Arnold Wright.

Twentieth century impressions of Siam: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources, with which is incorporated an abridged edition of Twentieth century impressions of British Malaya online

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Consular Service. Again, there is a Legis-



TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS OF SIAM



95




LAW OFFICERS OF THE CROWN.

3. W. A. G. Tillkkk (Acting Attorney-General of Siam). 4. Rene SHERIDAN (Legal Adviser to the Court of Foreign Causes).

C. R. A. Niel (Temporary JiHge to the Siamese Appeal Court). 6. Lawrence Tooth (legal Adviser to the International Court).

7. C. L. Watson (Legal Adviser to the Civil Court, Ministry of Justice).
8. Dr. T. Masao (Senior Adviser to his Siamese Majesty's Government and Judge in the Supreme Court of Appeal).



lative Adviser appointed in conformity with
a treaty concluded with France. This office
is at present held by Monsieur Georges Padoux,
who holds the rank of Consul-General in the
French service. In many of the courts there
sits a foreign legal adviser whose duty is to
advise the judges in any matter of difficulty.
These advisers have the full status of judges
and draft and sign judgments. The appoint-
ment of such advisers, however, is not a matter
which is obligatory by any treaty, but is entirely
voluntary on the part of the Government, the
desire being simply to make the judiciary as
efficient as possible. The first duty of the
advisers is to learn the language, and they
have to pass an examination in Siamese before
being attached as adviser to any particular
court.

The large majority of the judges are locally
educated men. There is a law school in
Bangkok which was established by Prince
Rajaburi when he became minister, twelve
years ago. Each year there is an examina-
tion in which about twelve out of a hundred
students are successful. Nearly all of these
lawyers are at once posted to judgeships, and
thus the judiciary is formed.

H.B.M.'S COURT FOR SIAM.

Under the treaty at present in force between
Great Britain and Siam all British subjects in
Lower Siam are justiciable in a British court,
and those in Upper Siam in a specially consti-
tuted international court. In Lower Siam the
British court was, until 1903, presided over by
consular officers ; in that year, by an Order in
Council (amended in 1906), " H.B.M.'s Court for



Siam " was created, with a judge and an as-
sistant judge who have to be barristers. The
present holders of these posts are their




MR. JUSTICE SKINNER TURNER.
(H.B.M.'s Court for Siam.)



Honours Judges Skinner Turner and A. R.
Vincent, and from their decisions there is an
ultimate appeal to the Privy Council in London.
His Honour Judge Skinner Turner was
born near Tollbridge, Kent, and educated at
King's College School, Strand, and at London
University. He was called to the Bar at the
Middle Temple in 1890, and for some years
afterwards practised on the Western Circuit
and at the Hampshire Sessions. Joining the
Foreign Office in 1900, he was appointed
Registrar to the British Court in the East
Africa Protectorate, and in the following year
was transferred to the Uganda Protectorate to
act as legal Vice-Consul. Early in 1902 he was
appointed magistrate at Mombassa and in May
of the same year was transferred to Zanzibar as
Acting Assistant Judge, receiving a definite ap-
pointment there as Second Assistant Judge in
the following month of October. In February,
1904, he was promoted to be Senior Assistant
Judge. Throughout his time there he sat as
one of the judges of the Court of Appeal for
the Eastern Africa Protectorates, and was
present at the first sitting of that court. He
was appointed to his present post in 1905. His
Honour is married to Millicent, second daughter
of the late Rev. W. H. Hewett, of South Scarle,
Nottinghamshire.

His Honour Judge Arthur Rose Vincent
was born in 1873 and educated at Wellington
College and Trinity College, Dublin. He is
a barrister-at-law, King's Inns, Dublin, and has
a record of service covering the territories of
the Eastern Africa Protectorates somewhat
similar to that of Judge Skinner Turner. He
was appointed to Siam in 1906.



96



TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS OF SIAM



MEMBERS OF THE LEGAL
PROFESSION.

