When asked how, in his opinion, the best interests of
the raee are to be promoted, he put as a fundamental thing,
practical Christianity. After that, and on the material
side, he believes the progress of the race depends on or-
ganization, co-operation and corporations.
Thomas Berkeley Holloway
It was not unnatural, perhaps, during the early years
of Emancipation, for the more intelligent of the colored
people to turn to the professions of the ministry and of
teaching. With the growth of education among the
masses, however, there has come the opportunity for the
development of successful business careers. So, today, there
are to be found in various sections, men. who have directed
their attention to farming on a large scale, to merchandis-
ing, to manufacturing and, in a few cases, to banking.
Among the latter must be mentioned Thomas Berkeley Hol-
loway, of Kinston, who was born in Jones Co., in the ex-
treme eastern part of the State, just after the close of the
war, August 14, 1865. His father was a white man and
his mother was Mary Ann Holloway.
In this day of short hours and high wages, the story
of his struggle as a boy reads more like fiction than fact.
He was hired out when only six years old and worked for
THOMAS BERKELEY HOLLOWAY
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 397
three years for ten cents a day. An eight-hour day had
not at that time heard of. Nor was he permitted to handle
the little bit of money thus earned. His wages were taken
up in barter and went toward the support of the family.
With the shifting of the turpentine and lumbering business
from the Carolinas southward, his step-father went to
Georgia. The boy remained on the farm and later in life
had his wages raised to six dollars per month. Here he re-
mained until he was nineteen years of age. He was then em-
ployed by a Mr. Harper, who ran a grocery, whiskey and
turpentine business and young Holloway made himself so
useful about the place that he became a favorite with his
employer. His schooling was confined to the graded schools
On December 12, 1886, he was married to Miss Lucy
Rhem, of Lenoir Co. She lived only a little more than three
months and on February 15, 1888, Mr. Holloway was mar-
ried to Miss Emmaline Speights, also of Lenoir Co. She
bore him three children, Etta (now Mrs. Banton), William,
who is in the Government service and Wylie H. In Aug.
1910, their mother passed away and on Dec. 26, 1912, Mr.
Holloway was married the third time. This time h'e went
to Wayne Co. for his wife and found her in Miss M. Katie
Wynne. The only child born to them passed away in in-
For four years after his first marriage, Mr. Holloway
farmed in Lenoir Co. In 1890 he went south to Georgia and
spent five years in the turpentine woods of Laurens, Tat-
nail, Coffee and adjacent counties. Such was his thrift and
industry that he brought back with him to North Carolina
at the end of that time, $1,000 in money. This was early in
1895. He went to work immediately on his return and soon
after reaching home established a grocery business at Kin-
ston, which grew with the years, until he sold out and re-
tired from active business February 24, 1920. He con-
ducted his business in such a way as to attract a large vol-
ume of trade, not only from his own people, but from the
white people as well. In fact, his relationships with the
398 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
white citizens have always been most cordial and helpful
and when he retired from the grocery business a local news-
paper gave him a most flattering notice.
Mr. Holloway has had the good judgment to give to
his children the educational advantages which he lacked
in his own youth.
In 1907, he organized a banking business at Kinston,
of which he is now president. This has been in successful
operation for thirteen years.
Mr. Holloway is a Republican in politics, a member of
the Free Will Baptist Church and is a friend and supporter
of education. He is a trustee and treasurer of the educa-
tional department of his church and holds membershinp in
the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. He owns an attrac-
tive home on one of the best residence streets of Kinston
and has extensive investments in real estate and rent paying
property in that prosperous little city. Mr. Holloway is a
good citizen and is always glad to show his patriotism in a
practical way. During the war he took an active part in all
the drives and campaigns. He was chairman of the Liberty
Bond and W. S. S. committees and raised all he was asked
to do. He is an all-round, successful man.
Samuel Joseph Howie
The A. M. E. Zion Connection has now (1920) in the
work of the Asheville station, a well equipped young man,
full of promise, Rev. Samuel Joseph Howie.
He is a native of Lancaster, S. C, where he was born
December 18, 1889. Here he was brought up in an ex-
cellent atmosphere of educational and religious influences.
