appreciated when I say that I personally have had no access to the records of the College of Arms.
My book is in no way official, being issued under neither the sanction, the authority, nor the
control of the College of Arms, of the Lyon Office, or of Ulster's Office. But it is for this reason in
no worse phght than any other book. As far as I know, the " Ordinary of Scottish Arms " by
the late Lyon King is the only book relating to Arms which has even been issued, and which
can be considered in any way official.
And then one passes naturally to the question of what changes in the law are desirable.
In the first place, it should be made imperative that, before any Charter of Incorporation
be granted to any town or company, the fees payable upon a grant of Arms should be lodged with
an Officer of Arms. This would at once check a great abuse, for I find that, unUke the cases of
individuals, when Arms legally exist for a Corporation there is seldom much inclination to go
beyond or set aside what is duly authorised.
The erection of no monument bearing anything of an Armorial character should be permitted
without the production of a certificate from an Officer of Arms of its accuracy.
No Arms whatsoever ought to be permitted to be erected upon any building other than a
elseif (getClientWidth() > 430)
private dwelling-house without their validity being certified.
It is desirable that an official Government " Inspector of Seals " be appointed under the
direct authority and control of Garter King of Arms, Lyon King of Arms, and Ulster King of
Arms. And it should be required that all official seals be obtained from him. And by " official "
seals, I mean any seal whatsoever that is used for any purpose other than purely private and
personal matters ; and I would include all Ecclesiastical and Municipal seals, and all Company
seals, and those of the High Sheriffs. This would put an end to the present farce by which many
bogus coats are perpetuated. Such a regulation would inffict no hardship upon anybody, and
would not require a single person to obtain a grant of Arms. For the official Bishoprics there
are the official coats, and a Company or Municipal seal need be engraved with nothing beyond its
legend. If the High Sheriffs did not choose to estabhsh a right to Arms, a monogram would
answer all their purposes.
xxxiv Ctie ai)U0e of arni0
The exemptions at present made from the taking out of hcences in the case of " trade
purposes," hackney-carriages, companies, and corporations, it is desirable to aboHsh. They
simply place a premium upon unauthorised coats.
Until 1904 there was a regulation which required that before the Patent of creation for a jj
Baronet could pass the Great Seal, his Arms and pedigree should have been first recorded in the
College of Arms. This should be made to apply to all hereditary titles ; and if it were made to
apply to the dignity of Knighthood as well, it would inflict no hard.ship, and m.ight bring a hand-
some increase to the revenue. And Knights Grand Cross and Peers should be required to obtain |
grants of Supporters. They nearly all assume them, and they might just as well all be required "
to do it legally.
It is desirable that upon proving and recording your right to a coat-of-arms, it should be
possible to obtain damages from any unauthorised person who is making use of the same Arms.
I am advised that as matters exist at present this could not be done, even after the coat had been
" entered at Stationers' Hall."
The penalty for improperly making use of the Royal Arms, besides being much more
rigorously enforced, might, with advantage, be increased. It is doubtful to my mind if the Prince
of Wales' badge at present is protected. If it is not, it should be definitely included.
A penalty should be legalised and enforced upon those who make use of Municipal Arms for
other than Municipal purposes.
The last suggestion I will make is one for the origin of which I cannot claim the whole
credit. The law at present requires that a licence shall be taken out annually for the use of
Armorial Bearings, namely, of one guinea, or if used upon a carriage, of two guineas.
The proposition in question is, that it should be. open to any one, corporations included, to
obtain a certificate from the Officers of Arms that they were legally entitled to bear Arms. Such
certificate might, as a help to the Revenue, be required to bear a half-crown stamp. Upon the
production of this certificate, a remission of 25 or perhaps 50 per cent, upon the amount payable
to be made to the applicant. And failing the production of the certificate, the licences to be
increased to two guineas and five guineas respectively.
Such a change would at once commend itself not only to those Armigers who would be
empowered to take advantage of it, but to every one who has at heart in the least degree the welfare
and respect of true Armory. A few people — e.g., of illegitimate descent — would pig-headedly
pay the higher fee in perpetuity rather than have their claims adjudicated upon, but the great
majority would immediately prove and establish their right or drop the use of Arms. Then there
would be at once a practical end to the bogus display of Arms.
