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along the edge of the numerous refuse deposits that contained many
bone implements, notched and serrated potsherds, and other dis-
carded and broken material. Locally the place is known as the
" Shattock site " and the hill as " Fort hill." The period is the
beginning of European contact.

12 On his map of the Seneca country, Gen. J. S. Clark placed an
Indian village almost in the center of the town of East Bloomfield.
Mr Hildburgh reported a cemetery there.

13 Village site reported by Fred H. Hamlin on lot 16, East Bloom-
field, on the Nead farm.

14 Village site on the Andrews farm at the north angle of the
road northwest of Bristol.

15 Just southeast of this in the upper portion of the valley of
Mud creek is a river site on the Sears farm.

1 6 Site on the Jackson farm in the northeast corner of Bristol
township, just south of the Richmond Mills road and southwest of
Bristol hill.

17 Village and hilltop stronghold on the George Reed farm near
the western boundary of Richmond township and on the southeas
side of the Hemlock lake outlet. This site is on a sand hill that lies
between two small streams running into the outlet ; on the north
side is a high slate bank running down into the brook. A pathwa\
down the upper slope of this bank leads to a fine spring which
probably supplied water for the village. The opposite ravine is less
deep but separates fcke tract of land from the gradual sloping hillside
beyond. Throughout the site, especially the lower portion facing
the valley, many pits have been found from which excavators hav(
taken numerous objects of flint and bone. The hillside refuse deposit?
are especially rich, but no object of European origin has yet beer
discovered. The site seems in every way a precolonial Seneca
village; the type of the potsherds discovered are similar to those
found on the sites of the colonial period throughout the region. The
State Museum has a collection of some one thousand specimens
taken from the site by Alva H. Reed. For detailed description
see page 182.



THE ARCHEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK

1 8 Burial site on lot 25 on the John C. Briggs farm west of the
site of Honeoye, in the town of Richmond. About twenty skeletons
have been found in a gravel pit. A small village site is just to the
northeast.

19 Burial site on lot 23 in Richmond, on the Blackner farm,
reported by Albert Van Buren.

20 Honeoye, at the foot of Honeoye lake one-half of a mile east
of the outlet and south of Mill creek, was burned in 1779 (Sullivan,
p. 130). There were recent articles on Phelp's flat near the old
Indian castle at the foot of the lake (Turner, P. & G., p. 199, 203).
Clark placed the village on his map west of the outlet, but there are
two older sites there, one village and one cemetery.

21 A small cemetery was 3 miles south of Canandaigua, west of
the lake.

22 Randall reported a small cemetery 3 miles west of Canandaigua
on a flattened ridge.

23 A mile east of Canandaigua was an oval work on a hillside
overlooking the lake, with one gateway and half the wall remaining.
The turnpike road from Canandaigua to Geneva passed through it.
An early cemetery also (Squier, p. 55, pi. 6, no. 2). This appears
in figure 66. Schoolcraft placed it on Fort Hill a mile north of
Canandaigua and 1000 feet around (Schoolcraft, Report, p. 109).

24 Mr Hildburgh located a village and cemetery on Arsenal hill
one-half of a mile west of Canandaigua, lot 32.

25 Village or camp at the north end of the lake near the outlet
and camps along that stream.

26 There was an early site on the east side of the lake a little
south of this.

27 On the west shore, just south of Canandaigua, was another
early site with caches. A small burial site (21) is nearby (Clark).

28 Graves have been found near the court house and a cemetery
just west of the village.

29 Ossuary containing eighteen skeletons was found in the park
at the outlet. Mrs F. F. Thompson has erected a marker to these
" unknown braves. "

30 Relics have been reported from Squaw island, at the foot of
Canandaigua lake.

31 A grave of burned clay was opened on the east side of
Canandaigua lake in July 1893. It was 4 miles south of Canandaigua
and one-half of a mile east of Gage's landing. " Many early relics
were found in the vicinity."



