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and the head master has retained, like him of St. Paul's,
the name of high master.

The chief educational foundation in Henry VIII's reign
was that of Cardinal's Colleges at Oxford and at Ipswich by
Cardinal Wolsey. Ipswich was an already existing school,
and had been endowed on 2 January, 1482-3 by an ex-" Port-
man" or Mayor, Richard Felar, the master receiving 5 a
year, in addition, however, at least from 1420, to the chaplaincy
of the Corpus Christi Gild. When in 1528 Wolsey built his
beautiful college of red brick, of which only one gateway now
remains, and endowed it out of eleven Priories suppressed for
the purpose, for a dean, twelve fellows, eight choristers, and
fifty children or scholars, a schoolmaster and two ushers, he
was careful to get a grant from Bailiffs, Portmen and inhabit-
ants of Ipswich of the old school and its endowment. But
on 19 September, 1530, the college was declared forfeited to
the Crown and only a fragment of the endowment afterwards
given to the school.

Space does not permit an account of all the other schools
founded, or which first occur under Henry VIII, before the
meeting of the Reformation Parliament. We can but afford
them that which in the Roman breviary is directed to be given
to a saint whose commemoration falls on a day dedicated to
some greater saint, memoria tantum, a mere mention. There
were founded chantry schools at Rock in Worcestershire, by
Sir Humphry Connysbie, knight, 1509; Chesterford, Essex,
by William Holden, 1514; Owston, Yorkshire, by Robert
Henryson, 1514; Houghton Regis, Bedfordshire, by William
Dyve, mercer of London, by deed 1515 ; also in 1515. Liver-
pool, a priest "to say masse afore the ymage irf Saynt
Katherine within the chappell of Liverpool" (St. Mary del
Key or Quay) and " keepe gramer scole ", free for all " whose
names be Crosse and poor children ", by John Crosse, a London
rector; chantry schools at Kinver, Salop, by John Perot the
same year ; Cannock, Staffordshire, about 1518; East Retford,
Notts, school built by Thomas Gunthorpe in 1518, supported
out of chantry lands ; Earl's Colne, Essex, by deed of Chris-
topher Swallow, vicar of Messing, 1519. There was set up




DOORWAY, CARDINAL COLLEGE, IPSWICH, 15-27



HENRY VIII AND THE SCHOOLS 299

at Warrington a " fre gramer scole ", by will of Sir Thomas
Boteler, 16 August, 1520, "to be the very clear lanthorn of
good example in virtuous living to all the country thereabouts ",
according to Ordinances, to be made, which were made in
1526; at Milton Abbas, Dorset, a "fre scole" was founded
by Sir John Leder, priest, 1521 ; at Tenterden, Kent, by
William Marshall, the same year. At Hornby, Lancashire,
a school and hospital were directed by will of Lord Monteagle,
1 523 ; at Leyland, Lancashire, by deed of Sir Henry ffarington,
knight, 1524 ; at Bolton-le-Moors, a grammar school was en-
dowed by grant of William Haigh to parishioners, 4 March,
1524, further endowed in 1623, 1642, by Robert Lever, and
in 1895, 1902, and 1913, by W. H. Lever, of Port Sunlight
fame. At Kneesall, Nottinghamshire, the will of John Chapman,
notary public, citizen, and mercer of York, Count Palatine of
the holy palace of the Lateran, and registrar of the Cardinal-
Archbishop, 4 March, 1527-8, established a school.

At St. Michael-upon-Wyre, Lancashire, St. Katharine's
chantry school, founded by deed of John Butler, 3 December,
1 528, is not heard of after 1642. At Winwick, a free grammar
school was founded by Gwalter Legh, ancestor of Lord Newton ;
at Kirkoswald, Yorkshire, a collegiate church with Grammar
and Song Schools was founded by deed of Lord Dacre in 1 530.

Schools of unascertained date appear in the Valor Ec-
clesiasticus of 1535 at Higham, Kent, a chantry with income
of 6 133. 4d. ; Kingsley, Staffordshire, a chantry or priest's
service founded by Hugh Adderley, clerk, daily to celebrate
at the Altar of Jesus and " to kepe scole and to teche pore
men's children of the said parishe grammer, and to rede and
sm g" yearly value 6 is.; Orford, Suffolk, chantry at our
Lady's Altar and school, income .5 gs. 9fd. ; Shenston,
Staffordshire, a priest at the altar of Thomas a Becket in a
chapel attached to the church, founded under the will of James
Keyley, receiving 7 os. 4^d. a year, " to teche yong children
of the parish grammer, or otherwise accordyng to his know-
ledge"; Thirsk, Yorkshire, chantry of Our Lady, founded by
divers well-disposed persons, to help service and teach a
grammar school, income 5 los. 4d. ; Weobley, Hereford-
shire, the priest in chapel of St. Nicholas in the church, founded
by John Chapman and Alice Baker, "to kepe a scole and



300 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

teache chyldern, and brynge them upe in vertue", clear income
6 133. id.

