tion, Greensboro, where he preached two years and erected
a new brick church, Bethel A. M. E. Church. The next rive
years were spent as Presiding Elder of Greensboro Dis-
trict, at the end of which he was appointed to the St.
Josephs Station, Durham, N. C, which he served four years
and repaired the church. He then presided over the Dur-
ham District five years. He then presided three years on
the Morganton District. He was then appointed to the St.
James Station, Asheville, N. C, where he was pastor four
years and repaired the church. From there he pastored St..
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 91
James, Winston-Salem, and after that Burlington, N. C,
church. He is now (1920) serving as Presiding Elder of
Durham District, being in his second year. He has long
been a prominent figure in denominational gatherings and
has attended the General Conferences at Indianapolis, Phila-
delphia and St. Louis, Mo. Altogether he has been greatly
blessed in his work and has had a fruitful ministry.
On Dec. 22, 1887, he was married to Ella M. Pope, who
was educated at Atlanta University and was at that time a
teacher in the Atlanta schools.
Dr. King belongs to the Pythians and the I. 0. of St.
Luke. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of Kit-
trell College, and in 1907 was a delegate to the World's
Sunday School Convention, which met in Rome, Italy.
Dr. King's travels in Europe were very extensive.
While abroad he visited the following countries: Italy,
Switzerland, France, England and Ireland. He visited most
of the principal cities of the countries of Eurpoe.
Dr. King was ordained a Deacon in 1882 by Bishop
W. F. Dickerson, D. D., in Augusta, Ga., and ordained El-
der by Bishop H. M. Turner, D. D., L.L. D., in 1886, in
Pulaski, Tenn. In the year 1901 Kittrell College conferred
the Degree of Doctor of Divinity upon him. He is the sec-
ond person upon whom the institution conferred this degree.
His own experience and observations have led him to
the conclusion that the proper adjustment of racial difficul-
ties depends on a better understanding. Dr. King is a good
business man, as well as preacher. He owns property at
Durham, Raleigh, Atlanta, and Asheville.
Walter Guthrie Anderson
A remarkably interesting story of struggle against
tremendous odds and a story calculated to stimulate the
ambition and determination of every boy who reads it, is
the story of Walter Guthrie Anderson. For pluck and en-
ergy and unbending determination, finally putting him in
WALTER GUTHRIE ANDERSON
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION
the road to unqualified success, his record is one seldom
equalled. He is yet a young man, having been born May
10, 1886, and being therefore at this writing (1920) in his
thirty-fourth year. The place of his birth was in Nelson
county, Kentucky. His father was David Anderson, and
his mother's maiden name was Laura L. Davis.
To the training of his mother, to th'e early influence of
the teachings of the Bible and to religious impressions ema-
nating from the Church, Mr. Anderson attributes the im-
pulses which early led him to seek the fields of higher
thought and study.
From 1904 to 1908 he attended the Atkinson Normal
School at Madisonville, Ky. In 1913 he received the degree
of A. B. from Lincoln University, Chester County, Penn-
sylvania, and in 1916 he graduated from the Theological
Seminary of the same University, with the degree of S. T. B.
Struggle and privation inspired by ambition, has been
the keynote of his life. He was born on a farm, one of a
family of eight. When at the age of eighteen he deter-
mined to launch out and seek an education, he hired him-
self out from March to October at $18 a month. Entering
Atkinson Normal Institute in the fall, he drove a team of
mules doing hauling for the school. The second year he
and another student ran a farm connected with the school.
He worked as porter and bootblack in a barber shop, walking
a mile and back three times a day between the barber shop
and the school. A spell of sickness from pneumonia threw
him behind, both in his studies and his finances. Never-
theless, he graduated second in his class.
Entering Lincoln University he began, as he expressed
in his "second great battle against ignorance and a depleted
back account." Here he worked in the dining hall, doing
any kind of work he was called to do. In vacations he
worked on boats on the Fall River and Hudson River lines,
as porters in hotels and clubs and rolling chairs at Atlantic
City. Thus he made his way through the seven years of
College and Seminary. Since June 4, 1916, the year of his
graduation from the Seminary, he has been Pastor of Shady
Side Presbyterian Church, Lexington, N. C. He has read
94 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
widely in general literature including philosophy, history,
the best literary production of England and America, and
the Bible in the original Hebrew and Greek. In every way
he is splendidly equipped for the great work upon which
he has entered.
