Arthur Evans.

Syracusan medallions and their engravers in the light of recent finds, with observations on the chronology and historical occasions of the Syracusan coin-types of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. And an essay on some new artists' signatures on Sicilian coins online

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SYRACUSAN "MEDALLIONS"

AND THEIR ENGRAVERS

IN THE LIGHT

OF RECENT

FINDS



WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE CHRONOLOGY AND HISTORICAL

OCCASIONS OF THE SYRACUSAN COIN-TYPES OF THE

FIFTH AND FOURTH CENTURIES B.C.



AND AN ESS A?

ON SOME NEW ARTISTS' SIGNATURES ON
SICILIAN COINS




AETHUE J. EVANS, M.A., F.S.A.

KEEPEB OF THE ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM
AND HON. FELLOW OK BEASENOSE COLLEGE, OXFOED



WITH SEVENTEEN WOODCUTS IN THE TEXT AND TEN AUTOTYPE PLATES



LONDON
BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, PICCADILLY

1892



Stack
Annex

cr



NOTE.



The first part of this volume, " Syracusan ' Medallions' and
their Engravers," is reprinted from the Numismatic Chronicle of
1891 (Pt. IV.), with the addition of an Analytical Table of Con-
tents, Index, and two extra plates (VIII. and IX). The paper
on " Artists' Signatures on Sicilian Coins " is reprinted, with
some slight emendations, from the Numismatic Chronicle of 1890
(Pt. IV.).



1685215



ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS.



SYRACUSAN "MEDALLIONS" AND THEIR ENGRAVERS.

PAGK

PART I. INTRODUCTION 112

"Medallions": large coins: intended for circulation . . 1 2

Name used for Dekadrachms or Pentekontalitra . . . 1 2

High appreciation of them by Winckelmann and others . 2 4

Bear signatures of Artists Kimon and Evsenetos . . 3
True Conditions of Monetary Art observed by Sicilian Coin

Engravers 56

DISCOVEEY OP "MEDALLION" BY NEW AETIST ... 7
Conflicting Views as to date and occasion of " Medallion"

issues 8-10

New results acquired by present inquiry . . . . 10
Later dekadrachms connected with Victory over Athenians, as

Ddmareteia with earlier Victory over Carthaginians . . 11

LACUNA IN TETBADBACHM SEBIES OF SYBAOTTSE 1 2



PART II. ON A HOARD CONSISTING CHIEFLY OF
DEKADRACHMS FOUND AT STA. MARIA Dl
LICODIA, SICILY 1326

Contents of hoard . 14 18

Notes on " Medallions " or Dekadrachms in hoard . . 18,19

Kimon' s "Medallions" classified .19,20

"Medallions" of Evaenetos 21

New dekadrachm with full signature EYAINETOY ... 22

Date of tetradrachms found in hoard 23

Santa Maria di Licodia, the ancient JEtna-Inessa . . 24

Chronological indications 25, 26

PART III. A DEKADRACHM BY A NEW ARTIST . 2750

Independent style of new " Medallion " . . . . 27

Obverse type compared with Evaenetos' Kore . . . 28 30
Reverse typo compared with other " Medallions" . . . 30 3&



VI CONTENTS.



Its greater rhythm and sobriety 31

Angle of Monument seen behind horses ....

Perhaps the Judges' stand 32, 33

Peculiar arrangement of reins adopted by Evsenetos . . 33, 34

Evsenetos' quadriga depicted as rounding goal ... 34

New " Medallion " shows arrival of winner .... 34

Panoply in exergue in this case larger . . . . . 35

Inscription A6A A placed in large letters above shield . . 35

Traces of signature ........ 36

Entire divergency from Evsenetos type 36, 37

A certain sympathy with Kimon's style perceptible in this

"Medallion" 38

Evidence, however, that it is not Kimon's work . . . 37 39

MUST BE ATTRIBUTED TO NEW AETIST ..... 39

Evidence that new "Medallion" is slightly earlier than those of

Evametos 3946

Relation of new " Medallion " to an earlier Syracusan tetra-

drachm 39, 40

Severer profile of Kore, &c . 41

Simpler action of quadriga, &c 42

Monumental character of reverse type by New Artist . . 43

Technical peculiarities of new " Medallion " . . . 44

Its large module ; an early characteristic . . . . 45

Abnormally low weight . . . . . . .45, 46

Was the New Artist the creator of this type of Kore popular-
ized by Evsenetos ? 46