Mr. Henri Uusson has filled the post of
Judge to the French Consular Court at Bang-
kok since March, 1908. He is a native of
Civrac-en-Medoc, in the department of the




MR. JUSTICE HENRI DUSSON.
(French Court.)

Gironde, and was educated for his profes-
sion at Bordeaux School, where he secured
his Licencic en Droit, and later at the Uni-
versity of the same town, where he qualified
as a Doctor of Law. For seven years
following his success in his examination he
practised in Bordeaux as advocate, and for
another year filled the position of " Sous Chef
de Contentieux " in Paris. He was appointed
Magistrate to the Government at Saigon in
1903. In the beginning of 1908, and prior to
his departure for Bangkok, he was appointed
Jugc a Instruction (Legal Adviser).

Mr. John Stewart Black, who has been
the Judicial Adviser at the Ministry of Justice,
Bangkok, since 1902, was educated at Linlith-
gow Burgh School, N.B., and at St. Andrew's
University. He was called to the Bar at the
Middle Temple, and in 1888 entered his Bri-
tannic Majesty's Consular Service as Student
Interpreter in Siam, being appointed Assistant
in 1893, and promoted to First Assistant three
years later. In 1897 he was appointed Vice-
Consul at Bangkok, and at a later period was
for some time Acting Consul and Judge of the
Consular Court at the British Legation. He
resigned the Consular Service in order to take
up his present office under the Siamese Gov-
ernment. Mr. Black is a Fellow of the Royal
Geographical Society, and has contributed
several papers to the " Proceedings of the
Roval Geographical Society."

Mr. William Alfred Q. Tilleke, the
Acting Attorney-General of Siam, is a mem-
ber of a well-known Sinhalese family. He
is the son of the late Chief Mudaliyar, Mr.
M. Goonetilleke, of Kandy, who was a justice
of the peace for the Central Province, and also
held the rank of Gate Mudaliyar — the highest
native rank which it is in the power of the
Governor of Ceylon to bestow ; while two of
his uncles, the late Mr. William Goonetilleke
and Mudaliyar Louis VVijeysinghe, his mother's
brother, may be reckoned as two of the most
eminent scholars Ceylon has produced. Mr.
W. A. G. Tilleke, the subject of this sketch,
was born in i860, and educated at St. Thomas's



College, Colombo, and is a member of the
Calcutta University. While still at College he
showed promise of that success he was after-
wards to obtain, both as a journalist and
lawyer, for he was editor of his college
magazine, and a prominent member of the
Debating Society. Shortly after obtaining his
diploma he left college to commence his
studies for the law, and four years later he
passed one of the severest examinations for
admission into the legal profession which had
been known up to that time. The Chief
Justice of Ceylon was bent upon raising the
standard of legal education, and out of the nine-
teen students who presented themselves at this
examination, only two passed the two-days'
test paper set by Chief Justice Burnside, pre-
paratory to the final examination a week later.
After being called to the Bar he practised in
Kandy, where, in 1885, he was elected a
Municipal Councillor, and was for the two
years following a magistrate of the Municipal
Court. Mr. Tilleke left Ceylon about twenty
years ago and settled in Siam. Here he has
appeared in some very important cases, in-
cluding the trial of the Siamese Frontier
Commissioner, Phra Yot. But apparently
success as a lawyer was not sufficient in
those days for a man of Mr. Tilleke's energy
and enterprise. In 1893, in conjunction with
the late Mr. G. W. Ward, he started the Siam
Observer, the first English daily newspaper,
and, indeed, the first daily newspaper of any
description in Siam. The paper is still flour-
ishing, but some years since, on account of
increasing legal duties and his being unable to
spare the time to devote to its supervision, Mr.
Tilleke transferred the property to his brother,
Mr. A. F, G. Tilleke. Apart from the many
responsibilities attaching to such an important
post as that of Attorney-General and the cares
of a large private practice, Mr. W. A. G.
Tilleke takes a very prominent place in the
commercial life of Bangkok. He is Chairman
of the Bagan Rubber Company ; a Director
of the Bangkok Manufacturing Company, Ltd.,
the Bangkok Dock Company, Ltd., the Siamese
Tramways Company, Ltd., the Prabad Railway
Company, the Transport Motor Company, the
Paknam Railway Company, and is interested
largely in many other commercial and in-
dustrial undertakings. As a good sports-
man and a lover of horse-racing, too, he
has few equals in the country. He is a
Committee Member of the Royal Bangkok
Sports Club, and' was for seven years Clerk
of the Course. He has kept a large racing
stable for many years, and has a private track
on his own premises. His ponies always
carry off a good proportion of the events at
the local race meetings, while in 1903 his
stable created a record by winning all the
seven events on the first day. He is a mem-
ber also of the Singapore Sporting Club, and
has run his horses there with some success.