During his pastorate at Lexington he has remodeled
the house, added basement to church, done much war work
and now teaches in city graded school. For some time he
conducted a periodical.
During his college course he took an active interest in
athletics, being for four years on the football team and six
years on the basket ball team of his College. He is a mem-
ber of the Omega Psi Phi fraternity, of the Masonic order,
and W. M. of the Eastern Star.
John Richard Green
When a man reaches the age of twenty-one devoid of
an education and at that period in life determines to obtain
one, it requires pluck, energy and determination to carry out
his purpose. His pride and his disposition to self indul-
gence must be put aside and he must overcome a thousand
This was the situation which confronted the subject
of this sketch and the situation with which he grappled
successfully. John Richard Green was born on a farm,
in Granville Co., N. C, Jan. 7, 1872. His father was Henry
Green, a farmer. The maiden name of his mother was
Maranda Smith. His grandparents on the father's side
were Henry and Rosa Green. Grandparents on the moth-
er's side were Loveless and Eliza Smith. His childhood
was spent amidst the usual scenes and surroundings of the
farm. But somewhere along the way the seeds of ambition
were dropped into his heart, dreams were being indulged
and purposes formed which mature manhood would bring
JOHN RICHARD GREEN
96 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
When he determined to seek an education to give his
life to the work of teaching, he has reached his majority.
By working during vacations he obtained the means of mak-
ing his way through Mary Potter School, at Oxford, N. C.
From here he went to Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C,
from which he graduated in 1908 with the degree of B. S.
In the same year, 1908, he began his professional life
as a teacher in Lenoir Co., N. C, where he spent five years
in rural schools and four years in LaGrange Graded School.
He loves the work of teaching, and therefore succeeds. At
present he is Principal of Oxford Graded School. Having
struggled and sacrificed for an education he knows its value
and is able to show convincingly and effectively its impor-
tance. In contact with other minds he finds a delightful
stimulus for his own mental operations. Importing instruc-
tion to others, he obtained a stronger grasp on his own store
of knowledge and the power to use them more readily.
Mr. Green is a member of the Presbyterian church,
serving on Elder and as Sunday School SuperintendEnt. To
his early and continued interest in church work, he attrib-
utes the impulses he has received toward higher things.
Mr. Green has never married. He has prospered in
business, is the owner of considerable real estate and is rec-
ognized as one of the substantial citizens of his community.
John William Ligon
Rev. John Wra. Ligon, A. B., A. M., of Raleigh, is a
combination of preacher, educator and business man. He is
a native of Wake Co., where he was born November 12,
1869. His parents were Washington and Amanda (Dunn)
Ligon. Of his grandfather, he says: "My grandfather,
on father's side, was Isaac Yarbrough. Grandmother's
name was Cheney. On mother's side my grandparents were
Isaac and Lucy Dunn."
Mr. Ligon was married on December 27, 1899, to Miss
Daisy Edna Jones, a daughter of Leonard and Phoebe Jones.
JOHN WILLIAM LIGON
98 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
They have five children: Leonard W., May Edna, Johnsie
E. C, Hazel E. and John William Ligon, Jr.
As a boy, young Ligon attended the rural schools of
Wake county and did his college work at Shaw University,
graduating with the A. B. degree in 1897. Speaking of this
period he says: "From the age of thirteen t oeighteen I
was in school only three weeks. Did not attend school
over six months in any one year, being forced to earn
money to pay for my schooling. I studied while out of
school." Mr. Ligon has always been industrious, and a
hard worker from his youth up. For the last nine years,
he has run a grocery store in connection with his other
He came into the work of the church when he was
about seventeen years of age, having joined the Grove
Baptist Church at that time. About five years later, he
was called to the ministry and licensed by his chruch. He
was ordained to the full work of the ministry in 1902. He
pastored the Blount Street Church, Raleigh, for five years,
Mt. Pleasant two years and Springfield, at Auburn, since
1911. He is well known also as an educator and was prin-
cipal of the Garfield graded school at Raleigh from 1900 to
1919, previously to this having taught in the graded schools
of Wake Co., making a period of 26 years altogether spent
in the school room.