His fath'er, Millard Howie, was a miner by trade and is still
living. His mother, who before her marriage was Miss
Camie Clinton, was a daughter of Minerva Clinton.
As a boy, he attended the Lancaster Industrial School,
which was under the direction of the A. M. E. Zion Church
SAMUEL JOSEPH HOWIE
400 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
and later entered Friendship College at Rock Hill from which
hie was graduated with the L. I. degree. After this he went
to Livingstone College for his theological work, completing
that course in 1916 with the B. D. degree. He had been
converted previously, when about fifteen years of age and
began preaching when about twenty-three.
He joined the Conference at Gastonia, under Bishop
Clinton, in 1913. While in college, and before entering upon
the active work of the ministry, he taught school for five
terms in Lancaster and York counties, S. C. He was an
enthusiastic baseball player while in college and still loves
His first appointment under the Conference was to the
work at Thomasville and Lexington, where he remained for
three years and completed the house of worship and bought
land for a new church at Thomasville. He went from there
to Winston-Salem and was stationed at People's Choice,
which he pastored for three years with marked success. He
is now in his first year of a successful pastorate at Hop-
kin's Chapel, Asheville. He is a patient, hard working pas-
tor, an attractive speaker and a capable student of the Bible,
next after which his favorite reading consists of poetry and
Among the secret orders he is identified with the Odd
Fellows and the Pythians. He has attended two General
Conferences of his denomination, the one meeting at Char-
lotte and the one at Knoxville. He is a friend and supporter
of education and believes that the progress of his race de-
pends upon it, provided always that it is Christian educa-
On November 29, 1917, Rev. Howie was married to
Miss Irene Crawford, of Lancaster. She was educated at
Lancaster and was an accomplished teacher. She enters
heartily into the work of her ihusband. They have one
child, Johnie M. Howie.
The story of men like Rev. Alexander Morrisey ought
to be placed in the hands of colored youth everywhere. The
record of the struggle upward from poverty and obscurity
to places of large usefulness in the Kingdom would serve
as a source of helpful inspiration to many a Negro boy who
imagines he is having a terribly hard time.
Rev. Morrisey was born at Clinton, Sampson Co., on
April 14, 1873. His parents were Alexander and Esther
Morrisey. His father passed away while he was still young,
but his mother lived until June 8, 1914. So it came to pass
that he was reared by Mr. R. G. Morrisey a white man who
gave him lessons at night and on rainy days, which was his
first start in books. The lot of his boyhood and youth was
a hard one, filled with grinding poverty. He went to work
when only six years of age and worked for two years for
his food and clothing. The following year he received $1.50
per month, or $18.00 for the year's work. The next year
he was promoted to $2.50 a month. He was at this time
in the ihome of Mr. R. G. Morrisey and while his income was
small and the work hard, Mr. Morrisey was not unkind to
him, but encouraged him when the boy aspired to an edu-
cation. He was sixteen years of age before he went to
school. He was able to earn the money for his expenses
by cultivating an acre and a ihalf of land in cotton working
Saturdays, evenings and at odd times when not otherwise
engaged. Unable to buy fertilizer, he burned logs at night
and used the ashes with good results. He realized $50.00
from the sale of his cotton and after going to school a
while, returned to work and made the 'expenses for the next
year. The second year he attended school six months and
the third year six monthhs. After the third year of school,
he took the teachers' examination and made a third grade
certificate. The next year he won the second grade and
began teaching in Mingo Township of Sampson Co. He
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 403
rapidly reached the first grade and continued to teach in
the public schools for ten years.
He had been converted at an early age, and after he had
been teaching for some years felt called to the work of the
Gospel ministry. He was licensed to preach by the Lisbon
Street Baptist Church and was ordaihed to the full work
o fthe ministry inj 1903, at Clinton. At this point he was
also principal of the graded school for two years.
After deciding to take up the work of the ministry, (he
realized that, in order to do his work best, he should have
college training and so entered Shaw University where he
did the theological as well as the academic work, graduating
in 1911 with the degree of B.Th.
He has kept in touch with farming all his life, and
still operates a small farm near Fayetteville. Apart from
his theological books, he has little time for reading anything
except current literature.
