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chael Ernest Sadler



Tlmversitu Colleq
Oxford




THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES

Ex Libris

SIR MICHAEL SADLER

ACQUIRED 1948

WITH THE HELP OF ALUMNI OF THE
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION



THE ANTIQUARY'S BOOKS

GENERAL EDITOR: J. CHARLES COX, LL.D., F.S.A.



THE SCHOOLS

OF

MEDIEVAL ENGLAND







WINCHESTER COLLEGE, c. 14H)

FROM A DRA\VIX<; HV WARDEN CHANDLER IN MS. LIFE OF WYKEHAM, AT NEW COLLEGE,

OXFORD



THE SCHOOLS OF
MEDIEVAL ENGLAND



A. F. LEACH



WITH FORTY-THREE ILLUSTRATIONS



METHUEN & CO. LTD.

36 ESSEX STREET W. C.

LONDON



First Published in



Education
Library



PREFACE

THIS is the first attempt at a history of English
Schools before the Reformation, reckoned from the
accession of Edward VI. It is surprising and yet not
surprising that such a history has never been attempted before.
It is surprising in view of the interest of the subject and the
wealth of illustrative material ; but it is not surprising when it
is remembered that, before the year 1892, few guessed and
fewer knew that there were any public or grammar schools
two terms for the same thing in England at all, except
Winchester and Eton, before the reputed creation of schools
by that boy king. If anyone was pressed with the problem
how learned persons from John of Salisbury in the twelfth
to Cardinal Wolsey in the sixteenth century obtained the
schooling which fitted them for their university careers, the
solution was invariably sought in some monastery near their
birthplace, which was, without the smallest proof, credited
with keeping a school. If one asked what was taught in these
monastic schools one was told, psalm-singing and a little ele-
mentary Latin grammar : a fine preparation truly for the Poly-
craticus, or the statutes of Cardinal College.

Dr. Furnivall, the author of the best historical account of
education and schools of England, in the introduction to his
Babtts Book, published by the Early English Text Society in
1868, informed me in 1892, in answer to a request for help in
research into the history of grammar schools, that there were
no grammar schools in England before Edward VI. Soon con-
vinced to the contrary, he was always ready to impart instances
of earlier schools which he came across in his wide reading
in ancient manuscripts and books.

Yet long after the facts had been published, when the



623103



vi THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

Head Master of a certain considerable Midland school asked for
information as to its origin and history and was told that there
was evidence of its existence in the days of Edward the Con-
fessor, he responded by entreating me not to try and make a
fool of him. Yet I found he firmly believed in the fable of the
foundation of Oxford University by Alfred the Great ; the de-
monstration of its absurdity by Parker, and the revelation of
the true origin of universities by Denifle and Rashdall not
having reached him.

Some idea of the true history of our schools has now pene-
trated to scholastic circles, but it has certainly not reached
most antiquaries or historians, still less the general public, in
spite of the detailed stories, beginning before the Conquest in
many cases, already published in the Victoria County History
of England of more than a dozen counties. So the invitation
to contribute this volume to Messrs. Methuen's popular series
of Antiquary's Books was readily accepted. The plan of these
books, however, excludes references to authorities : an exclu-
sion peculiarly unfortunate for historical statements, many of
which are so contradictory to received opinions that they will
appear at first sight incredible to a great many people, and
which rest largely on manuscripts still for the most part un-
printed and unpublished. There is, however, not a single
statement in this book not founded on verifiable authority.
The relevant extracts from many of the manuscript and other
recondite sources have now been printed verbatim, or detailed
references given, in previous publications. A list of these in
which the authorities, so far as they are not given in the text,
can be verified in detail, is appended.

ARTHUR F. LEACH

34 ELM PARK GARDENS, S.W.



BIBLIOGRAPHY

Works on the history of schools, by Arthur F. Leach, formerly Fellow of All
Souls' College, Oxford.

GENERAL

Educational Charters and Documents. Hi and 582 pp. Cambridge University

Press, 1911.

Gives the text and translation of salient documents illustrating the existence
and conduct of schools from the first mention by Bede of the institution of a
grammar school in East Anglia in 631, copied from that at Canterbury, to the
scheme for Andover Grammar School in 1909. Of the 161 documents printed,
142 relate to the period before 1547, and 19 of these to the period before the
Norman Conquest.

English Schools at the Reformation, xvi, 122, and 346 pp. Archibald
Constable & Co., 1894.