Plate 202




Sketch map of Honeoye Lake site



THE ARCHEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK 66 1

32 Village site on Darwin McClure's farm, lot 20, Hopewell,
3 miles southeast of Canandaigua, one-half of a mile north of the
turnpike. A recent cemetery is not far away, and modern relics
have been found. The site is probably that of one of the Onaghee
villages.

33 Burial site on the Albert Rose farm I mile north of Man-
chester. Several graves have been opened and relics believed by
Mr Follett to be of " mound-builder origin " have been found. Mr
Follett describes a native copper axe from this site and says it is
of an unusual type.

34 A small village was west of Manchester Center, on the south
bank of Canandaigua outlet, nearly 2^2 miles northwest of the
village west of Clifton. Earthenware and articles of stone occur.
It was probably a fishing camp.

35 A large fortified town was in the town of Phelps, on the
south side of the bluff facing Canandaigua outlet. A wall has been
described there. No recent articles have been found; all are of
stone or clay. The .site is northwest of the village of Phelps.

36 Five miles northwest of Geneva, in Phelps, was a stockade on
Fort hill. This was not far from a hill on which was an earthwork.
It was a long parallelogram through which the road ran, on one
side of which the post holes remained. There were caches and
early relics (Squier, p. 87, 88, pi. 13, no. 2).

37 Large village site just northeast of Naples, and lying between
Naples and Old creek. The occupation is Algonkian. No bone
articles are found. D. D. Luther has collected a large number of
implements from this and adjacent sites.

38 Burial site in Naples village. Iroquoian. Pipes have been
found.

39 Small village site with burials on the west side of Honeoye
lake on the California ranch. Four skeletons were exhumed here
during highway excavations.

40 Earthwork 3^2 miles northwest of Geneva, east of the Castle
road. It was 800 feet long and an early site on high ground (Squier,
p. 55, pi. 7, no. i). There are graves in the southern part.

41 Among the pine barrens on Mr Swift's farm 3 miles north of
Geneva is a small site, with early relics, reported by Dr W. G.
Hinsdale.,

42 In Geneva, on the old DeZeng place, west of Main street, were
many early relics and also camps near the south end of Main street
on the south side of Glass Factory bay.



662 NE\V YORK STATE MUSEUM

43 Kashong, on Kashong creek, 7 miles south of Geneva, was
burned in 1779, but the recent site is hardly well defined. A recent
cemetery was opened near the lake in 1889.

44 Village and burial site on Wilson creek, lot 32, Seneca.

45 A small cemetery was opened near Melvin hill in 1896. The
heads of skeletons were to the west.

46 There is a scattered site with early relics on the farm of John
Laws on the county line north of the Waterloo road.

47 George S. Conover reported a group of recent sites on Burrell
creek, which are here placed under one number. The creek is very
crooked and the lots are not in regular order.

48 There was an orchard and a small cemetery on lot 36, Seneca,
east of the creek on the Rupert farm. Fireplaces have been found.

49 A mile east of this and south of the creek was a recent village
and cemetery on the old Wheadon farm, on lot 12.

50 A recent cemetery without relics and with longitudinal burial
was on the Rippey farm, lot 9, south of the creek.

51 A trail from the southeast came to the center of the old Brother
farm on which there Was a village. It followed the highway north-
westerly.

52 Site west of Flint on Flint creek. Stone age material. Reported
by H. C. Follett.

53 Canaenda was removed to lot 32 on Burrell creek where there,
was a large cemetery mostly on N. A. Read's farm about 25 rods
southwest of the creek. On that farm and east of the creek was one
of the principal sites of the town.