Hi's first pastorate was the Red Hill Baptist Church,
which he served for four years and erected a new house of
worship. He preached at the Atkinson Baptist Church,
Goldsboro, for six years and at LaGrange five years. A
considerable addition was made to the church building at
LaGrange. The house of worship at Smithfield, where he
preached for four years, was also repaired. He pastored
the church at Marietta for a year and Grays Creek, in Cum-
berland Co., for four years. He has been preaching at
Lisbon Street, 'his home church in Clinton, for three years,
Feilt's Chapel one year, Littlefield five years and was re-
cently called to Mary's Grove. All these churches are good
dhurches with large memberships.
Before the disfranchisement of the Negroes in North
Carolina, he was motfe or less active in Republican politics
but in recent years has taken no active part. He stands
high in the denomination and is a member of The Minis-
terial Board Union and the Western Union Association.
On December 31, 1912, Rev. Morris'ey was married to
an accomplished young lady of Abbeville,' S. C. She was,
before her marriage, Miss Mamie Ellison. She was edu-
404 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
oated at Harbison College and has a wide acquaintance
among the best people of South Carolina and was a success-
ful teacher there. They have three Children, Alfred Alex-
ander, John Oliver and Mary Esther Morrisey.
Rev. Morrisey is a clear thinker and a close observer
Who has studied conditions among his people for years.
He believes that the great need of the race today is trained
leadership. He has an attractive home on the outskirts of
William Richard Gullins
Rev. William Richard Gullins, D. D., the subject of
this biography, is a distinguished clergyman of the A. M.
E. Churdh and is now (1920) stationed at Charlotte. He is
a native of Middle Georgia, having been born at Eatonton
in Putnam Co., Ga., June 9, 1864. His father, Rev. John
Gullins, was a Baptist preacher and was also engaged in
farming. The paternal grandparents were "Guina" negroes.
Dr. Gullins' mother was, before her marriage, Miss Cath-
erine Milirons. From this side of the family hie 1 inherits a
strain of Cherokee Indian blood. Through a white ancestor
he can also trace his lineage back to the Mayflower. As he
looks back over his boyhood days he is convinced that the
lifle and character of his mother were the greatest factors
in shaping his life.
Coming of school age during the Reconstruction Period
he had some experiences which would be unusual today.
Some of the teachers who were then in charge of this local
school lived in his father's home and it was there under
their tutelage that he laid the foundation of his education.
Later he passed to the Ballard Normal School at Macon
which he attended for several terms. This was supple-
mented by a six year course taken at Chatauqua, N. Y.
He took his Theological course at Turner Theological Sem-
inary of Morris Brown University, Atlanta. Kittrell Col-
WILLIAM RICHARD GULLINS
406 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
lege of North Carolina has conferred on ihim the D. D. de-
gree. Dr. Gullins ihas interested himself greatly in thle edu-
cational features of his ministry and has himself taken a
number of Teacher Training courses. These courses have
beten pursued under the auspices of the International S. S.
Association and the African Methodist S. S. Union. He
has also taken the Standard Teacher Training course. He
is also an efficient stenographer.
Dr. Gullins was converted Oct. 23, 1880, and joined
first the Baptist Church in whidh he remained for about
four years. There have been nine preachers in his family
and Dr. Gullins had felt from childhood that his work must
be that of the ministry. He began his work as a preacher
in Columbus, Ga., in 1884, where he joined the Conference
under Bishop J. A. Shorter. His first appointment was
Louisville, Ga., which he served one year. He walked 84
miles a month to reach this work, preached to fifteen mem-
bers and raiste'd a monthly collection of from fifteen to
twenty cents. The Annual Rally on pastors' salary netted
him thirty-five cents. From Louisville he went to the Bar-
tow Circcuit for two years, built a church at Bartow and
one in the country and was Principal of the local school.
His next appointment was Powersville where he
preached two years and built a church. After that he was
at Milledegville for six months at the end of which he was
transferred to Virginia and stationed at the Lynn Stretet
Church, Danville. Here during a pastorate of a year and
a 'half he cancelled a debt of four thousand dollars. From
Danville he went to Roanoke and paid a debt, from thene to
Richmond two years, then to Farmville one year, and from
Farmville to Smithfield two years where a new parsonage
was erected. From Smithfield 'he was sent back to Rich-
mond one year and then to Berkeley for two years. An-
other transfer took him to Steelton in Pennsylvania where
he preached for five years and built a splendid house! of
worship at a cost of $23,000. His next appointment was
to the historic old town of Germantown, which held him
three years. Following this he preached at Princeton, N.