Probability that the reverse of the New "Medallion" is

earlier than the obverse 46, 47

Perhaps originally accompanied by a still earlier version of

the Kore 47

New standpoint for comparison of Evsenetos' work . . 47

Evsenetos superior in concentration and perspective . . 47, 48

Pictorial ingenuity of his quadriga 49

Reverse of New Artist more massive and sculpturesque . 50

His portraiture of Kore more delicate and ideal ... 50



PART IV. THE DEKADRACHMS OF KIMON, AND HIS

PLACE ON THE SYRACUSAN DIES . . .5184
Kimon's " Medallion" with low relief, earliest known . . 51 53
' ' Medallion ' ' by New Artist, yet shows earlier type of reverse 51,52
Approaches in date Kimon's Third Medallion type . . . 52

Materials for chronology of Kimon's types .... 52

Anteriority to Evaenetos' "Medallions" . . . . 52

Kimon's type of Arethusa based on earlier design upon tetra-

drachms by Evsenetos and Eumenes 54



CONTENTS. Vll

PAOK

Approximation of style and design to Segestan tetradrachm . 55, 56
Indebtedness of Kimon's quadriga type to early tetradrachms

by Evsenetos ......... 57

Synchronism of Kimon's earliest gold staters and his ' ' Medal-
lion " type II 58

Early use of Q on Syracusan and Magna-Grecian coins . 59

H and Q used as = Epsilon and Omikron .... 59, 60
Chronological importance of tetradrachm reverse signed

EY9 60, 61

This quadriga type by EY9 ... of Kyrenaean origin . . 62, 63

Kyrenaean gold staters . 63

Imitation of Euth . .'s type by Siculo-Punic engravers at

Panormos, c. 410 ........ 64

Recent find in Western Sicily 64, 65

Hippocamp on Panormitic Coins imitated at Himera, c. 409 B.C. 65
KIMON'S BAELY " MEDALLION " TYPES IMITATED ON PANOB-
MITAN AND MOTYAN COINS STBTTCK IN 410 AND ENSUING

YEAE8 66 68

Series of Motyan Coins imitated from Kimon's types . . 68, 69

Kimon's tetradrachm with facing head of Arethusa . . 69

IMITATED AT HIMEEA BY CLOSE OP 409 B.C 70

Close relation of portrait of Arethusa on this tetradrachm to

Kimon's " Medallion " (type III.) ...... 71

The " Medallion " ^type III.) slightly later in style . . 71
Early appearance of perspective rendering of facing heads on

Sicilian coins ......... 73

Facing head of Herakles at Selinus ..... 73, 74

Imitations of Kimon's facing head of Arethusa in Greece

and Asia 74

Its Neapolitan prototype ........ 75, 76

Campanian sympathies of Kimon's style .... 76

Range of Kimon's activity and his connexion with Chalkidian

Cities 77

His Employment of Campanian type of Earring . . . 78 80

Earlier forms of Earring on Syracusan Coins ... 78

Period of " Coiled Earring " 78

Introduction of variant forms 79, 80

Earring with triple pendant finally supersedes all others . 79

Origin of floral type of Earring in lotus bud ornament . . 79, 80
CHKONOLOGTCAL CLASSIFICATION OF KIMON'S "MEDALLION"

TYPES 8184

Type I., with low relief ....... 81

Type II 81, 82

Earlier gold staters belong to same Period . . . . 82

Type III 8284

Represents profile rendering of his facing head of Arethusa . 82

Type III., A 83



Vlll CONTENTS.