54 On lot 31, west of the creek, was another recent cemetery.

55 Lodge sites and a cemetery were on the Hazlet farm, lot
west of Burrell creek.

56 Burial mound, recent, at Clifton Springs ; explored by J.
Sanborn.

57 Early village site just south of Clifton Springs, nearly a mil
south of the Canandaigua outlet. It occupied a little over 2 acres.
Explorations by J. W. Sanborn in 1889 revealed fireplaces very
numerous and close together. It seems to have been long inhabited
and was of early date. There are fragments of decorated pottei
fine celts and arrowheads. Articles of bone have been found,
none of shell. Reported by Irving W. Coates.

58 Early village, reported by Mr Coates, is i l / 2 miles west of
one at Clifton Springs. The relics are similar to those found
the site above mentioned excepting that no bone articles have



THE ARCHEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK 663

found. It was a small village, but the few fireplaces are large and
deep. The site is a mile south of the Canandaigua outlet, one-fourth
of a mile west of Fall brook.

59 Skeletons have been exhumed and relics found at Littleville,
a hamlet on the creek south of Shortsville. Some of the latter
indicate early visitors, and several trails converged at the ford there.

60 Three-fourths of a mile south of Chapinville, near the creek,
was a workshop. Flint chips, unfinished weapons and fine stone
articles were once frequent there. Some other reputed Indian sites
which he had not personally examined, Mr Coates did not describe.

61 Small village site reported by J. H. V. Clarke.

62 Village of Kanadesaga, situated just west of the city of Geneva.
This was one of the important Seneca towns burned by General
Sullivan in the punitive raid of 1779. Squier, who visited the site
in 1840, said that the palisade traces were distinct, due to the fact
that the Indians in ceding the lands stipulated that this, their famous
town site, should not be used for cultivated ground. Their plea
was, " Here sleep our fathers, and they can not rest well if they
hear the plow of the white man above them." When Sullivan
destroyed the village it consisted of fifty houses with adjacent fields
of corn and large orchards. The raiders destroyed the corn, hay
and other stored food and cut down the orchards. In robbing the
houses they found many trinkets, pelts and other things of value.
Near the village was a mound in which the body of a giant Seneca
was reputed by tradition to be buried. In the center of the village
was a stockade built by Sir William Johnson. Morgan and Squier
have written in an interesting manner concerning Ga-nunda-sa-ga
and the records of Sullivan's expedition give a contemporary descrip-
tion of it. The Rev. Samuel Kirkland spent some time here and
had an interesting adventure. It was here that the great
Gaiyengwahtoh or Disappearing Smoke lived.

63 Village site and stockade site 2 miles southwest of Geneva.

64 Small village site a mile east of Littleville, and southwest of
Manchester, on the southern portion of lot 25. Here have been
found many beautiful specimens of chalcedony points. Mr Follett
says that here in a lump of hard clay found 3 feet below the surface
were found five ancient looking and crude chert points.

65 Camp site, evidently an extensive and permanent one, is situ-
ated just one-fourth of a mile north of 64. There is a fine spring
here known as " The Indian spring." Relics of many sorts are
found in the adjacent fields, but mostly on the Follett farm. There



664 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM

are places where the arrow and spear points are crude and primitive ;
other places where there is plain evidence of European contact, as
Mr Follett points out in the instance of the rinding of a copper
spoon with a bullet hole through the bowl.

66 Village and camp sites at the head of Honeoye lake on the
farm of Delevan Alger. Bolo stones or grooved weights have been
found here, according to Mr Follett, who also reports several
perforated disks of sandstone. Mr Dewey has two specimens of
these from this site.

67 Village and camp sites on the east side of Honeoye lake, where
hammer stones and notched points have been found.

Orange County
List of Sites

1 Village site on the Van Etten estate near Port Jervis, and along
the Neversink river. The village and burials indicate a Minsi occupa-
tion during the late colonial period. Excavated by the State Museum
in 1909.