Part I sums up and explains by reference to previous history, Part II ; which
contains the Certificates made under the Acts for the dissolution of Colleges and
Chantries, so far as they relate to schools, and the warrants issued under Edward
VI for the re-grant of endowments to the few schools which were re-endowed by
him as Free Grammar Schools.

Free Grammar Schools. The National Observer, September, October, 1896.
An explanation of the origin and true meaning of the term. See also The
True Meaning of Free Schools. Journal of Education, June, July, 1908.

Edward VI : Spoiler of Schools. 21 pp. Contemporary Review, September,
1892.

School Supply in the Middle Ages. 9 pp. Contemporary Review, November,
1894.

Memorandum on the History of Endowed Schools. 19 pp. Report of the Royal
Commission on Secondary Education, V, 57-76, 1895.

The School Boys' Feast. 15 pp. Fortnightly Review, January, 1896.

The Origin of Oxford, n pp. and 2 pp. National Review, September, 1896.
The Oxford Magazine, May, 1912.

Schools. 43 pp. Encyclopedia Britannica, nth ed., 1911.

The Ancient Schools in the City of London and Christ's Hospital, in Sir Walter
Besant's London, The City. (The Survey of London.) n and 44 pp. (pp.
300-19 and 385-429). Adam & Charles Black, 1910.

The Medieval Education of Women. Journal of Education, October, Novem-
ber, December, 1910.

The Humanists in Education. The Classical Review, August, 1910.

Education, the Church in relation to. Dictionary of English Church History.
Mowbray, 1912.

vii



viii THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

Articles in the American Cyclopadia of Education. New York. The Macmillan
Company, 1911-13.

Abbey Schools. Grammar School.

Archdeacon. Harrow School.

Boy Bishop. Henry VI.

Busby. High School.

Canon Law on Education. Hospital Schools.

Chancellors' Schools. London, Education in.

Chantry Schools. Middle Ages, Education during.

Choristers' Schools. Milton as Educator.

Church Schools. Prefect.

Clerk. Primer and Primarian.

Cloister Schools. Reformation, The, and Education in
Colet, John. England.

College. Rugby School.

Collegiate Church Schools. School.
Commonwealth and Education. Udal, Nicholas.

Edward VI. Usher.

Endowments. Waynflete, William.

Eton College. Winchester College.

Exhibition. Wolsey, Thomas.

Fagging. Women, Higher Education of.

Fees. Wykeham, William of.

Free Schools. York School.
Glomery.

PARTICULAR SCHOOLS

A History of Winchester College. 14 and 561 pp. (illustrated). Duckworth &

Co., 1899.

[See also Winchester College, 1393 and 1893. 18 pp. Contemporary Re-
view, June, 1893. Wykeham's Models in the Quingentenary volume, Win-
chester College, 1393-1893. 9 pp. Edward Arnold, 1893. Winchester College
in the Victoria County History of Hampshire, II, 251-366 and V, 14-19, illus-
trated.]
Southwell Grammar School in Visitations and Memorials of Southwell Minster.

A.D. c. 950-1542. cxi and 234 pp. Camden Society, N.S. 487, 1891.

Our Oldest School [York]. 20 pp. Fortnightly Review, November, 1892.
[But see under Canterbury School, post.]

Canterbury (the King's) School. The Times, 12 September, 1896; 7 Sep-
tember, 1897. Which is our oldest school ? Canterbury v. York. The
Guardian, 12 and 19 January, 1898. Our oldest Public School. The
Times, Educational Supplement, 3 January, 1911. The Times, 4, 6, 16
January, 1911.

Sherborne School. Before, After and Under Edward VI. 83 pp. The Archa-
ological Journal, March, 1898.

[See also The Oldest Minutes of the Governors of Sherborne School, by
W. B. Wildman. 3 pp. The Archceological Journal, December, 1898.]

The Foundation and Refoundation of Pocklington Grammar School. 52 pp.
Transactions of the East Riding Antiquarian Society, V, 63-144. 1897.

Beverley Grammar School in Memorials of Beverley Minster, with text of the
Beverley Chapter Act Book, A.D. 1286-147. cxiii and 424 pp. Vol. I,
Surtees Society, No. 98, 1898. cxii and 389 pp. Vol. II, Surtees Society,
No. 108, 1903, and

Early Yorkshire Schools. Vol. I, York, Beverley, Ripon. Ixxiv and 252 pp.
The Yorkshire Archceological Society Record Series. Vol. XXVII, 1899.