i AOT-:
Later gold staters belong to same Period . . . . 83

Type in., B " 83, 84

Comparative rarity of Kimon's " Medallions'* ... 84



PART V.THE ARTISTIC CAREER OF EVJENETOS AND
THE INFLUENCE OF HIS " MEDALLION" -TYPE
ON GREEK, PH(ENICIAN AND CELT . . 85120

Evaenetos' early Syracusan Tetradrachm with signature on

tablet held by Nike 8587

His earliest numismatic record . . . . . . 85

Gemlike beauty of the work ....... 85, 86

Signature on dolphin's belly 86

Sensational feature of Evaenetos' early quadrigas . . . 86

Von Sallet on his " early manner " ..... 87

Evaenetos' activity at Katane and Kamarina . . . 88, 89

Evidence connecting him with the Segestan Mint . . 89 93

Segestan Tetradrachm in Evaenetos' s style .... 89 92

Segestan Tetradrachms connected with Athenian Alliance

against Selinus and Syracuse ...... 90, 91

Reappearance of Evaenetos at Syracuse in period immediately

succeeding Athenian overthrow 93

Engraves dies for new gold coinage 93

Gold hundred- and fifty-litra pieces now struck ... 93

Hoard found at Avola 93

Gold staters bear signatures of both Kimon and Evaenetos . 94

Earlier and later types 94, 95

Reverse of gold staters : Hcrakles strangling lion . . 95

Free horse on gold pentekontalitra : Democratic badge . . 95, 96
Herakles and lion symbol of alliance in Magna Graecia and at

Mallos and Tarsos 96, 97

THE FREB HOESE OF GOLD PENTiKOXTALTTRA IMITATED ON
EARLY " CAMP COINS" OF CARTHAGINIANS IN SICILY STRUCK

c. 406 5 B.C 97, 98

Parallel imitation of half horse on gold litras of Gela . 98 100
Early Carthaginian gold pieces with free horse and head of

Demeter . . 101, 102

Early cult of " the Goddesses " at Carthage . . . 102
Absence of Siculo-Punic imitations of Evaenetos' head of Kore

in West Sicilian hoard buried c. 400 B.C. . . . 102, 103
Indications that Evaenetos' early "Medallions " were struck

c. 406 B.C. 103, 104

Progressive advance in style on Evaenetos' " Medallions" . 105

Latest may have been engraved c. 385 B.C 106

Imitation of Evanetos' head of Kore on Carthaginian and Siculo-
Punic coins, effect of propitiatory cult o/"393 B.C. . . 106, 107
Carthaginian and Siculo-Punic copies .... 107,109



CONTENTS. IX



Imitations on Carthaginian staters give rise to curious orna-
ment on Belgic and Ancient British, coin-types . . . 109
Later Syracusan copies of Evsenetos' Kore . . . 109,110
Imitated by Opuntian Lokrians, Messenians, &c. . . 110,111

On large bronze pieces of Kentoripa Ill

At Metapontion and Arpi ...... Ill, 112

At Massalia, Rhoda and Emporise 112

By Iberians, G-auls and Britons 112,113

Evcenetos 1 "Medallion" type with, head of Persephone reproduced,

on Gapuan Kylikes imitating silver -ware . . . 113 116
Impressions reduced by a third of their diameter . . . 114
"MedaUion" types of which impressions are extant . . 115
Suggested connexion of Evsenetos with toreutic craft . . 116
Silversmiths' and moneyers' profession combined in Antiquity 116
Indications supplied by his style that Evsenetos was also a

gem engraver 117

Signet ring found near Catania with engraving of Herakles and

lion as on Evoenetos 1 gold staters . . . . . 117, 118
This intaglio belongs to a class of official signets of which

other examples are known 118

Examples of such with civic types of G-ela, Selinus, Neapolis,

&c 119, 120



PART VI. THE HISTORICAL OCCASIONS OFTHEDAMA-

RETEION AND THE LATER "MEDALLIONS" 121143

General conclusion : earliest of the revived Pentekontalitra

date back to c. 415 B.C 121

First issue of these "Medallions" wrongly connected by

Cavallari with defeat of Carthaginians in 394 B.C. . . 121
Great probability that revived issue dates from time of Athenian