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 407
J., two years; First Church, Providence, R. I., two years;
EbEnezer Station, Washington, D. C, six months, Raleigh,
N. C." St. Paul Station one year; Durham, St. Joseph Sta-
tion two years ; Winston-Salem, Bethel Station one year.
In 1919 he was sent to Charlotte. He is a pulpiteer of
recognized ability and during his ministry has been a dili-
gent student of the Bible and after the Bible his reading
has included the best English and American classics.
He is prominent in the work of the secret orders and
benevolent societies. He is a Mason and an Odd Fellow.
He 'has biEen honored by being chosen Grand Chaplain of
the I. B. P. 0. E. W. Elks and Supreme Grand Deputy of
the Royal Knights of King David. In politics he is a Re-
publican. He has dared to think independently on race
questions. His advice to his people is "Prepare for the
rights you demand." He is a man who knows literary val-
ues and has been a frequent contributor to the press and
has written a book "Heroes of the Virginia Conference."
Dr. Gullins has been married twice. His first marriage
was on June 8, 1882, to Miss Qulzen Emma Hardy. She
bore him two children, Hattie L. (now Mrs. Jamison) and
William R. Gullins, Jr. Mrs. Gullins passed away Oct. 17,
1897, while they resided at Farmville, Va. On June 21,.
1898, he was married to Miss Moselle L. Coots, a lady of
culture who has for years been engaged in educational work.
William Henry Williams
Dr. Wm. Henry Williams, a successful young dentist
of Goldsboro, is typical of a class of young colored men who
in recent years have gone into the dental profession and
given their pisople that sort of service which was not before
available and at the same time have made a name and money
for themselves. Dr. Williams is a native of Goldsboro
where he was born September 14, 1891. His fatbsr, Henry
Williams, has been a successful grocer of Goldsboro for
WILLIAM HENRY WILLIAMS
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 409
35 years and his mother, before her marriage, was Miss
Minnie Bunting. Dr. Williams' father was in position to
see him through school, which enabled him to settle down
into ihis professional work at an early age.
Young Williams attended the local public schools first,
then passed into the preparatory department of Biddle Uni-
versity Where later he took the) regular college course which
he completed with the A. B. degree in 1914. The following
year he matriculated at Howard University, Washington,
D. C, and won his D. D. S. degree there in 1917. To his moth-
er he credits the chief inspiration of his early life. When
through school and ready for work, he could think of no
more attractive field than his own home and his success
there has shown that :he chose wisely. He began to prac-
tice in August, 1917, and has steadily forged ahead. He
maintains attractive dental parlors in the very heart of the
city near the post office and is one of the really busy men
of the town.
In politics he is a Republican and is a member of the
Presbyterian Church. Among the secret orders he affili-
ates with the Pythians. He owns a comfortable, well fur-
nished home in Goldsboro, where he is making other invest-
ments also. On December 10, 1915, Dr. Williams was mar-
ried to Miss Annice G. North, a daughter of Abraham and
Annice North. Mrs. Williams was eduacted at Livingstone
College, Salisbury, N. C.
Ernest Caswell Byers
Ernest Caswell Byers of Greensboro, who holds a re-
sponsible position in the railway mail service is one of those
â€¢enterprising men who will not be discouraged by difficulties
nor defeated by a single failure. He believes in the old
motto, "Try, try again," and as a result has succeeded.
Mr. Byers is a native of Davidson, N. C, where he was
born March 25, 1873. His father Andrew Byers was a
ERNEST CASWELL BYERS
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 411
blacksmith by trade. He was a son of Andrew Byers, Sr.,
who before Emancipation was carriage driver for his mas-
ter, and was a skillful violinist. He often drove long dis-
tances in the South, even as far away as Louisiana and
Texas. The mother of our subject before her marriage was
Miss Judia Hotlzclaugh. His paternal grandmother was
Margaret Cash Byers, the family cook. She was half In-
dian and half negro.
Our subject was married on May 3, 1904 to Miss Jen-
nie Mozella Torrence, a daughter of John and Alice TorrenCe.