Early Yorkshire Schools. Vol. II, Pontefract, Howden, Northallerton, Acaster,
Rotherham, Giggleswick, Sedbergh. Ixxxvii and 458 pp. The Yorkshire
Archceological Society Record Series, Vol. XXXIII, 1903. [See also in
Victoria County History of Yorkshire, I, 415-501, for history of the Yorkshire
schools brought up to date.]



BIBLIOGRAPHY ix

History of Warwick School, viii and 262 pp. illustrated. Archibald Constable
& Co., 1906.

Early Education in Worcester. 685-1700. xc and 341 pp. Worcestershire
Historical Society, 1913.

St. Paul's School, London. St. Paul's Girls' School and its Pedigree, and The
Foundation of St. Paul's School. The Times, 2 and 12 April, 1904.

Colet's Place in the History of Education. Journal of Education. June,
1904.

St. Paul's School. Journal of Education, July, 1909.

Milton as Schoolboy and Schoolmaster. 14 pp. Proceedings of British Acad-
emy, III, 1909.

St. Paul's School before Colet. 46 pp. Read before the Society of Antiquaries
25 November, 1909, printed with extracts from original documents. Archa-
ologia, LX, 1910.

[See also The Ancient Schools in the City of London, above, and The
Times, 7, 14 July ; 3 August, 1909.]

Durham School, The Pedigree of. Journal of Education, October, 1905; April,
1906.

[See also Victoria County History of Durham, II, 207 seq.]

Stratford-on-Avon Grammar School. Shakesptare's School. Journal of
Education, January, March, 1908.

[See also Victoria County History of Warwickshire, II.]

The Origin of Westminster School. Journal of Education, January, 1905.
[See also Nicholas Udal in Encyclopedia Britannica. Ed. 1911.]

Lincoln School. Journal of Education, August, 1906.

The History of Schools in the Victoria History of the Counties of England,
viz., in the counties of:

Hampshire Vol. II, 261-408. 1903 ; Vol. V, 14-19. 1912.
Surrey Vol. II, 155-243. 1904.
Durham Vol. I, 365-415. 1905.
Lincolnshire Vol. II, 421-93. 1906.
Berkshire Vol. II, 245-81. 1907.
Derbyshire Vol. II, 207-81. 1907.

Essex (by Miss Fell Smith, ed. A. F. L.) Vol. II, 501-64. 1907.
Gloucestershire Vol. II, 313-448. 1907.
Sussex Vol. II, 397-440. 1907.

Suffolk (partly by Miss E. Steele Hutton ed. A. F. L.) Vol. II, 301-57. 1907.
Yorkshire Vol. I, 415-501. 1907.
Bedfordshire Vol. II, 149-85. 1908.

Buckinghamshire (Eton College, 60 pp.) Vol. II, 147-221. 1908.
Hertfordshire Vol. II, 47-102. 1908.

Lancashire (partly by Rev. H. J. Chaytor, ed. A. F. L.) Vol. II, 561-614. 1908.
Warwickshire Vol. II, 297-374. 1908.
Nottinghamshire Vol. II, 179-250. 1910.
Somersetshire (Wells : the rest by Rev. T. Scott Holmes, ed. A. F. L.) Vol.

H. 435-65-



CONTENTS

PAGE

I. OUR OLDEST SCHOOL CANTERBURY I

II. THE GREEK AND ROMAN MODELS 14

III. THEODORE OF TARSUS AND ALDHELM OF WINCHESTER ... 31

IV. THE SCHOOLS OF NORTHUMBRIA : BEDE AND ALCUIN ... 46
V. ALFRED THE GREAT AND THE SCHOOL OF WINCHESTER ... 67

VI. THE SCHOOLSFROM EDWARD THE ELDER TO EDWARD THE CONFESSOR 76

VII. THE SCHOOLS FROM LANFRANC TO BECKET 96

VIII. UNIVERSITY COLLEGES, COLLEGIATE CHURCHES, AND SCHOOLS . 156

IX. THE ERA OF SCHOOL STATUTES 179

X. THE BLACK DEATH AND WINCHESTER. COLLEGE .... 201

XI. THE ALMONRY OR CHORISTERS' SCHOOLS IN THE MONASTERIES . 213

XII. THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY AND HUMANISM 235

XIII. HENRY VIII AND THE SCHOOLS 277

INDEX 333



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

WINCHESTER COLLEGE, c. 1460 Frontispiece

From a drawing by Warden Chandler in MS. Life of Wylceham at New College,
Oxford.