Overthrow o/413 B.C. 122

The earlier Damareteion, named from Gelon's Consort . . 122
Variant accounts of its exact origin .... 123 128

Notices of Hesy chios and Pollux 123

According to Diodoros made from gold crown presented by

Carthaginians to Damareta 123, 124

The weight of the wreath reckoned in Sicilian gold talents 124, 125
Comparative weights of other honorary wreaths . . 125, 126
Connexion of Damareteian coinage with erection of votive

tripod at Delphi 126129

Epigram of Simonides 127

Both coins and tripod dedicated to Apollo . . . . 128
The Damareteian issue connected with games in Apollo's

honour 128, 129

May have partly served as prizes, like Metapontine coins

inscribed A\t\oio aiOXov ....... 129

b



CONTENTS.



Commemorative character of this first " Medallion " issue at
Syracuse supplies a precedent for their revival at time of Athe-
nian overthrow 129

Other historic allusions on Syracusan coin-types . . 129, 130
Allusion to sea-victory over Athenians : Nike holding aplustre,

on reverse of tetradrachm 131

Prize of Arms on "Medallions" a reference to panoplies taken
from Athenians ......... 132

Revived pentekontalitra perhaps coined from bullion taken

from Athenians 132

Thucydides' account of the shields full of silver collected from

the captives 133

Some of the "Medallions " perhaps actual prizes in games 133 135

Money prizes at Greek Games 134

Great prominence of inscription A9AA on new "Medallion " 135
Frequent appearance of A in field of contemporary coins 136, 137
Dr. Kinch's theory that the inscribed names on the coins

refer to winners in the Games combated . . . . 136
The A probably stamp of consecration . . . . . 138
Panoply in its direct significance to be taken as a prize in

Games 138, 139

Local Sicilian Games 140

THE PRIZE OF ARMS ON THE " MEDALLIONS" CONNECTED
"WITH THE ASSINAEIAN GAMES INSTITUTED TO COMMEMORATE

ATHENIAN OVERTHROW 141

NiMas' shield described by Plutarch . . . . 141, 142

Panoplies hung on trees along banks of the Assinaros after the

victory .......... 142

Special appropriateness, therefore, in connexion with Games

in honour of the River- God . . . . . . 142

Import of obverse heads of Arethusa and Persephone . . 143
Date of first celebration of Assinarian Games 143



PART VII. CHRONOLOGICAL CONCLUSIONS BEARING

ON THE SYRACUSAN COINAGE . . . 144159

Conclusion that chronology of Syracusan coin-types of Fifth

and Fourth century needs radical revision . . . . 144

Period of signed coinage begins c. 440 B.C 144

Later group of tetradrachms belonging to years immediately

succeeding Athenian defeat 145

Tetradrachm with head of flying Nike 146

Tetradrachm by IM . . . also pras-Dionysian . . . 147
CONCLUSION THAT ALL SYRACUSAN TETRADRACHMS OF THE FIXE

STYLE WERE STRUCK PREVIOUS TO 400 B.C . . . . 148
New letter-forms introduced about 450 440 B.C. in Italy and

Sicily ... 148



CONTENTS. XI



The latest of the fine tetradrachms still show transitional

epigraphy . . . . . . . . . . 148

Summary of chronological results 149, 150

Later ' ' Medallions ' ' of Kimon and those of Evaenetos find

no counterparts among tetradrachms . . . . 151

WHY? BECAUSE TETRADRACHMS WERE NO LONGER STRUCK . 151
" Medallions " of Evsenetos later in both style and epigraphy 151, 152
Gap in tetradrachm issue supplied by imported " Pegasi," &c. 152
Cessation of tetradrachm issues probably connected with violent

financial expedients of Dionysios I, .... 152 155
Tin tetradrachms struck by Dionysios .... 153, 154
The tin possibly supplied from loot of Motya . . . 153
Parallel suggested by Siddreoi of Byzantium . . . 154