Mr. C. R. A. Niel was born in April,
1879, at Toulon, and educated at Toulon,
Paris, and Aix. He was a medallist at the
Law School, and graduated as a Doctor of
Law. He was called to the Bar of the Appeal
Court of Aix-en-Provence in 1899, an d ap-
pointed attache at the office of the Procureur-
General of Indo-China in December, 1900.
He was promoted Assistant Judge in Novem-
ber, 1901, and Judge in August, 1905. In
March, 1904, he was transferred to Bangkok
to undertake the responsibility of Judge in the
French Consular Court, but since March, 1908,
he has acted as temporary Judge in the
Siamese Appeal Court. Mr. Niel is an " Officier
d'Academie," and a member of the fifth class
of the Order of the White Elephant of Siam.

Mr. Lawrence Tooth was born at
Brighton, Sussex, in 1880, and educated at
St. Paul's School, Hammersmith, and London
University, at which latter institution he
graduated LL.B. with honours. Shortly after



passing his solicitor's final he came to Siam
under an appointment to his Siamese Majesty's
Government. He arrived at Bangkok in 1902,
and is now Legal Adviser to the International
Court. Two years ago Mr. Tooth received the
Order of the Crown of Siam, fourth class.

Mr. C. L. Watson, the Legal Adviser to
the Civil Court at Bangkok, came to Siam in
March, 1905, having passed his solicitor's final
in June of the previous year. He was appointed
to the position he now holds upon his arrival
there.

Mr. Rene Sheridan, the Legal Adviser to
the Court of Foreign Causes, in common with
many of the Belgians who take up foreign
service, has had his share of experience in the
Congo State. Born in Bruges in 1873, he was
educated at Brussels University, qualifying
in 1879 for the degree of Doctor of Law. He
returned to Bruges as a Fellow of the Bar,
but shortly afterwards sailed for West Africa,
be;ng appointed first Substitut du Procureur
d'Etat and subsequently a judge in the Congo.
Returning to Europe after a year, however, he
was offered and accepted an appointment
under the Siamese Government and left for
Bangkok in 1901.

Mr. Q. K. Wright was born in Boston,
Lincolnshire, in 1884, and educated privately.
He was articled to a firm of solicitors in London,
and passed his final examination in 1906. In
February, 1907, he was appointed Legal
Adviser at the Ministry of Justice, Bangkok.
After devoting six months to the study of the
language, he was attached to the Court at Raja-
buria. He returned to Bangkok in February,
1908, and in the absence of Mr. R. C. Gosnell
was appointed Acting High Sheriff.

Mr. C. J. Naylor.— The cioyen of the Bar
in Bangkok, and the leading unofficial member,
is Mr. Charles James Naylor, who has since
the beginning of 1894 been engaged in prac-
tically every cause cclcbrc in the local courts of
justice. He is a barrister of the Inner Temple,
a member of the Hongkong Bar, and an
advocate and solicitor of the Supreme Court
of the Straits Settlements. He has also had




C. J. NAYLOR.

( Barristt r-at- Law. )

conferred upon him the title of ttati Pundit
in the Siamese courts. The son and grandson
of lawyers, Mr. Naylor has had twenty-three
years of legal experience in both blanches of
the profession.



DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPRESENTATIVES

IN SIAM



FRANCE.