FACING PAGE

ATHENIAN GRAMMAR AND Music SCHOOLS, SIXTH CENTURY, B.C. . . 14

From a Kulix, Berlin Museum.
From Monument! Antichi Inediti.

GREEK GRAMMAR SCHOOL MASTER OF CAPUA WITH WIFE AND SON (NOT,

AS COMMONLY SAID, BOY AND GIRL PUPILS) 20

Photograph from Naples Museum kindly given by Superintendente dei Musei e
Scvi.

ANGLO-SAXON COMMENTARY ON PRISCIAN'S GRAMMAR .... 26

From MS. Cott. Dam. A.I., f. 40, British Museum.
ALDHELM AS BISHOP OF SHERBORNE 38

Late twelfth-century drawing from Aldhelm's " Praise of Virginity ".
From MS. Royal 5 E. xi., f. 2 b, British Museum.

A FIFTEENTH-CENTURY MASTER OF SHERBORNE SCHOOL .... 42

From a Misericord in Sherborne Church.
From the Archaeological Journal.

AN ANGLO-SAXON SCHOOL BOOK, SHOWING CAR-DRIVING AND SKIRT-
DANCING 62

From Prudentius' " Vices and Virtues," MS. 24,199, f. 18 (tenth century), British
Museum.

MOTHER TEACHING SON WITH PRETTY PICTURE-BOOK .... 70
From Harl. MS. 4431, f. 261, thirteenth^century, British Museum.

ETHELFLED'S MOUND, WARWICK CASTLE, A.D. 914 78

From History of Warwick School by A. F. Leach (Constable <fe Co. Ltd.)

BOY BEING HANDED AT GRAMMAR LESSON 88

From Burney MS. 270, f. 94, c. 1350, British Museum.

A TENTH-CENTURY SCHOOLMASTER'S BOOKS P&ge 95

From MS. Cott. Dom. L., f. 55 6, British Museum.
APPOINTMENT OF MASTER OF ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL, c. 1125 . . . no

From A rchteologia, by permission of the Society of Antiquaries.

WRIT BY ACTING-BISHOP TO ENFORCE MONOPOLY OF ST. PAUL'S

SCHOOL, 1139 112

From Archceologia, by permission of the Society of Antiquaries.

HUNTINGDON GRAMMAR SCHOOL, TWELFTH CENTURY .... 122

From a photograph by F. Frith & Co.

A SONG SCHOOL DESCRIBED IN CHAUCER'S PRIORESS' TALE . . . 138

From Harl. MS. 7334, f. 200 b, British Museum.

A GAME OF BALL, STRIPES v. PLAIN, c. 1310 140

From MS. Royal 10 E. iv., f. 94 b, British Museum.

xiii



xiv THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

FACING PAGE
SKAL OF ST. NICHOLAS GILD AND GRAMMAR SCHOOL, POCKLINGTON, 1514 148

British Museum.
SEAL OF CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY. CHANCELLOR AND PROCTORS, 1260 . 156

British Museum.
JOHN OF SALISBURY'S HOLOGRAPH LESSON-BOOK, 1269 .... 164

From Egerton MS. 2569, f. 58, British Museum.
AN ENGLISH FOURTEENTH-CENTURY SCHOOL 184

From MS. Royal 6 E. vi., .1541, British Museum.
OTTERY ST. MARY COLLEGIATE CHURCH AND GRAMMAR SCHOOL, 1338 . 194

From a photograph by F. Frith & Co.

SEAL OF WILLIAM OF WYKEHAM ATTACHED TO FOUNDATION DEED OF

WINCHESTER COLLEGE, 1382 204

By permission of the College Authorities.
STATUTES OF WINCHESTER COLLEGE, 1400 206

By permission of the College Authorities.

FAMOUS WYKEHAMISTS, c. 1460 208

From Thomas Chandler's MS. New College, Oxford

NORWICH GRAMMAR SCHOOL. MASTER AND BOYS, c. 1420 . . . 224

Misericords under Master's Stall in Norwich Cathedral.
From photographs by Mr. G. C. Druce.