Such a change is only likely to take place if it can be shown that it will increase or at least
not diminish the revenue. It is my opinion, and also the opinion of all others whom I have con-
sulted, that the revenue from this source would, as a result, substantially increase. In the first
place, a large revenue would arise from the stamps upon the certificates. In the next place,
a large number of people in undoubtedly good position are sinning through ignorance of
the law, and making use of unauthorised Arms. They would have their attention forcibly called
to this, and a large number of new grants would require to be issued, and the revenue from the
stamps thereupon would be of great magnitude. It would call attention pointedly to the
Scottish law of Arms, which requires all younger sons and cadets to matriculate their Arms, and
of course in Lyon Office the whole of the fees accrue to the Government. There would constantly
and continuously be required new matriculations as each younger son attained his majority
and the fees, ;^I2 in each case, would materially lighten the woes of the Chancellor of the Exchequer
for the time being. And this would be by creating no new law of Arms, but simply by enforcing
laws which not only exist but are recognised and in a measure conformed to at the present day.
And it would be a " Democratic " Budget enough, in all conscience, for it would not touch
this latter-day fetish, the British working man.
But to my mind, as a lover of Armory, by far the greatest argument in its favour is, that it
would in some measure restore the ancient respect for Arms — it would in some degree renew their
I have little more to say ; the advantages, on more general grounds, of these remedies for
which I have pleaded I would much rather leave in some better hands to put forward.
If honour be at an end let its signs and tokens go with it. But Arms have even yet a lustrous
meaning and a significance known and cherished by many, and " surely even those who affect
the greatest contempt for Heraldry will admit that if Arms are to be borne at all, it should be
according to the laws of Arms ; and that, if the display of them be a matter of vanity, it is a
less creditable vanity to parade as our own those which belong of right to others."
A. C. F-D.
THE ANCIENT FAMILIES OF ENGLAND
A CRITICAL examination of the Arms of the upper classes in this country,
shows so plainly that the great bulk of our present aristocracy are in
the male line of comparatively modern origin that it becomes of considerable
interest to ascertain which families still existing can rightly and properly,
be regarded as of unquestionably ancient lineage. The list which follows
is an attempt to collect the names of such houses. I have no doubt I am laying
up for myself trouble untold by making a selection, but that I must risk. But I preface
the list by the remark that I have found it impossible to include Welsh, Scottish, or
There are many Welsh families with pedigrees running back into remote antiquity
which at first sight would appear to rank as far more ancient than any existing English
houses. The pedigrees are accepted officially, and it should be remembered that these
pedigrees are not what can justifiably be termed bogus pedigrees in the sense in which
that term is applied to fraudulently faked or concocted ones. In the later generations
which can be tested by contemporary documentary records the pedigrees will stand
examination, but the early generations which give to them their inordinate length, and,
if they can be accepted, place Welsh families far before Enghsh ones in antiquity, are
of course nothing more than mere strings of names. They, however, violate probabilities
by inclusion of far more generations than should occur in the ordinary course of a descent
between known historical dates. A very ingenious explanation has been put forward,
based upon the ancient Welsh Land Tenure, that these names were preserved as those
members of the family entitled to participate in the ownership of the land, and that at
many points the names should be read across as the names of brothers instead of father
and son and grandson. No one suggests that the civilisation of the Welsh surpassed that
of the Enghsh, and with all English pedigrees ceasing at or shortly before the Conquest, one
would not expect to find Welsh pedigrees centuries older. There is this, however, to be
said for Welsh pedigrees, that the more important ones are those of Sovereigns — petty
though they may have been. Nevertheless one cannot but regard them, for good or ill,
as " Welsh " pedigrees, and whilst accepting them as genuine " Welsh " pedigrees, one
leaves them as that.
I have excluded Scottish families because, after one has enumerated Campbell,
Duke of Argyll, Douglas, Duke of Hamilton, Hamilton, Duke of Abercorn, Drummond,
Earl of Perth, and the other historic houses whose names are household words, one is
met with the problem whether or not reputed cadet families really have the blood of
those famihes whose names and differenced versions of whose Arms they bear. Personally
I class the average Scottish pedigree with a Welsh one, and I prefer to leave the Scottish
Houses to some one more familiar with Scottish Genealogies who will attempt to
differentiate between genuine and reputed cadets,
Irish families again are a difficulty, and Celtic romance has only too often supplied
the hiatus of fact. My list hereunder is intended to be only of families of English
Cbe Oncient jFamilies of OBnglanD
The oldest male pedigree of any person belonging to the United Kingdom, the finest
and longest undoubted and unbroken lineal male descent, is that of
HIS MAJESTY KING GEORGE V
who is thirty-first in descent from Wittekind the Great, first Duke of Saxony, who died
A.D. 807. That pedigree is wholly German through his father, and His Majesty's EngUsh
descent from the Stuarts, the Tudors, the Plantagenets, and from Alfred the Great is not
in the male line. It is because His Majesty's ancestors in the male line have always had
territorial dignities, and have never needed a surname from a period anterior to the origin
of hereditary surnames, that His Majesty had no surname at all until the surname of
Windsor was adopted.