M. Pierre de Margerie, Envoy Extraordi-
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary of France to
the Court of Siam, was born in 1861, and
educated at the University of Paris. The
various appointments he has held under the
Ministry of Foreign Affairs have included
Copenhagen, 1886; Constantinople, 1889; Peking,
1898 (uninstalled); Copenhagen (First Secretary),



1899 ; Washington (Conseiller d'Ambassade),
1901 ; and Madrid, 1903. He was a member of
the French Mission to and Secretary of the
Conference at Algeciras (1906), and prior to his
appointment in 1907 to the Court of Siam was
the French Delegate to the Danube Commission.
M. de Margerie possesses many highly
prized decorations, and is member of the
Legion d'Honneur and a Chevalier du Merite
Agricole.



M. Q. Osmin Laporte was born in 1875,
and educated in France, securing a diploma in
Oriental languages. He was appointed Consul
at Bangkok on April 1, 1906, and promoted to
Consul of the Second Grade on the 1st of
October following.

NETHERLANDS.
Mr. F. J. Domela Nieuwenhuis, the

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten-




MEMBERS OF THE CORPS DIPLOMATIQUE.

1. P. de Margerie (France), 2. F. J. Domela Nieuwenhuis (Netherlands). 3. A. G. Yacovlew (Russia).

5. Waiter Ralph DORIS Beckett (Great Britain, acting). 6. Major F. Ciccodicola (Italy).

97



4. Ralph Paget, C.M.G., C.V.O. (Great Britain 1.
7. Sakuya Yoshida (Japan).



98



TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS OF SIAM



tiary in Bangkok for the Netherlands, was born
and educated in Amsterdam. After passing the
necessary examinations for entrance to the con-
sular service he remained for one year in the
Foreign Office at the Hague before joining the
Consulate-General for the Netherlands at Singa-
pore. In 1890 he was transferred to Bangkok
as Acting Consul-General, a position which he
filled for two years prior to his return to the
home Foreign Office. From 1895 to 1901 he was
Consul-General at Pretoria, South Africa, and
then once more he renewed his acquaint-
anceship with Siam, coming to Bangkok as
Charge d'Affaires and Consul-General, In 1903
he was promoted to his present rank of Fnvoy
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
Mr. F. J. Domela Nieuwenhuis is a Chevalier
of the Order of the Netherlands Lion and an
Officer of the Order of Oranje Nassau.



Italy. In 1898 Mr. Yacovlew became the
ConsuJ-General at Jerusalem, a position he
occupied for ten years, being transferred to
Bangkok in 1908. Mr. Yacovlew possesses
decorations from the Governments of Turkey,
Greece, Bulgaria, Scrvia, Montenegro, and
Abyssinia, and the Orders of St. Stanislaus
first class and the Medjida first class.

Mr. Nicholas K. Eltekoff, the Consul for
Russia and Secretary of Legation, was born in
1876 in the Government of Yaroslav, Russia,
and educated at St. Petersburg University. On
obtaining his diploma in 1900, he entered the
Foreign Office, and a year later was appointed
Secretary to the diplomatic officer attached
to the Governor-General of Port Arthur, a
position which, in 1903, was transformed to
that of Secretary to the Chancery of the
Viceroy. During the Russo-Japanese War



Bangkok for the United States of America was
born in 1881 at Schenectady, New York. He
received his present appointment on May 12,
1907.

GERMANY.

Herr Adolph von Prollius, his Imperial
German Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and
Minister Plenipotentiary in Bangkok, was born
on January 12, 1861, at Schwerin in Mecklen-
burg. He is the son of the minister of Meck-
lenburg at Berlin. Entering the Diplomatic
Service in 1891, he has held positions at the
Hague, Mexico, Caracas, Bucharest, and Copen-
hagen. On September 12, 1905, he arrived
in Bangkok to undertake the duties of Minister-
Resident, and has held his present position
since January, 1908.