In his work as pastor he has been successful. He freed
the Blount Street Church from a long standing debt and
added many new members to the congregation. Such was
his popularity that in 1912 he was unanimously chosen
Moderator of the Wake Baptist Association, which has a
membership of 7,000 and contains within its organization
many of the most cultured and ablest ministers of the State.
It is to be noted that since his election as Moderator the
receipts of the Association have increased more than 300% .
He is also Secretary-Treasurer of the Union Publishing
Company, which publishes the Union Reformerfi official or-
gan of the Union Baptist Convention of North Carolina of
North Carolina, being manager and editor of this Journal
with a large and increasing circulation.
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 99
Although a busy man, he still finds time for reading
and his favorites, next after the Bible, are Emerson and
Mr. Ligon has lived to see many of the boys and girls
who first attended his school grow up to manhood and
womanhood and fill places of usefulness in the community
and church. Lives like his are a real asset to the race.
They show how any boy, with courage and industry, can
succeed if he is willing to pay the price.
Jeremiah Mantius Lloyd
There are no finer stories than those which recount
the struggles of aspiring boys and young men who, finding
themselves in places of poverty and obscurity, bravely de-
termine to make men of themselves. The example of one
such youth in a community is priceless. With the courage
and spirit of the old pioneers, he blazes the way and others
follow. One of these men whose biography shows what a
man of energy and capacity can do, is Dr. Jeremiah Mantius
Lloyd, of Washington. He was born right in the midst of
the War between the States, on Feb. 8, 1863. His parents
were Bachus and Susan Wright. His paternal grandfather
was Thomas Lloyd. His maternal grandparents were Ham-
let and Mary Burden. In the confusion as to names which
prevailed during slavery and just after Emancipation it
happens that Dr. Lloyd bears the name of his grandfather.
His parents lived in Bladen Co., and it was there that
Dr. Lloyd grew to manhood. He laid the foundation of his
education in the public schools. He later went to Elizabeth-
town and Fayetteville for his high school and preparatory
work. When ready for his Medical course he matriculated
at Leonard Medical College, where he won his M. D. degree
Let no one infer from this simple narrative that Dr.
Lloyd secured either his literary or medical training with-
out difficulty. Beginning on the Bladen Co. farm, it was
JEREMIAH MAXTIUS LLOYD
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 101
necessary for him to make his own way from the begin-
ning-. After reaching a point in his education where
he was able to secure a teacher's license, the way was
easier, though still difficult. His parents were ambitious
for their children and this atmosphere of encouragement
in the home was helpful. There were two other brothers.
'The three put their heads together and concluded that there
was room at the top. They pooled their financial interests
and worked steadily together with a view to equipping
themselves for successful farm work, sometimes teaching
and again merchandising. Whenever they tackled a prob-
lem they saw it through to completion, no matter whether
it was an example in arithmetic or a four year medical
^course. Of course they won. Dr. Lloyd taught school for
twelve years. At the same time he was bringing up a large
After his graduation at Leonard he returned to Bladen
Co., where he practiced for a short while. Seeing in
Washington a better field, he located there in April, 1898,
where he has since resided and where he has built up an
-extensive and lucrative practic. He early saw the advan-
tage of a drug store for colored people in that thriving little
city and made that an important feature of his work. He
is not only a successful practitioner but is also a progress-
ive business man. He owns valuable real estate and other
property in Washington to the value of not less than forty
thousand dollars. He is a Republican in politics and belongs
to the A. M. E. Zion Church. Among the secret orders he is
identified with the Odd Fellows, the Pythians and the
Gideon. Observing conditions intimately as he has, he is
of the opinion that the great need of the race today is
-encouragement and better educational facilities.
On May 27, 1887, Dr. Lloyd was happily married to
Rosa McMillan, of Bladen Co. Of the twelve children
born to them the following are living : Mantius D., Burly J.,
David F., Willie J., Rosa, Maggie Lee and Blanchie B. Lloyd.