There are certain English families which claim by tradition to be of Saxon descent.
I am not aware that in any case it would be possible to demonstrate the fact by
documentary evidence, but in each case no claim is put forward to Norman origin, and
the unvaried tradition has been of a Saxon origin. Whether this be so or not, each of
these families is of the greatest antiquity. They are :
Ashburnham, Earl of Ashburnham.
Carew of Carew, Bt., Fitz Gerald, Duke of
Leinster, Fitz Maurice, Marquess of Lans-
downe, and Gerard, Lord Gerard, all
tracing male descent from Otho, living in
England temp. Edward the Confessor.
Croft of Croft Castle, Bt.
Bering of Surrenden Bering.
Be Trafford of Old Trafford.
Kingscote of Kingscote.
Lumley, Earl of Scarbrough.
Mitford, Lord Redesdale.
Scrope of Banby.
Shirley, Earl FeiTers.
Sneyd of Keele Hall.
Stourton of Stourton, Lord Mowbray and
Swinton of Swinton.
Towneley of Towneley and Fulbourne.
Wolseley of Wolseley, Bt., and Visct. Wolseley.
It is not easy to definitely prove that any given family "came over with the
Conqueror," constantly though this glib claim is put forward, but the following families,
reputedly of Norman origin, are found immediately after the Conquest established
in this country :
Bagot of Bagot's Bromley, Lord Bagot.
Barttelot of Stopham, Bt.
Bassett of Tehidy.
Blount of Sodington.
Brabazon, Earl of Meath.
Colville of Lullington.
Corbet of Moreton Corbet, Bt.
Barcy, now represented in the male line by the
Baubeney of Cote.
Bavenport of Bavenport.
Be Hoghton, Bt.
Bevereux, Viscount Hereford.
Fitz William, Earl Fitzwilliam.
Gage, Viscount Gage.
Grimston of Grimston Castle, and Earl of
Grosvenor, Buke of Westminster.
Gurdon, Lord Cranworth.
Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon.
Knightley of Fawsley, Bt.
Mainwaring of Whitmore.
Molyneux, Earl of Sefton.
Nevill, Marquess of Abergavenny.
Nugent, Earl of Westmeath.
St. George, Bt.
St. Leger, Viscount Boneraile.
Sandford of Sandford.
Stanley, Earl of Berby.
Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury.
Vernon, Lord Vernon.
Cbe Ancient JTamilic0 of CnglanD
The names which follow are those of families which, if not demonstrably Norman,
in the sense of deriving in the male Une from companions of the Conqueror, are neverthe-
less found established in the early Plantagenet reigns, and rank, in antiquity, but little
behind the families in the foregoing lists :
Acton, Lord Acton.
Aldersey of Aldersey.
Amherst, Earl Amherst.
Arundell, Lord Arundell of Wardour.
Assheton of Downham.
Astley (now Astley-Corbett) , Bt.
Astley, Lord Hastings.
Babington of Cossington.
Bampfylde, Lord Poltimore.
Bingham, Earl of Lucan.
Boscawen, Viscount Falmouth.
Botevile (now Thynne), Marquess of Bath.
Brudenell (now Brudenell- Bruce), Marquess of
Butler, Marquess of Ormonde, Earl of Carrick
and Lord Dunboyne.
Cary, Viscount Falkland.
Cave (now Cave-Brown-Cave), Bt.
Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire.
ChetA\ynd, Viscount Chetwynd.
Chichester, Bt., and Marquess of Donegall.
Cholmondeley, Marquess of Cholmondeley.
Clifford, Lord CUfford.
Clifton of Clifton, and Lord Grey de Ruthyn.
Clinton, Duke of Newcastle.
Courtenay, Earl of Devon.
Dawney, Viscount Downe.
De Burgh, Marquess of Clanricarde.
Digby, Lord Digby.
Dillon,- Viscount Dillon.
Egerton (now Grey-Egerton) , Bt.
Eyton of Eyton. co. Salop.
Fairfax, Lord Fairfax,
ffarington of Worden.
Fitz Harding (now Berkeley), Earl of Berkeley.
Fitz Herbert of Swynnerton.
Fitz Herbert of Tissington, Bt.
Forester (now Weld-Forester), Lord Forester.
Fortescue, Earl Fortescue.
Fulford of Fulford.
Giffard, Earl of Halsbury.
Gower (now Sutherland-Leveson-Gower), Duke
Grey, Earl Grey.