John Torrence was a teacher. Of thethree children born
to Mr. and Mrs. Byers two are living. They are Daisy Lee
and Ernest C. Byers, Jr.
Young Byers first attended the local public school in
Meckenburg Co. After which he entered the preparatory
department of Biddle University. Finances were low and
the way was not easy. He says "I worked my way in the
print shop of the Afro-American Presbyterian Church pa-
per, also did painting and glazing on campus." The story
of this period and of <his later struggle is best told in his
own simple language. He says, "I was born in the back
yard of a professor of Davidson College, on the campus and
was raised there and in the village blacksmith shop with my
father. I attended the village school till seventeen years
of age and entered Biddle University in the fall of 1891.
I worked my own way through school, graduating as class
representative, merited by scholarship marks covering the
four year period in the college department. In 1899 I en-
tered the government service as post office clerk at Char-
lotte and remained two years. I theln resigned and opened
a clothing and transfer business in my home town David-
son. For three years I taught the village school which I
had attended as a boy before going to college. I resigned
by school work on account of the growth of my other
work. In 1909 I re-enlisted in the government service clos-
ing out my other affairs on account of the panic, since which
I have moved on as my turn comes receiving all promotions
due me to the present in this service."
412 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
Mr. Byers attributes his success to industry, energy,,
honesty and public confidence. His work has taken him
to various parts of the South but apart from this he has
not traveled extensively. His favorite, ireadihg - includes
political economy, current literature and the Bible. He is
a Mason and a Pythian and is active in the work of the
Presbyterian Church of which he has long been a member.
He has both the A. B. and A. M. degrees from Biddle Uni-
He believes that the problems of the race are to be
solved by education, industry, co-operation and Christianity-
His property interests are at Greensboro and Davidson.
Perry R. D. Goore
In the Missionary Baptist Church there is no appointiva
power. Every church selects its own pastor and may call
to its service any preacher in the denomination. Thus it
will be seen that the preachers are dependent upon the rec-
ords they have made in former pastorates, so when one
finds a man occupying a place of prominence or influence in
the denomination, it may be taken for granted that he is
a man of character and ability. Among the prominent men
of the Missionary Baptists of western North Carolina must
be mentioned Rev. Perry Richards Davidson Goore of Hick-
ory, better known as P. R. D. Goore. He was born just
after the close; of the war on August 7, 1865. His father,
Elijah Goore, was a farmer and before Emancipation had
been a slave. He was born in Chester Co., S. C. His mother
Ellen Cassell, was a native of York Co., S. C. Mr. Goore's
grandparents on his father's side we re Darby and Mary
Goore. On the mother's side they were Isaac and Eliza
Cassell. Both sides bore the reputation of being hard work-
ing, pious people.
Mr. Goore was married on February 29, 1888, to Miss
Eliza Ellen Marshall, a daughter of Howard and Maggie,
PERRY RICHARDS DAVIDSON GOORE
414 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
Marshall of York Co., S. C. Of the nine children born to
them the following are living: Curley G., John W., Horace
G., Boston W., and Hamlet C. Goore. The oldest son, Gerald
P. Goore, deceased, entered the military service, went to
the training camp at Des Moines and was commissioned
First Lieutenant. He was honorably discharged and was
the only colored man from Catawba Co. in an officers' train-
Growing up just after the war, at a time when the
opportunities for getting an education were very limited and
when financial resources were even more limited, young
Goore could only attend the county graded school of York
Co. He was denied the opportunity of a college education,
though he is himself a friend and supporter of education.
His father, having been a slave, knew little of the value
of schools and schooling and like many others at that time
looked upon education as a means of escaping honorable
labor. Young Goore was converted when about thirteen
years of age and when twenty, felt called to the ministry.
Prior to that time he had worked on the farm, and at the
carpenters trade. He was licensed and ordained to the full
work of the ministry by the West End Baptist Church of
Winston-Salem. His first pastorate was at Winston-Salem
and all his work in the ministry has been done in the hill
country and mountain sections of the State. He served the
church at Kernesville eighteen months and has also preached
at Walkertown, Oak Ridge, Friendship Church, Hickory,
Lenoir and Drexal. He is now (1920) missionary of the