A FIFTEENTH-CENTURY GRAMMAR SCHOOL 236

From Burney MS. 275, f. 176 b, British Museum.
JOHN KENT, A WINCHESTER SCHOLAR, 1434 238

From a brass in Headbourne Worthy Church.

From the Victoria County History of Hampshire (Constable & Co. Ltd.).

STRATFORD-ON-AVON LATIN SCHOOL, BUILT IN 1426, AND GILD CHAPEL 242
From a photograph lent by the Rev. S. de Courcy Laffan.

A UNIVERSITY LECTURE, EARLY FIFTEENTH CENTURY .... 248
From MS. Royal 17 E. iii., f. 209, British Museum.

A PALACE SCHOOL OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. (ALEXANDER THE

GREAT AT SCHOOL) 250

From MS. Royal to B. xx., f. 10 6, British Museum.

HICHAM FERRERS GRAMMAR SCHOOL, c. 1422 252

From photograph lent by Owen Parker, Esq.
ARCHBISHOP CHICHELEY, FOUNDER OF HIGHAM FERRERS COLLEGE

AND SCHOOL, 1422, AND ALL SOULS' COLLEGE, OXFORD, 1438 . . 254

From a window in All Souls' College, Oxford.

From the Victoria County History of Hampshire (Constable & Co. Ltd.)

LORDS AND COMMONS PETITIONING FOR ACT TO CONFIRM ETON

COLLEGE CHARTERS, 1447 258

By permission ol the Vice Provost.

WAINFLEET GRAMMAR SCHOOL, LINCOLNSHIRE, 1484 .... 270

From a photograph lent by the Rev. W. Gerrish.
MAGDALEN COLLEGE GRAMMAR SCHOOL, 1480 272

From a drawing made in 1806.

From a photograph by H. W. Taunt & Co.

GIGGLESWICK GRAMMAR SCHOOL, BUILT IN 1507-12 276

INSCRIPTION ON GIGGLESWICK GRAMMAR SCHOOL, 1512 .... 276
MISERICORDS IN MANCHESTER COLLEGIATE CHURCH, NOW THE CATHEDRAL 296

The Manchester Grammar Schoolmaster slaying the dragon of Ignorance, 1508.
The Manchester Grammar School Usher licking his cubs into shape, 1508.
From photographs by G. Grundy & Sons, Manchester.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv

FACING PAGE

DOORWAY, CARDINAL COLLEGE, IPSWICH 298

From a photograph.
WORCESTER CATHEDRAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL, 1541 312

The Refectory of the dissolved Priory.
From a photograph by F. Frith <fe Co.

TENTERDEN OLD GRAMMAR SCHOOL 326

From J. C. Buckler's " Sixty Views of Endowed Schools," British Museum.



THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL
ENGLAND

CHAPTER I

OUR OLDEST SCHOOL CANTERBURY

SCHOOLS in England are coeval with the coming of
Christianity. Before its introduction a school, whether
word or thing, was unknown. Schools no doubt
existed in Roman Britain both before the introduction of
Christianity and after. For already, in the latter part of the
first century, Juvenal relates that eloquent Gauls are teaching
the Britons to plead causes and Thule is discussing the estab-
lishment of a Rhetoric School. But whatever other institu-
tions of Britain, if any, survived its conversion into England,
churches and schools did not.

For 150 years after the Conquest the English remained
heathen, and no traces of Roman culture are to be found
among them. They held no intercourse, except in war, with
the Britons in the west of the island. If any Britons remained
in Saxon England, they were a remnant saved as slaves and
serfs, and there is no evidence that they remained Christian.
For the rest, says the latest investigator of the subject, Pro-
fessor Oman, " the unconquered Britons of the West and
North made no effort to convert their adversaries. . . . The only
reference to the English that can be detected in the surviving
notes of British Church-Councils is a clause in the Canons of
the Synod of Lucus Victoriae (569 A.D.), imposing a penance of
thirteen years on a man who shall have acted as guide to the
barbarians. Even in later days, in spite of Saxon exiles at
British Courts, there is no attempt at conversion. Not one
solitary legend survives to hint at such an endeavour."

