face 324
The Arctic Sky, after a drawing of the Twelfth Century . . 335
Tumultuous Movement of the Floods in the Strait of Sunda . 349
A Traveller Contemplating the Ruin wrought by an Earth-
quake . . . . ..... . . . 377



EARTHQUAKES.






EARTHQUAKES



Impression made upon
Men and Animals.
Suddenness of the
Catastrophe.




After the Catastrophe. A family escaping
through the ruins of a town.



WHEN volcanoes
are in eruption they
inspire terror, and
cover with ruins
the region within
reach of them ; but
the naturalist, ac-
customed to brave
their fury, is often
able to contemplate



EARTHQUAKES.



them without danger. He can select the con-
venient time and place for getting close to them,
and can follow unmoved their long period of
fury, while, if he has strong nerves and an iron
will, he can watch in security the tumultuous
scene which is unfolded before his eyes. In the
spectacle which he contemplates there is a sense
not only of grandeur but of beauty, which tran-
quillizes his perplexed spirit, This is not the case
with the force of which we propose to treat. It
is sombre and sudden like death, and, like death,
mighty and mysterious.

The earthquake is the most terrible and the
most alarming of the phenomena by which our
planet is visited ; and, after having felt one of
those awful shocks, one quite feels with Hum-
boldt that the deep and indescribable impression
which a catastrophe of this kind makes upon us is
not due to the images of all those great disasters
handed down to us in history, which at such a
moment rise up vividly before us. What has such
an effect upon us is that we suddenly lose our
inborn confidence in the stability of the ground.
We have been accustomed to the contrast of the
mobility of water with the immobility of the
land, and all the experience of our senses has
strengthened our sense of security. When the
earth begins to quake the experience of our whole



EAR THQ UAKES. 3

life is destroyed in a moment. As Humboldt
says : " An unknown power suddenly reveals
itself, and the repose of nature ceasing to be more
than a dream, we are suddenly thrown back into
a chaos of blind and destructive forces." True,
indeed, is it that the impression which this terrible
scourge leaves upon the mind is deep beyond all
expression, and the nervous disturbance which
ensues sometimes gives rise to the most singular
phenomena among the inhabitants who have been
the victims of it.

Most of the survivors of the catastrophe which
befell the town of Caracas were for a long time
subject to nervous disorders. They would roll
convulsively upon the ground, and then jump up
and accuse themselves of all sorts of imaginary
crimes. At Philippeville (Algeria) again, after
the earthquake of 1856, several persons lost the
use of their speech, while upon other occasions, as
at Broussa in 1855, there have been many in-
stances of paralytic patients regaining suddenly
the use of their limbs.

It would be thought that the deep and terrible
emotion caused by an earthquake would only be
felt in large towns, and that people inhabiting
sparsely populated regions, like the South Ameri-
can Indians, and living in huts constructed of
reeds and palm branches, would not be afraid of



B 2



EARTHQUAKES.



earthquakes. Yet a long way from the coast
upon which the towns and villages are built, in the
vast solitudes of the Orinoco and the Magdalena,
human beings are not less alarmed by this
phenomenon, which terrifies even the wild beasts
of the forest and the monsters of the deep. For
animals are in mortal terror during an earthquake,
and Humboldt relates that the crocodiles of the
Orinoco, generally as silent as the ordinary lizard
of Europe, escape in haste from the heaving bed
of that stream, and make off with piteous groans
towards the forest. During the shock which
occurred in the Canton of Valais (Switzerland) in
1855, the owls, which are as a rule the most timid
and suspicious of birds, gathered upon the trees
nearest to the houses, while other birds, such as
swallows, took their flight towards other lands.
It has been noticed in the West Indies and else-
where that during an earthquake, domestic
animals, such as the ox and the horse, will get
close to each other and tremble all over. During
the series of earthquake shocks in Calabria a
hundred years ago, the dogs howled so loudly
and dolefully that they were killed, and the same
was the case at Philippeville in 1856 ; while at
Bougie, in Algeria, the very nightingales and
other song-birds were so struck with terror that
none of them uttered a note for more than a week.



EARTHQUAKES,



In modern Greek the designation of an earth-
quake is " Theomenia," or " the anger of God."
The Greeks have no other name for this scourge,
and as they believe it to be a special and direct
manifestation of the divine wrath, they would be
very aggrieved if an earthquake were attributed
to natural causes, the same as in the case of
thunderstorms, famine, or epidemics. The word
" Theomenia " accurately renders the impression
which the scourge makes upon the populace, and
the same idea is conveyed under another form in
the exclamation of the Psalmist : " The earth
shall tremble at the look of Him ; if He do but
touch the hills, they shall smoke."

Earthquakes have ever been a source of terror,
and this is easily understood. Precautions can
be taken against other calamities, but not against
this. As Seneca observes : The port protects
the sailor against the storm ; we can take refuge
from an overflowing river ; our roofs protect us
from torrential rain ; the caves and cellars offer
us a refuge from the lightning ; and plague and
other epidemics can be escaped by a change of
residence. No evil is without its remedy, but
against the earthquake there is no protection.

No destructive agent sacrifices so many lives
in so short a space of time. Within one minute
the town of Mendoza, the capital of a state in the



EARTHQUAKES.



Argentine Republic, was reduced to a heap of
ruins beneath which nearly all the inhabitants,
numbering about 16,000, were crushed to death.
In twenty seconds 1 7,000 persons perished during
the earthquake which demolished the flourishing
town of Caracas. The earthquakes in Sicily in
1693, an d in Calabria in 1 783, are each said to have
been fatal to 80,000 persons ; the one laying in
ruins fifty, and the other three hundred towns
and villages. Upon the 4th of February, 1797, the
earthquake of Riobamba killed 120,000 persons
in the upper districts of the Equator. The first
and fatal shock which destroyed the city of Lisbon
in 1755 lasted only five seconds, and this earth-
quake, which extended far out to sea and lifted
the waters out of their bed, was fatal to 60,000
persons. In the year 526 a terrible earthquake
shock in Italy killed 120,000 persons, and in the
same year more than 200,000 were killed, during
a shock lasting only a few seconds, at Antioch
and several neighbouring cities. In Japan, and
the archipelago of the Sound, shocks of earth-
quake have often destroyed and depopulated
whole regions which were before studded with
opulent cities and rich with crops.

There is no calamity to compare with it. It
comes all in a moment, the earth undulates and
quivers for a few seconds, in the course of which



EARTHQUAKES.



mountains crumble, valleys are upheaved, rivers


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