John Lee White
The pastor of Pine Street Presbyterian Church, Dur-
ham, N. C, Rev. John Lee White, A. B., A. M., D. D., was
born April 20, 1879, at Monroe, Union Co., N. C. His father
was a Presbyterian minister, Rev. Cyrus Sylvester White,
who in addition to his ministerial work was a teacher and
a farmer His mother was before her marriage Emma Har-
riet Hood, of Lancaster Co., S. C. His grandparents on
his father's side were Benjamin David Hood and Harriet
Adline Hood. They were hard working and prosperous peo-
ple, who owned a farm of 146 acres in Lancaster Co., S. C.
He obtained his education first from public schools at
Monroe, and later at Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C,
going through the preparatory department and graduating
with the degree of A. B. in 1906. In 1915, after taking
postgraduate studies, he reecived the degree of A. M. Later
the honorary degree of D. D. was conferred upon him.
Converted at eighteen, it was eleven years later that
he began his ministerial career in 1908 at Belmont, N. C.,.
where he combined the work of teaching with the pastoral
care of the church. He was pastor there from 1908 to
1911. It was during this period, on Oct. 26, 1910, that he
was married to Miss Ama Banner, of Mt. Airy, N. C. She
was a graduate of Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C, and
was before her marriage an accomplished teacher. They
have two children, one boy, Wilmer Shaphan White, and one.
girl, Melva Elvetta White.
From Belmont he went to Mint Hill church, near Char-
lotte, where he remained one year. After this he held in
succession the following pastorates: Shadyside Presby-
terian church, Lexington, N. C, 1911 to 1914; Pine Street
Presbyterian church, Durham, N. C, to the present time.
In 1916 Dr. White was elected a commissioner to the
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United
States, held at Atlantic City, N. J., May 16-25. At the
JOHN LEE WHITE
104 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
meeting of his presbytery at Statesville, N. C, he was
elected chairman of the Sabbath School department of Yad-
kind presbytery. This position he still holds.
In 1918 he was appointed by the Catawba Synodical
Sunday School Convention, in session at Newbern, N. C, as
fraternal delegate to bear the greeetings of the Convention
to the Atlantic Synodical Sunday School Convention, which
met at Old Big Zion Church, Charleston, S. C, in August,
1919. From 1918 to 1919 he was Moderator of Yadkin
Presbytery. He was a delegate to the N. A. A. C. P. Con-
ference, held at Atlanta, Ga., May 30 to June 2, 1920. He
is now serving as Worshipful Master of his Masonic lodge.
Dr. White preached his first sermon at Pittsburgh,
Pa., in 1906, and from that time forward his brain, brawn
and all the earnestness of his ardent nature have been given
to the preaching of the Gospel. He has given some inci-
dental attention to other pursuits by way of supplementing
his income, but the chief energies of his life have been given
to the work of preaching and teaching.
He believes strongly in the principle of co-operation,
and is convinced that in mutual helpfulness and mutual
fair dealing lies the hope of his race. His success has been
won through a trained and cultured r-ind, a strong person-
ality and knowledge of men, combined with ability to reach
and influence them. Through extensive travel in different
States North and South, and through study of the Bible
with all the help which learning has brought to bear upon
the better elucidation of his message, he has prepared him-
self for the great work to which, with increasing intensity
of application he is devoting the energies of his life.
Oscar James Allen
Perhaps the many friends of acquaintances of Rev„
Oscar James Allen, of Statesville, will best remember him as
the singing preacher, for he is both a singer and a preacher
of ability. He is a native of Gastonia, where he was borm
OSCAR JAMES ALLEN
106 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO
of humble parentage on March 4, 1889. So it will be seen
that, though already firmly established in the work, he is
just now (1919) turning into his thirities. His father,
Victor Allen, was a stone mason by trade. He passed away
while the boy was still young, thus making it necessary for
him to provide the means for his own education. His moth-
er's maiden name was Ellen White. She was a daughter of
Albert and Venie White, both of whom lived to be old.
The subject of this sketch was married on June 9, 1909,
to Ella Mae Christian, a daughter of Hattie Christian, of
Charlotte. She was educated at Slater. They have three
children, Hattie E., Mary B., and Lionel J. Allen.