When, at the end of the sixth century, Christianity came to



2 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

England, it came, not from the Celtic Britons, nor even from
the neighbouring and kindred Franks, but, " bret hot from
Rome," a direct importation from Italy. The Prankish wife
of King Ethelbert of Kent, with her Christian chaplain, had no
doubt prepared her husband's mind for the admission of the
Roman missionaries. But it was the prestige of the mission-
aries direct from Rome and from Pope Gregory the Great
himself, under the leadership of Augustine, the Prior of
Gregory's own monastery of St. Andrew on the Caelian Hill,
which caused Kent, and through Kent England, to become
part of the " Holy Catholic Church," to establish Christian
churches, and, as a necessary concomitant, schools. For not
only were the ceremonies of the new religion a foreign product
imported by foreigners speaking Latin, but the language
in which the ceremonies were performed had itself by 500
years' usage acquired as the language of the religion of Rome
the halo of immemorial antiquity and therefore of sanctity.
To understand the rudiments of the new religion, to take part
in the new religious worship, it was necessary for the Eng-
lish to learn Latin. The modern missionary, the Protestant
missionary at all events, endeavours to adapt the religion he
imports to the understanding of his hearers. Though the
Authorized Version of the Bible and the Common Prayer
Book are sanctified by a usage twice as long as that of the
Vulgate when first introduced into England, the missionary of
to-day does not seek to impose them on his converts in the
English tongue. He presents them with a translation in
their vernacular, so that the Gospel is preached to e$ch man,
as in the Acts of the Apostles, in the tongue in which he
was born. Not so acted Augustine, " the Apostle of the Eng-
lish ". The whole of Western Europe had been Roman-
ized first and Christianized long afterwards. Hence the
Roman service had been naturally performed in the Roman
tongue which had become the official, if not the vernacular,
tongue. When the barbarians in successive hordes invaded
Gaul they adopted the language as well as the religion of
the conquered. It never seems to have occurred to St.
Augustine or Gregory the Great that in this respect England
differed from Italy and from Gaul, that, in a word, England
was no longer Britain. Augustine therefore imported and



OUR OLDEST SCHOOL CANTERBURY 3

was successful in imposing on the English the Roman ritual
and the Roman religious books in " the veray Remain tongue,"
as Dean Colet called it, as it was spoken, or supposed to be
spoken in the days of St. Paul, of Jerome, and of Gregory.

To do this, the missionaries had to come with the Latin
service-book in one hand, and the Latin grammar in the other.
Not only had the native priests to be taught the tongue in
which their services were performed, but the converts, at
least of the upper classes, had to be taught the elements of
grammar before they could grasp the elements of religion.
They could not profitably go to church till they had first gone
to school. So the Grammar School became in theory, as it
often was in fact, the necessary ante-room, the vestibule of the
church. But, as there were no schools any more than there
were churches in England, Augustine had to create both.

There is every reason to believe that he established the first
school in England at Canterbury at the same time with, and
as part and parcel of, the first church. Augustine landed in
the spring of the year 597. On 2 June that year Ethel bert
was baptized. Later, Augustine went over to Gaul and was
consecrated bishop by the Bishop of Aries. When he returned,
probably in the spring of 598, " Ethelbert," says Bede, "did
not delay giving his teachers a place befitting the dignity of
their seat in Canterbury his metropolis, and at the same time
conferring on them necessary possessions of various kinds ".
That is to say, he endowed the archbishop and his see. Aug-
ustine, " as soon as he had obtained his episcopal see in the
royal city, with the King's assistance, recovered possession of
a church which had been formerly built by the work of Roman
Christians, and dedicated it in the name of Jesus Christ," and
Christ Church the cathedral has been called ever since.

It may be safely asserted then, that in this year, 598, as an
adjunct to Christ Church Cathedral, or rather as part of it,
and under the tuition of himself and the clerks who came
with him and whom Ethelbert endowed, Augustine estab-
lished the Grammar School which still flourishes under the
name of the King's School, not from its original founder,
Ethelbert, but from its re-founder, Henry VIII. It cannot,
indeed, be proved directly that the school was established in
598. But the inference that it was rests on the unimpeach-



4 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

able evidence of Bede, speaking of a time little more than
thirty years later, in which the school appears as a model for
a new school founded in another English kingdom.

"At this time," i.e. 631, according to Mr. C. Plummer in
the latest and most learned edition of Bede, " Sigberct pre-
sided over the kingdom of the East English. He, while in
exile in Gaul . . . received baptism. After his return, as soon
as he had obtained the kingdom, wishing to imitate what he
had seen well done in Gaul, he founded a school in which boys
might be taught grammar (scolam in qua pueri litteris erudi-
antur), with the assistance of Bishop Felix, whom he had got
from Kent, who provided them with ushers and masters



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