Childrey, Berks, where a school and almshouse were placed
under the tutelage of Queen's College, Oxford, by Sir William
Fettiplace on 20 July, 1526, calls for special notice, as it is an
early instance of an elementary school, with an " upper divi-
sion " for those who want grammar or "secondary " instruction.
The foundation deed gives the full programme of a Song or
Elementary School, which goes far to explain why the Re-
formers were disposed rather to destroy such schools as pro-
moters of superstition than to preserve them as advancing
education. The priest was indeed to be skilful and well used
and sufficiently instructed and learned in grammar. But he
was to teach in the first place, the alphabet, the Lord's Prayer,
the Angel's Salutation, the Apostles' Creed, and all other things
necessary for serving the priest at mass, together with the
Psalm De Profundis, and collects and prayers for the dead ;
also to say grace as well at dinner as at supper ; then, in
English, the Fourteen Articles of Faith, the Ten Command-
ments of God, the seven deadly sins, the seven Sacraments,
the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, the seven works of mercy
as well corporeal as spiritual, and the manner of confession,
necessary not only for the boys themselves, but in order that
they might instruct others who were ignorant. Also he should
teach them good manners, especially not to lie, and to honour
their parents and in church to serve God devoutly. This cur-
riculum savoured to the Protestant more of superstition than
of religious education. One would like to know what pro-
portion of the boys went on to the upper division. For this
provision was made that if any were apt and disposed to learn
grammar, the priest should instruct them in grammar in the
best and most diligent manner he could, and especially teach
them what was most useful to them, and what was most ex-
pedient according to his true estimation and the sound counsel
of learned men. He was to exact nothing from the poor
or parishioners, though he might take anything freely offered.



The darkness of our. ignorance of the curriculum in our
ancient schools is lightened for us first in 1528 by Wolsey's



HENRY VIII AND THE SCHOOLS 301

statutes for his short-lived college and by the Eton time-table,
set out as noticed above for Cuckfield Grammar School, in the
same year, and a year or two later by the curriculum of Eton
and part of that of Winchester as preserved at Saffron Walden.

Wolsey ordered his school to be divided into eight forms,
the lowest learning the parts of speech and pronunciation. In
the second form the boys were to talk Latin and turn into Latin
" some common proposition, not dull or inappropriate ". Their
books, "if any", were to be Lily's Carmen Monitorium, and
the so-called Cato's Precepts, better known as theMoratia. In
Form III. they were to read " ^Esop, who is wittier ? Terence,
who is more useful ? " for talking Latin be it understood and
Lily's Genders. In Form IV they went on in Lily's Grammar
to preterites and supines, and in authors to Virgil, whose verses
they were " to give out with sonorous voice ". Form V was
to read Cicero's Select Letters ; VI, Sallust or Caesar; VII,
Horace's Epistles \ Ovid's Metamorphoses or Fasti ; VIII,
Valla's Elegantiae, Donatus' Figura^ and any ancient authors
in the Latin tongue, while Terence is to be studied with lectures
on the life of the day, style and so forth. The boys were also
to learn precis-making and to write essays.

At Eton in 1528 Stanbridge's Accidence was the first thing
learnt ; then " after repeating the rules the Master shall cause
them to make small and easy Latins, proper and such as the
children may understand and delight in". In the second form
they read Whittington's Genders and Heteroclites besides doing
Latins with the first form. Whittington was the master of
Lichfield Grammar School, augmented by Bishop Smith, in con-
nexion with St. John's Hospital there, about 1495. He re-
edited and improved on Stanbridge's grammar. " After their
breakfast a lecture of Cato after the new interpretation shall be
read to them, which they shall construe again at afternoon."
In the third form Whittington's Preterites, Supines, and Defec-
tives were learnt by heart. Their " books " were Terence, Eras-
mus's Similitudes or Colloquies and Virgil's Eclogues. The fourth
form did their " Latin constructions and other things, except
rules, with the third form, to the intent that the better learned
may instruct the less learned " ; " their rules were the Regiments
of Whittington which he called Concinnitates Grammatices ".
In the fifth they learnt the Versifying Rules ; and for books



302 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

read Sallust, Virgil, Horace and Ovid's Epistles, and every
week made verses and epistles. Horace and Cicero were added
to these in the Sixth, which " have for their rules Copiam
Erasmi". From the Order sent to Cuckfield in 1528 we see
that there were only six forms at Eton, but in that sent
to Saffron Walden only two years later, seven forms are
mentioned both at Eton and Winchester.