Grey, Earl of Stamford.
Haggerston of Haggerston Castle, Bt.
Hamerton of Hellifield.
Hanbury, Lords Bateman and Sudeley.
Heneage, Lord Heneage.
Hervey, Marquess of Bristol.
Howard, Duke of Norfolk.
Jerningham (now Staff ord-Jerningham), Lord
Jocelyn, Earl of Roden.
Lambton, Earl of Durham.
Lee of Coton.
Leighton, formerly of Leighton, Bt.
Leycester of Nether Tabley.
Lowther, Earl of Lonsdale.
Lyttelton, Viscount Cobham and Lord Hather-
Manners, Duke of Rutland.
Meynell of Meynell Langley.
Mundy of Markeaton and Shipley.
Needham, Earl of Kilmorey.
Northcote, Earl of Iddesleigh.
Onslow, Earl of Onslow.
Pauncefort, now Pauncefort-Duncombe, Bt.
Pelham, Earl of Chichester.
Radclyffe of Foxdenton.
Rodney, Lord Rodney.
St. John, Lords Bolingbroke and St. John.
Saltmarsh of Saltmarsh.
Salvin of Croxdale and Hawksfold.
Seymour (now St. Maur), Duke of Somerset.
Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield and Harrington.
Stonor, Lord Camoys.
Strickland of Sizergh.
Tempest of Broughton.
Thornhill of Diddington.
Tichborne (now Dough ty-Tichborne) , Bt.
Toke of Godinton.
Villiers, Earls of Jersey and Clarendon.
Wallop (now Fellowes), Earl of Portsmouth.
Walpole, Earl of Orford.
West, Earl De la Warr.
Whitgreave of Moseley.
Whitmore, now of Orsett Hall.
Wilbraham, Earl of Lathom.
Willoughby, Lord Middleton.
Wingfield, Viscount Powerscourt.
Wodehouse, Earl of Kimberley.
Wrottesley, Lord Wrottesley.
Wybergh of Chfton Hall.
Wyndham of Denton.
The next class of family which in these democratic days may truly be styled " ancient,"
are those famiUes who proved their right to bear Arms at the time of the Visitations. This
will be a much more difficult list to compile, but I hope in some future edition of " Armorial
Cije Ancient jTamiliejef of OBnglanti
Families " that it may be possible to publish such a list. I shall be pleased to hear from
those who consider the names of their families should be included, hut in every case it is
an absolutely essential necessity that an official certificate should be forwarded to me
stating at what Visitation the Arms were first confirmed and that the applicant is descended
in the male line from the person to whom the Arms were confirmed. It is useless to
WRITE ME ON THIS POINT EXCEPT SUBJECT TO THAT UNDERSTANDING. I have UO wish to
be discourteous, but long experience compels me to say that I much prefer to correspond
with the male members of a family on genealogical matters. I have never yet succeeded
in convincing a lady of anything she didn't wish to know.
A. C. FOX-DAVIES.
23, Old Buildings, Lincoln's Inn,
CARUS-WILSON.— Mr. Cecil Carlls-^^■ilson, J. P., CRISPIN.— Alteration in the Arms of Mr. Mordecai
l-.R.S.E., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., of Altmore, Strawberry Hill, Jackson Crispin of New York, too late for inclusion in
iMiddx., was elected Mayor of Twickenham, 1928. the body of the work. The 7th quartering should read
" argent, on a fesse cottised sable, three plates, a crescent
of the second for diiierence." The mo"tto should read
" Dum clavum rectum teneam."
Army and Navy
British Empire. .
Burlington Fine .^rts . .
Constitutional . .
East India United Service
Junior Army and Navy
Junior Carlton . .
Junior Constitutional . .
37, Dover Street, VV.i.
12, Grosvenor Street, W.i.
I, Hyde Park Place, W.C.
23, Savile Row, W.i.
1, Hamilton Place, W.i.
36, Pall Mall, S.W.I.
6g, St. James's Street, S.W.i.
40, Dover Street, W.i.
107, Pall Mall, S.W.I.
2, Whitehall Court, S.W.i.
II and 12, Hamilton Place,
100, Piccadilly, W.i.
34, Dover Street, W.i, and
16, Berkeley Street, W.i.
9, Green Street, Leicester
Square, W.C. 2.
28, St. James's Street. S.W.i.
12, St. James's Square, S.W.i.
60, St. James's Street, S.W.i.
18, Clifford Street, W.i.
17, Savile Row, W.i.
33, St. James's Square, S.W.i.
94, Pall Mall, S.W.I.
127, Piccadilly, W.i.