1. LuiZ Leopoldo Flores (Consul-General for Portugal). 2. N. K. Eltekoff (Secretary of the Russian Legation and Acting Gamut-General for Denmark).

3. J. W. Edie (Consul-General for Norway). 4. A. Mohr (Consul for Sweden). 5. F. H. Lorz (Acting Consul for Austro-Hungary).



RUSSIA.

Mr. A. Q. Yacovlew, the Envoy Extra-
ordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the
Russian Government in Siam, was born and
educated at St. Petersburg. His first appoint-
ment was as Attache to the Russian Embassy
at Constantinople in 1876. From there he was
transferred to Jerusalem in the capacity of
Secretary to the Russian Consulate, but the
outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War found Mr.
Yacovlew attached to the staff of the Com-
mander-in-Chief of the Russian Army. At
the conclusion of hostilities he was again
appointed to the Embassy at Constantinople,
where during a period of service extending
over eighteen years he was promoted from
Third to Second Dragoman, and undertook
many special missions in Egypt, France, and



Mr. Eltekoff was attached as Secretary to the
Chancery of the Commander-in-Chief (at Port
Arthur). He returned to the Foreign Office at
St. Petersburg in 1905, and was appointed to
his present position in the year following.

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

Mr. Hamilton King, Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary for the United
States of America, was born at St. John's,
Newfoundland, in 1852. After graduating
at Olivet College, Michigan, he pursued
his studies at Chicago, Leipzig, and Athens.
He was appointed Minister-Resident in Siam
in January, 1898, and promoted to his present
position in 1903.

Mr. John Van A. MacMurray, the Con-
sul-General and Secretary of the Legation at



Dr. Hermann Budenbender, Vice-Consul
for Germany, Secretary of Legation, was born
on March 16, 1876. He entered the Foreign
Service four years after qualifying as a doctor
at Heidelberg, and arrived at Bangkok in
February, 1906, where he has since held the
position of Vice-Consul for Germany, except
for two months in 1907, and from February to
November in 1908, when he acted as Charge
d'Affaires. Dr. Budenbender was formerly
Vice-Consul at Shanghai.

BELGIUM.

Mr. A. Frere, the Minister-Resident for
Belgium, arrived in Bangkok on February 18,
1908, to take up his present duties. He has
previously held positions in Africa, India, and
China.



TWENTIETH CENTURY IMPRESSIONS OF SIAM



99



GREAT BRITAIN.

Mr. Ralph Spencer Paget, C.V.O..C.M.G.,

the son of the late Right Hon. Sir Augustus
Paget, at one time his Majesty's Ambassador
at Vienna, was born on November 26, 1864.
He was educated at Eton and studied for a
short while also with Scoones, of Garrick
Street, one of the most successful crammers of
that day. Having passed the competitive
examination for entrance to the Diplomatic
Service, he was appointed to Vienna on July
7, 188S. The following year he was trans-
ferred to Cairo, where his knowledge of Arabic
obtained for him a special allowance. On
July 19, 1800, Mr. Paget was promoted to be
Third Secretary, and from December 15, 1891,
to May 4, 1892, was employed at Zanzibar.
He was transferred to Washington on July 25,
i8i)2. and to Tokio July 1, 1893, where he acted
as Charge d'Affaires from June 5 to August
20, 1894. On January 24, 1895, he was pro-
moted Second Secretary, and four years later
was appointed for a second time to Cairo. He
was transferred to Munich on October 1, 1900,
and to Constantinople on January 2nd of the
following year, his knowledge of Turkish once
more securing for him the extra language
allowance. On June 18, 1901, he was sent to
Guatemala as Charge d'Affaires, and remained
there until his removal to Bangkok, in Septem-
ber, 1902. During his first two years' service
in Bangkok he acted as Charge d'Affaires, but
on April 1, 1904, was promoted to be a First
Secretary. In June, 1904, he was created
C.M.G., and the following November was
appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary at Bangkok and Consul-
General in Siam. On October 28, 1907, he
was admitted to the Companionship of the
Victorian Order. Mr. Paget married Miss
Leila Paget, a daughter of General Sir Arthur
Paget. His sister is the Countess of Plymouth.
Mr. Walter Ralph Durie Beckett, the
second son of Colonel W. H. Beckett, who
served for many years in the Indian Military
Works Department, was born on August 24,
1864. He was educated at Tollbridge School
and subsequently at Scoones's, the well-known
crammer of Garrick Street, London, and, after
the usual competitive examination, was ap-
pointed a Student Interpreter in Siam in
February, 1886. He was promoted Second
Assistant in 1888, a First Assistant in 1891,
and was appointed Vice-Consul two years