All available silver required for payments of mercenaries . 155
"Medallion" dies probably used after their engravers had ceased

to work : perhaps to B.C. 360 155

Silver coinage at Syracuse may have ceased for a while . 155, 156
Variant views as to first coinage of " Pegasi " at Syracuse . 156
Objections to considering them either as late as Timoleon's

time or as early as that of Dionysios 1 156

View preferred of Padre Romano referring them to date of

Dion's expedition, 357 B.C. 157

Early orthography ^YPAKOION on some . ... 157
Parallel type at Leontini with legend AEONTINON . . 157
This coin of Leontini can only be referred to date of Dion's

expedition ......... 157, 158

THESE ALLIANCE COINS EXPLAINED BY SYRACUSAN AND

LEONTINE "SYMMACHY" ON THAT OCCASION . . 157, 158
Transitional form of inscription on these coins an evidence

of preceding numismatic gap 158, 159

Syracusan bronze Coins of Dion's time overstruck at Ken-

toripa c. 350 B.C. with copy of Evaenetos' Kore . . . 159

APPENDIX A. ON A HOARD OF COINS RECENTLY

DISCOVERED IN WESTERN SICILY . . 160169

Summary description of hoard 160 167

Salinas on Rhegian tetradrachm of sub-normal weight . . 167
His views as to the date of this coin untenable . . 167, 168
Evidences as to date of West Sicilian hoard . . . 168, 169
Deposited c. 400 B.C 169

APPENDIX B.ON THE DATE OF THE GREAT NAXOS

DEPOSIT 170172

Materials as to composition of hoard compared . . 170, 171
Evidences of date supplied by Naxian types . . . . 171
Naxian hoard deposited not later than 410 B.C. . . . 172



Xll CONTEXTS.



NEW ARTISTS' SIGNATURES ON SICILIAN COINS.

PAGB

I. AN EARLIER KIMON AT HIMERA . . . 173180

Tetradrachm of Himera with cock in exergue . . 173, 174
Bathing Seilen, illustration of hot baths of Himera . . 174

Nymph Himera 174

Inscription KIMON on altar 175,176

EAELTEST KXOWN SIGNATURE OF COIN-ENOEAVEB . . . 176
Evidence that this coin dates before B.C. 350 . . 176, 177

Pictorial style of design 177

Compared with bathing scenes in vase paintings . . 177, 178
This Kimon probably grandfather of the later . . . 178,179
Isolated position of later Kimon at Syracuse . . . 179
His Chalkidian connexion 179, 180



II. MAI . . . AT HIMERA 180185

Latest tetradrachm type of Himera 180

Reverse copied from early Syracusan piece of Evsenetos 180, 181

Signature MAI on tablet held by Nike 181

Exergual inscription Tc I for HM EPA .... 181183
Various forms of initial letter of Himera on coins . . 182, 183

Chimsera on Himersean coins 182

Connected with form KIMAPA 182

This coin struck not later than 409 B.C. .... 183
Himera utterly destroyed by Carthaginians in 409 B.C. . 183, 184
Therma or Thermae founded on site of baths . . . 184
Importance of early date of above coin in its bearing on

quadriga schemes of Sicilian coins .... 184, 185



III. THE LATER KIMON AT MESSANA . . 186189

Tetradrachm of Messana with Nymph's head and inscription

FEAQPIA^ 186, 187

Perhaps traces of Kimon's signature on it . . . . 187

Kimon's signature on another Messanian tetradrachm . 187, 188

Nymph Pelorias personification of Capo del Faro . . . 188

Her attributes, cockleshell and ear of corn . . . 188, 189



IV.EVARCHIDAS AT SYRACUSE .... 189193

Elucidation of name due to Prof. Salinas . . . 189, 190
Accompanies reverse of coin signed on obverse by Phry-

gfflos 190, 101



CONTEXTS. Xlll



PAGK

Aplustre held by Nike commemorative of Naval Victory over

Athenians . 191, 192

Parallel group of quadriga -types thus dated . . 192, 193



V.PARME . . . AT SYRACUSE 193, 194

New position of signature on Arethusa's neck . . 193, 194
Similar position of signature of Evsenetos on neck of Hipparis 194