119, Piccadilly, W.i.
24-27, St.Swithin'sLane, E.C.4.
50, Cornhill, E.C.3.
64, St. James's Street, S.W.i.
74, St. James's Street, S.W.i.
28, Northumberland Avenue,
50, St. James's Street, S.W.i.
16, St. James's Square, S.W.i.
3, Hare Court, Temple, E.C.4.
2, Whitehall Court, S.W.i.
36, Piccadilly, W.i.
9, Chesterfield Gardens, W.i.
13, Garrick Street, W.2.
15, Abchurch Lane, E.C.4.
41 and 43, Brook Street,
Grosvenor Square, W.i.
5, Horse Guards' Avenue,
116, Piccadilly, W.i,
30-35, Pall MaU, S.W.I.
loi, Piccadilly, W.i.
Junior Naval and Military
Junior United Service . .
Naval and MiUtary
New Oxford and Cam-
Oxford and Cambridge
University . .
Public Schools . .
Roehampton . .
Royal Air Force
Royal Automobile •
Royal Thames Yacht . .
St. Stephen's . .
United Service . .
United Sports' . .
96, Piccadilly, W.i.
11, Charles Street, St. James's,
52, Pall Mall, S.W.I.
12, Queen Anne's Gate, S.W.i.
Whitehall Place, S.W.i.
94, Piccadilly, W.i.
15, Stratton Street, W.i.
58, St. James's Street, S.W.i.
18, Hanover Square, W.i.
29, King Street, St. James's,
71, PaU MaU, S.W.i.
9, St. James's Square, S.W.i.
14, Park Place, St. James's,
197, Knightsbridge, S.W.i.
61, Curzon Street, W.i.
104, Pall Mall, S.W.I.
Roehampton Lane, S.W. 15.
3, Clifford Street, New Bond
128, Piccadilly, W.i.
69, Pall MaU, S.W.I.
63, St. James's Street, S.W.i.
60, Knightsbridge, S.W.i.
106, PiccadiUy, W.i.
I, Bridge Street, Westminster,
6, Adelphi Terrace, W.C. 2.
69, Brook Street, W.i.
8, St. James's Square, S.W.i.
86, St. James's Street, S.W.i.
106, Pall MaU, S.W.I.
47, Clarges Street, PiccadiUy,
10, Carlton House Terrace,
116, PaU MaU, S.W.i.
4, Whitehall Court, S.W.i.
I, Suffolk Street, Pall Mail East,
I, Grosvenor Place, S.W.i.
38, Great Smith Street, S.W.i.
37, St. James's Street, S.W.i.
13, St James's Square, S.W.i.
For the addresses of London Clubs refer to list. All Clubs are supposed to be London Clubs unless immediately
followeil !)>• the name of a town in brackets. A complete entry should contain full Christian and surnames, style, titles,
and designations, and offices held, dale of birth, name of father and of mother, and of mother's father, dates of succession
to, and creations of titles, clubs, livery, armorial bearings, including impalements, date of marriage, name of wife and of her
father, names of children and dates of birth of sons, names of estates and postal addresses. The Editor will be happy
in all cases to insert any number of quarterings that are duly recorded (upon proof of this being produced), and will add
such of the details above indicated as may be omitted. lie hopes also to have his attention called to any mistakes, and
will be glad to receive notice of all alterations that occur. The surnames and dates of birth of daughters are intentionally
omitted, and the names of daughters are always placed after the names of sons, notwithstanding any priority of birth.
The description tJentleman is used throughout the book in its ancient and strictly legal and correct interpretation, namely,
a person entitled to bear arms ; and it occurs in every such instance where there is no other title employed. The
followin<T are Esquires, and should be so described. The term is not used in "Armorial Families" except in such
cases : — The sons of Peers ; the sons of baronets ; the sons of Knights ; the eldest sons of the younger suns of Peers,
and their eldest sons in perpetuity ; the eldest son of the eldest son ot a Knight, and his eldest son in perpetuity ; Com-
panions of the Orders of Knighthood ; the Kin^s of Arms ; the Heralds of Arms ; Officers of the Navy and Army of
the rank of Captain and upwards ; Sheriffs of Counties, for life ; J.P.'s of Counties whilst in Commission ; Serjeants-at-
Law ; King's Counsel ; Serjeants-at-Arms ; certain principal Officers in the King's Household ; Deputy-Lieutenants
and Commissioners of Lieutenancy ; Commissioners of the Court of Bankruptcy ; Masters of the Supreme Court ; those
whom the King, in any Commission or Warrant, styles Esquire [and amongst these are Royal Academicians], and any