later. The local rank of a First Secretary in
the Diplomatic Service was given to him on
August 30, 1904. Mr. Beckett, who has spent
the whole of his career in Siam, was for some
time Consul for the Consular District of Chieng-
mai and the Northern Provinces. He has on
several occasions acted as Charge d'Affaires in
Bangkok, and for a short period was in charge
of the Legation.



ITALY.

Commendatore Federico Ciccodicola,

Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo-
tentiary of his Majesty the King of Italy, was
accredited to the Court of Siam by royal
decree on June 13, 1907. Born in Naples on
March 1, i860, he entered the service of the
Royal Artillery in 1879, and in 1887 was
raised to the rank of Captain. Mr. Ciccodicola
saw active service in the Italian Colony of
Africa, and took part in all the campaigns
against Abyssinia. After peace was concluded
in 1807 he was appointed the representative
of the King of Italy to the Emperor of Abys-
sinia.

JAPAN.

Mr. Sakuya Yoshida, who arrived in
Bangkok in August, 1908, to take up the post
of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni-
potentiary of his Majesty the Emperor of
Japan to the Court of Siam, has had some
twenty-two years' experience of the Diplo-
matic Service. His first appointment, which
he received at the age of twenty-six years,
was as Chancellor to the Japanese Legation
in Vienna. He was promoted Attache the
following year, and during his stay in Europe,
which extended to 1893, he held official posi-
tions both at the Hague and at St. Petersburg.
In 1900 he was awarded the degree of Doctor
of Law by the University of Bonn. Returning
to Japan, he was appointed Secretary to the
Minister of Education in Tokio, and the same
year became a Councillor of the Educational
Department. In 1898 he once more resumed
his acquaintanceship with Europe, acting as
Secretary of Legation in Vienna and in Hol-
land. The outbreak of the Russo-Japanese
War occasioned his return to Japan, where
he was attached to the Foreign Office until
his recent departure for Bangkok.



Mr. Kumasabura Tanabe was born in
Nagasaki in 1863 and educated privately for
the Consular and Diplomatic Service. On
completion of his studies he was appointed
to a Student Interpretership in Peking in 1883,
and four years later became Chancellor of the
Japanese Consulate at Chefoo, North China.
In a similar capacity he served also in Hong-
kong, New York, and London. He was ap-
pointed Vice-Consul at Newchwang in 1897,
and was present during the Russian occupa-
tion of the port at the period of the Boxer
troubles. In 1903 Mr. Tanabe came to Bang-
kok as Third Secretary to the Legation, the
next year he was promoted Second Secretary,
and is now Consul and Charge d'Affaires.



PORTUGAL.

Mr. Luiz Leopoldo Flores was born on
October 9, 1852. Having adopted the law
as a profession and passed the necessary
qualifying examinations, he was nominated
a Magistrate of Public Ministry at Diu, a
small Portuguese possession in India. Sub-
sequently he held various other important legal
positions in Portuguese India, but, forsaking
the law for the Consular Service, he was, in
1890, appointed Chancellor of the Consulate-
General of Portugal at Bombay. The follow-
ing year he was transferred to Rio Grande,
Brazil, where, during the Revolution, his enter-
prise and resourcefulness proved of the greatest
assistance to his compatriots. He was pro-
moted Portuguese Consul-General of the First
Class in Siam, by royal decree, on August 1 1,
1901, and arrived in Bangkok on December
20th of that year. Mr. Flores is a member



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