As a boy young Allen attended the local public school,
but did ihis preparatory and college work at Biddle Uni-
versity, graduating with the A. B. degree in 1910. He was
a hard worker. His health failed under the strain in the
spring of 1907. He returned in th fall, however. He has
succeeded because he has depended upon himself to find a
way, or to make one. He was converted when about nine
years of age and when sixteen was called to preach. He
was licensed by the St. Paul Baptist Church, and in 1913,
was ordained to the full work of the ministry by the same
church. His work as a preacher began long before he was
through school. In 1908 he was called to the Washington
Baptist Church, at Waco, which he served for six years and
remodeled the church.
He preached at Shiloh, Shelby, three years, and at the
same time pastored Green Bethel at Boiling Springs. He
built the parsonage and remodeled church at Shelby, also
remodeled church at Boiling Springs. Early in 1914 he
accepted the call of the First Baptist church at Statesville,
to which he went in March of that year. His work here
has been marked by splendid progress in every way. He
went at his task with intelligence and enthusiasm. The old
church with a seating capacity of no more than three hun-
dred, has been replaced by a modern new house of worship,
whose auditorium will seat a thousand. Comfortable pews
and a pipe organ have been installed. A nine room bunga-
low has been erected hard by the church, the whole plant
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 107
representing an investment of something like twenty thou-
sand dollars, all of which has been paid. The membership
has grown under his administration from 106 to more than
Among the secret orders, Mr. Allen is identified with
the Masons, the Odd Fellows, the Pythians, I. O. of St. Luke,
Eastern Star and Household of Ruth.
Mr. Allen is in demand as an evangelist. He believes
the permanent progress of the race depends upon the
proper education of the children and the accumulation of
property in which respect he has set his people a good
He is First Vice-President of the Baptist State Con-
vention ; Secretary of the Baptist Ministerial Conef rence of
North Carolina. He was active in war work. He has go.od
property in Statesville and Shelby.
Raphael O'Hara, of New Bern, a leading lawyer of that
section of the State, was born in Washington, D. C, on
November 13, 1872, during the period that his father, Hon.
James E. O'Hara was sent from his District as a Represen-
tative to the U. S. Congress. His father's people came
from the West Indies to the States. His mother, before
marriage, was Elizabeth E. Harris, of Oberlin, Ohio. She
was a daughter of Beverly and Rebecca E. Harris. Beverly
Harris was a native of Virginia, but went from that State
to Buffalo, where he married. Later he moved further
West, to Monroe, Michigan, and finally settled at Oberlin,
where his children were educated and where the mother of
our subject was married in 1869.
Young O'Hara attended the graded and high schools
of Washington, graduating from the latter in the summer
of 1890. His father was comfortably fixed financially, and
was able to see the boy through school without embarrass-
ment. He was inspired by the example of his father to
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 109
study law and to succeed to his father's reputation as a
lawyer, first reading law under him and later taking the
law course at Shaw University, graduating in March, 1895.
He has from that institution the degree of L.L. D., and
also the degree of A. B.
He was admitted to the bar and licensed to practice
before the Superior Court of N. C. in February, 1895. On
the completion of his course he joined his father at New
Bern, and they practiced together under the firm name of
J. E. and R. O'Hara until the death of his father in 1905,
since which time he has practiced alone. He has numer-
ous clients, not only in his own county, but in Pamlico and
Jones counties as well. He also practices before the U. S.
District Court and the Supreme Court of North Carolina at
Raleigh. He is attorney for the Land & Improvement Com-
pany and the Standard Building & Loan Association, both
of New Bern and at one time was associate member of the
Legal Advisory Board of Craven Co. During the war
he was chairman of the executive committee in the War
Savings Stamp campaign and was also chairman of the War
Camp Community Service among the colored people of
Craven Co. His standing as a man and as a lawyer is
such in the community that he has attracted to himself a
profitable clientele which is by no means all colored. From
time to time he has had a number of white clients.
Mr. O'Hara is a member of the Roman Catholic Church
and is in politics a Republican. He has held various official
positions in the Republican organization in North Carolina,
but has not sought office, preferring to give himself entirely
to his professional work. He has not identified himself
with the secret orders. He believes that the permanent
progress of the race in the South depends upon honest,
steady, efficient work. This he recognizes calls for train-
ing which will make the Negro indispensable.
William Warwick Lawrence
For more than sixty years, William Warwick Lawrence
has been a familiar figure on the streets of the historic old
town of New Bern. As a barefoot slave boy during the
war he went and came as did the boys of his time. When