2 Camp sites are found all along the Delaware from Old Bolton
Basin to Tristate.

3 Several camp sites and small burial places along the Never-
sink valley from Carpenters point to Martins lake.

4 Indian spring is east of the village of Michigan. " Bushels of
arrowheads have been found there " (Eager, p. 352).

5 A small village site at Plum point just south and below West
Newburg.

6 Village site I mile south of Walden and along the Wallkill river.

7 Recent settlement on the flat above Wallkill bridge in
Montgomery (Eager, p. 277).

8 Indians owned an eelweir on the creek at Henry Crist's (Eager,
p. 277).

9 An Indian village and orchard on the east bank of the Wallkill
on the town line between Wallkill and Montgomery (Eager, p. 277).

10 Village site on great lot 39 in Wallkill near Middletown.
Pottery and flints are commonly found.

11 Dans Kammer is a cove in the north part of the town of
Newburgh where the Esopus Indians went for religious dances,
hence the name. De Vries mentioned these in 1640. Mr. Frey had a
site reported to him on the point.



THE ARCHEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK 665

12 Burial ground at Mountainville at the base of the Schunnemunk
about 300 feet south of Dark Hollow brook. This site is on the
Houghton farm.

13 " Maringoman's castle " was on the north end of Schunnemunk
mountain and on the south side of Murderer's creek, Blooming
Grove. The cemetery was a little south of this (Beach, p. 7).

14 " Maringoman's wigwam " was on the north bank of the creek
in Hamptonsburg at the junction of Otterkill and Greycourt creek.
Early relics are found in many places near (Beach, p. 7).

15 There was a recent village and cemetery in Minisink on Samuel
Dolsan's farm (Eager, p. 213).

1 6. On Jogee hill was another village with small images and
abundant arrowheads (Eager, p. 418).

17 On the Welling farm in Warwick was a village and orchard
called Mistucky (Eager, p. 423).

1 8 A cemetery on Sugar Loaf mountain had about thirty graves
before the Revolution, with palisades around the mounds (Eager,

P- Si?)-

19 Rock shelter at Goshen mountain 5^ miles east of Arden.
This was explored by Mr Schrabisch, who found flints and pottery.

20 Rock shelter on the east bank of the Ramapo 2 miles north
of Sloatsburg and I mile south of Tuxedo. This was explored and
described by Max Schrabisch (v. 3, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Anthrop.
Papers).

21 Rock shelter at Horse-stable Rock 4 miles north-northeast of
Sloatsburg, N. J., and 2^ miles east of Tuxedo. This shelter is
one of the largest in the State and from it Mr Schrabisch has taken
some 138 fine prehistoric relics.

Orleans County

/

List of Sites

1 Earthwork south of Medina in the town of Ridgeway, reported
by E. M. Thompkins. Macauley (2:113) mentions mounds in the
township.

2 Circular earthwork i l / 2 miles west of Shelby Center. Squier
quotes Turner's account, which has many features of interest. F. H.
Cushing describes it in the Smithsonian report for 1874 and
mentions its double walls, gateways and boulders. Some have
ascribed to it a great antiquity but Doctor Beauchamp says this is

17



666 \i-:\y YORK STATE MTSKUM

simply a prehistoric Iroquois fort with the usual relics, but it includes
some Ohio shells. It may be an easterly town of the Neuter nation.

3 A large cemetery was once one-half of a mile west of this. Mr
Squier says " it is not known that many ancient remains occur in
this county," and these are all reported. Schoolcraft, however,
speaks of an old fort in a swamp at Barnegat, now Shelby Center,
which is noted above.

4 Mounds on the north bank of Oak Orchard creek reported by
Dr F. D. Snyder as 2 miles from the lake.

5 " The last arrow maker lived on the place now owned by Mrs
C. A. Johnson in the village of Lyndonville about 60 rods east of
the 'highway, and he used an old hollow stump for his storehouse.
He left the country suddenly about 1830 and the arrowheads were
afterward found by my uncle, but they have been scattered. I have
a small collection of relics but not of a great consequence." (Walter
A. Tuttle.)