VI., VII SYRACTTSAN HEMIDRACHMS Y EV^INETOS
AND BY * AND EY 194, 195

Hemidrachm by Evaenetos with signature E . . . 194

Hemidrachm with 4> and EY, probably by Phrygillos and

Evarchidas 195

V111.EXAKEST1DAS AT KAMARINA . . . 196199

Forms of Exakestidas' signature on Kamarinaean coins . 196

Tetradrachm with new signature on diptych . . 196, 197

Syracusan influence on Kamarinsean dies . . . 198, 190

Materials for dating newly discovered tedradrachm . . 190

APPENDIX TO NEW ARTISTS' SIGNATURES ON SICI-
LIAN COINS 200

New signature of Kim on on reverse of a "Medallion" of

Type II 200



WOODCUTS IN THE TEXT.



!. PAOK

1. " MEDALLION " BY NE\V ARTIST 30

2. HEAD, BY EUMENS 40

3. QUADRIGA TYPES ON KYRENJEAN GOLD STATEBS . . .63

4. COPY OF KIMON'S ARETHUSA ON BRONZE COIN OF HIMERA . 70

5. TRIOBOL OF SELINUS 73

6. LOTOS ORNAMENT AND EARRINGS 79

7. GOLD LITRA OF GELA 99

8. CARTHAGINIAN " CAMP-PIECE ": TETRADRACHM . . . .100

9. THE " DAMARETEION " 129

10. SYRACUSAN TETRADRACHM, WITH HEAD OF NIKE . . .146

11. 12. "PEGASI" STRUCK BY LEONTLNI AND SYRACUSE IN ALLIANCE 158

13. SIGNATURE OF EARLIER KIMON AT HIMERA . . . .175

14. SIGNATURE OF MAI . . AT HIMERA 181

15. SIGNATURE OF EVAHCHIDAS AT SYRACUSE 190

16. SIGNATURE OF PARME 193

17. SIGNATURE OF EXAKESTIDAS AT KAMARINA 197



SYRACUSAN " MEDALLIONS " AND THEIR
ENGRAVERS,

IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT FINDS.



PART I.
INTRODUCTION.

THE " medallions " of S}Tacuse have been the admiration
of the ancient and modern world. From the Seventeenth
Century onwards they have been the subject of frequent
discussion on the part of numismatic writers, and the
historic circumstances connected with the issue of the
earliest of them, the Damareteion, whose name records the
wife of Gelon, 1 arrested the attention of ancient writers,
who, as a rule, were little prone to afford us information
about numismatic matters.

The view of the earlier numismatists that these fine
coins were " medals " in the modern sense of the word,
and not intended for circulation, has long been abandoned,
and it has been generally recognised that they served, in
fact, as current coins, of the value of fifty Sicilian silver
litras, or ten Attic drachma?-. Yet, from their abnormal
dimensions, the extraordinary artistic skill devoted to
their production and, as will be shown in the course of this

1 For the Damareteion see Part VI., p. 122 seqq.

15



2 SYRACUSAN " MEDALLIONS " AND THEIR ENGRAVERS.

inquiry, the special circumstances under which they were
originally struck, and which place them in a certain
degree outside the category of ordinary coins, it does not
seem inappropriate, even in the present state of our
knowledge, to apply to them the name of " medallions,"
by which they were till lately generally known. " Medal-
lion," in fact, in the etymological sense of the word, means
simply " a large coin," and in this sense Italian numis-
matists often apply the name " medaglioncini" or " small
medallions," to tetradrachms, which have nevertheless
always been regarded as current coins.