6 Mr Tuttle also adds: "As to my personal investigation, it has
principally been in the town of Yates where there are only odd
places where relics are found. On the farm now owned by George
Cooper in the village of Lyndonville and on the farm now owned by
John Foss, about 2 miles east of Yates Center, there were salt licks,
where the Indians used to hunt a great deal. On the banks of the
Johnson creek opposite these, there were a great many arrowheads,
some pipes, and charms."

Oswego County

List of Sites

1 Village site on lot 3, Richland, at the mouth of Salmon rivei
and near Port Ontario. This was the Otianhatagne, or Canohage,
of 1654.

2 Village site in Richland on the Salmon river on the Harp
Moody property. This is on the north bank of the river near tht
mouth.

3 Village site on the farm of Fred Thomson 4 miles east
Pulaski on the Salmon river.

4 An earthwork on a hilltop in the north part of Albion townshi]
near Salmon River village. It is locally known as the Pineville foi
It incloses about 2 acres and is circular.

5 Earthwork on the Salmon river iJ/J miles northeast of Altm;
on the John Kandt farm.



Plate 205



Scale OT Miles




OSWEGO COUNTY



THE A RCHEO LOGICAL HISTORY. OF N K\V YORK 667

6 Camp sites all along the banks of the Salmon river yielding
flints and pottery.

7 Burial place on Bone hill in Granby township and at Oswego
Falls west of the river.

8 Scattered camps with arrowheads and a little pottery around
the shores of Lake Neatawantha.

9 Village site on the west side of Oswego river a mile southeast
of Fulton dam.

10 A circular work with two gates is on lot 24 in Granby, and
on a hill just east of South Granby village. The circle, now almost
obliterated, has a diameter of 240 feet. Beauchamp gives an outline
in figure 71 of his bulletin and adds : " The descriptions in Clark
and Squier are incorrect. Scarcely anything is found except a few
fragments of pottery. It was occupied a very short time."

1 1 An earthwork or fort once existed on level land on lot 32. It
was occupied much longer and yields the usual relics. The site,
which has been incorrectly described by some writers, lies near a
small stream flowing into the Oswego river and is near school 16.

12 A semicircular work was once on the east side of the river at
Oswego Falls. Supposing it once to have been circular, the western
side was removed in cutting the canal. Mr Clark says it was about
10 rods across. This seems the fort which Squier mentions near
Phillipsville. It was probably only semicircular.

13 Camps on the banks and on the island in the Oswego river at
Phoenix, mostly early, though some are very recent. It was a
favorite fishing place and fine relics have been found, many hun-
dreds coming from the island.

14 Camps on the Oneida river at Caughdenoy, where the Onon-
dagas and Oneidas had eelweirs, as well as elsewhere. Early trav-
elers describe these.

15 Camps toward Brewerton. They were small.

1 6 Camps, village sites and cemeteries at Brewerton, a favorite
early and recent resort. Harpoons and other bone articles are
abundant, with some bone fishhooks. Clark's account of a large
cemetery is exaggerated.

17 A small village on a point on the north shore of Oneida lake
half way between Brewerton and Constantia. Early relics but no
pottery.

18 Camps sites yielding relics on the lake shore west of Oswego,
near the mouth of Eight Mile creek. They are rare in such situations.



668 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM

19 Mr Clark reported remains of old fortifications on both sides
of the river near Battle island, but diligent inquiry reveals none. A
cache of flint articles were found east of the Battle island dam.

20 Camp on the lake shore 2 miles east of Oswego. Early relics.

Otsego County

List of Sites

1 Village site now covered by the town of Cooperstown. Mention
is made of this fact by F. W. Halsey and in Cooper's Chronicles of
Cooperstown.

2 Burial site on the Alfred Clark estate in Cooperstown. Spear
points have been found on the surface.

3 Burial mound reported at Cooperstown on the east side of the
river. It is a modern mound in which Indian remains have been
deposited.

4 Camp sites with early relics at the northwest end of Otsego
lake, reported by Adrian Pierson.

5 Burial knoll or mound reported by Adrian Pierson at Oneonta.

6 Village site at Oneonta reported by John R. Skinner.

7 Extensive camp 2 miles below Oneonta, north of the river.
Arrowheads and pestles occur as on most local early sites.

8 Village site 3 miles above Oneonta on the west side. A camp
site is opposite.

9 Village site of 3 or 4 acres in the angle made by the south side
of the Charlotte river with the Susquehanna, lot 46, Davenport.
Pottery is found there. Articles from this spot were in the fine
collection destroyed in the burning of the Oneonta normal school.

10 A mound on an island in the Susquehanna west of the mouth
of Charlotte river. The mound is said by F. W. Halsey to contain
the remains of Kagatinga, a Delaware chief.

11 The village of Unadilla was burned in 1778, and it was at the
junction of the Unadilla with the Susquehanna on both sides of the
river (Sullivan, p. 23). It was inhabited in 1753 by Stockbridgc
Indians and was mentioned by the Rev. Gideon Hawley.

12 Village site in Butternuts just east of Mount Upton and on a
tract of land north of the road that crosses the river.

13 Camp sites on lots 40 and 41.

14 Earthwork near Unadilla mentioned by Squier, p. 46.

15 Village site on lot 16, Pittsfield, near the Unadilla river, just
north of Silver lake.






Plate 206




^Scale_of Mjles_^

I 2 "3 4 5 eT 1



n> T5 E G COUNTY



THE ARCHEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF NEW YORK 669

16 Burial mound reported by l\ W. Kalsey as on the north side
of the river near Unadilla.

17 Earthwork on the Don Prentice farm in Butternuts near Gil-
bertsville. There is a village site on this locality and the place is
known as " The Haunted Knoll."




Fig. 86 Pottery vessel from Colliers, Otsego county.
Although from the site of " the last Mohawk village "
the vessel does not appear to be characteristically
Mohawk. Yager collection. x%.

1 8 Village site on the same farm reported by A. C. Thayer.

19 Camp sites near the mouth of Butternuts creek and along the
Unadilla river.

20 Camp with early relics on the west side of the same creek 2
miles south of Morris, is on Jerome Lull's farm.

21 ICamp on the Mather farm i l / 2 miles north of Garrattville,
east of Butternuts creek. Early relics.

22 Camp sites on the Ellen Chapin farm in the southwest corner
of New Lisbon township and along Butternuts creek.

23 Village site on the Hoke farm near Springfield .Center.

24 Village site, extensive in area, at the mouth of Otego creek.
Arrowheads and sinkers are found.

25 Village site near Otego on the east bank of Otsdawa creek.
Fine specimens of pottery have been found here.



670



XE\Y YORK STATE MUSEUM



26 A large camp 2 miles north of Otego, east of and near Otsdawa
creek.

27 Village site between Schenevus creek and the Susquehaima
river is reported by T. L. Bishop who considers it that of Towano-
endalough, the first Mohawk town on the Susquehanna as described
by the Rev. Gideon Hawley in 1753. It is just east of Colliersville.
The prehistoric specimens are more frequent than recent articles.
It is on the north side of Schenevus creek and covers from 10 to 15
acres. On the west side of the river arrowheads, hammerstones
and flint chips occur.

28 Camp, where many arrowheads have been found, at Schenevus
lake, a mile southwest of Schenevus.

29 Burial site on the Claud Belson farm at Schenevus lake. Pot-
tery is found.



Fig. 87 The Otsego Outlet pipe, found by David R. Dorn, of Cooperstown,
at the outlet of Otsego lake. The pipe is Iroquoian of the middle historic
period, 1650-1700.

30 Village site on the Belson estate at Schenevus.

31 Camp site a mile north of Schenevus creek and just west of


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