The Syracusan " medallions " struck towards the close
of the Fifth Century B.C. have specially arrested attention,
on account of the marvellous art that they display. The
heads that appear upon these coins are of two main types
that of the Nymph, Arethusa, with her luxuriant tresses
contained in a beaded net ; and an even more beautiful
head of the Maiden Goddess, Persephone, or, if that
name for her should be preferred, Demeter Chloe, crowned
with the earless barley spray, green and growing, so appro-
priate to her inner being, as symbolizing the yearly up-
springing of Nature to life and light. Of this head Winck-
elmann remarks that "it transcends all imagining," 2 and
elsewhere he asks : " Might not Raffaelle, who complains
that he could not find in Nature any beauty worthy to
stand for Galatea, have taken her likeness from the best
Syracusan coins, since in his days with the exception of
the Laocoon the finest statues were not yet discovered ?
Beyond these coins human comprehension cannot go." 3

2 Winckelmann's Werke (1808 20), iv., 134. (Kunst-

leV. c. 2, 26.)

Winckelmann (op. cit. 1. 251, Erinnerung ueber die Be-
trachtung der Werke der Kunst). " Hdtte nicht Raphael, der



INTRODUCTION. O

A new interest has, since Winckelmann's time, been
added to these splendid coins by the recognition of the
fact that the names of Kimon and Evaenetos that appear
upon them are those of the artists who engraved the dies,
and who worked for other Sicilian cities besides Syracuse. 4

sich beklagte zur Galatee keine uiirdiye Schonheit in der Natur
zu-finden, die Bildung derselben von der besten Si/racusanischen
Mi'mzen nehmen kdimen, da die schonsten Statuen, answer dern
Laocoon, zu seiner Zeitnoch rticht entdecket waren? Welter ah
diese Muiizen kann der mcnscldiche Begriff nicht gehen." Payne
Knight (Archfrolof/ia, xix. p. 375) says of the Syracusan "medal-
lions," " to the sublime perfection of these coins no work of
man of a similar description has hitherto even approached."

4 The first to point out that the signature " KIMHN " repre-
sented the name of the engraver was A. von Steinbiichel (in the
Vienna Jahrbiicher der Literatur (1818), B. II. p. 124 ; cf. the
Anzeigeblatt for 1833, p. 60). About the same time the same
conclusion was independently put forth by Payne Knight, in his
essay on The Large Coins of Syracuse (Archceologia, vol. xix.
(1821), p. 869 seqq.), who was followed by Noehden, in his
Specimens of Ancient Coins of Magna Grcecia and Sicily, from
Lord Northwick's cabinet (London, 1826, p. 41 seqq.). Haver-
camp, in his commentary on Paruta's Sicilia Nunrismatica
(p. 307), had been much puzzled by the name (" Nomen illud
Cimon, seu KIMflN, me multum torquet," p. 807). He
came to the conclusion that it was a magistrate's name. It is
to the Due de Luynes (Annali delV Institute, &c., 1830, p. 85),
and Raoul Rochette, in his Lettre a M. le Due de Luynes sur les
Graveurs des Monnaies Grecques (Paris, 1831, p. 19 seqq.),
that the credit belongs of first detecting in the signature
" EYAINE" beneath the head of Persephone on the fellow-
medallions, the name of the engraver, Evffinetos (EYAINE-
TO^), which occurs in a fuller form on tetradrachms of
Syracuse and Katane. These conclusions as to the true
meaning of the signature on these coins have been borne out
by more recent writers : [cf. , especially Von Sallet, Die Kunst-
lerinschriften auf yriechischen Miinzen (Berlin, 1871) ; Head,
Coins of Syracuse (1874), p. 19 seqq. ; Poole, Brit. Mus.
Cat., Sicily ; Gardner, Types of Greek Coins, and the excellent
work of Dr. Rudolf Weil, Die Kunstlerinschriften der sicilischen
Munzen (Berlin, 1884, p. 10 seqq. ; 19, &c.)]. Brunn,
(Kunstlergeschichte,\\. 246) almost alone amongst modern writers,



4 SYRACUSAN "MEDALLIONS AND THEIR ENGRAVERS.


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Online LibraryArthur EvansSyracusan medallions and their engravers in the light of recent finds, with observations on the chronology and historical occasions of the Syracusan coin-types of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. And an essay on some new artists' signatures on Sicilian coins → online text (page 1 of 18)