At that time Eton had in the higher forms discarded
Whittington's grammar for Lily's, long afterwards re-edited as
the Eton Latin grammar, but used Stanbridge's grammar for
the lower forms as did Winchester, patriotically, as he was a
Wykehamist. The Winchester scheme of work has lost its
first page and so starts in the middle of a sentence, "Ovide
Metamorphosesos the Thursday, Salust the Fryday, with the
vij forme, and at afternone rendering of there rulys. The
Saterday lyke as the vij forme. The Sonday lykewise."
Next comes the heading " the Vth forme ", to be followed by
headings of " the Third ", " the Seconde " and " the Fyrst
forme ". To any one acquainted with Winchester School or
its history this was startling. For from time when the
memory of man runneth not to the contrary up to the present
day Winchester has known only three forms, called Sixth,
Fifth and Fourth Book. It has been a subject of much dis-
cussion whether there ever were any other forms, and if so
when the others disappeared. We learn for a fact that at
Winchester, as then at contemporary Eton, and as at West-
minster now, there was a Seventh Form above Sixth Book and
three forms below Fourth Book.

The work of the Fifth and lower forms may be thus sum-
marized. On coming into school at seven o'clock, from Mon-
day to Thursday inclusive, the first business was the giving out
of grammar rules. In the Fifth to Third Forms these were
taken from Sulpicius, a schoolmaster at Rome, of Veroli in the
Campagna, who published many grammatical works in Latin
between 1487 and 1506. One of the Sixth Form gave them
out to the Fifth, and one of the Fifth to the Fourth, but the
usher gave them out to the Third. Form V did " versifical
rules " or rules for making verses ; Form IV the rules for
preterites and supines ; and Form III, the rules for genders
and heteroclites or irregular declensions, all of which were



HENRY VIII AND THE SCHOOLS 303

separate works of the most heart-rending detail. Forms II
and I took their rules from the Parvulorum and Vocabula, the
Babies' Book and Word Book of Stanbridge. On Friday
morning they were examined on these rules, and Friday after-
noon " rendered " them, which appears to mean said them by
heart. After rules were given out, Forms V-III were
examined on a verb which they had "set up" overnight, and
made " vulgars " on it, i.e. Latin phrases, as in Herman's
Vulgaria. V and IV together then " write down the Latin
that one of them shall make by the assignment of the Master ",
or as it is phrased for III, "they have a theme to be made in
Laten, the which Latyne one of the said forme at the pleasure
of the master makith openlie dyverse ways. And after that
they write the master's owne Latyne ", that is, the master
dictated his own version of the piece. Form V also learnt
by heart Sallust on Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday, and
four verses of Ovid's Metamorphoses on Thursday. For trans-
lation, or " construction " as it is called (which was apparently
done not " up to books ", i.e. in form, but in " books chambers ",
sitting at their separate "toys" or desks in chambers), they
did Virgil's Eclogues every day except Friday and Saturday.
On Friday they translated Tully's or, as we say, Cicero's
Letters. On Wednesday they composed Latin verses ; on
Thursday, Latin Epistles. On Saturday, V and VI said
twelve verses of Ovid "without book " and were examined on
them and showed up their Latin prose. In the afternoon they
construed Cicero and showed up their epistles. The Fourth,
instead of doing Virgil, did Terence from Monday to Thursday
inclusive, which the master construed to them in the morning
and they construed and parsed (farce) to the usher in the
afternoon, and were examined in it on Saturday afternoon.
Form III construed dSsop's Fables on Monday and Wednes-
day, and Lucian's Dialogues, presumably in Latin, on Tuesday
and Thursday; while Forms II (and I?) construed ALsofis
Fables every day except Saturday, when they had repetition
of four verses of Cato and examination of it

On Sunday the Sixth Form did " lykewise " to the Seventh
Form, and the Fifth Form did "as the other hie formys
dothe " but what they did is denied us through the loss of
the first page. It was certainly not a day of rest. For the



304 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

Fourth Form on " the Sunday with other low holy dayes " did
" an English of an epistle to be made in Latyn diverse wayes,
and somtyme Tullie's paradoxes to be construyd ", the Third
Form had " a dialogue of Lucyane or a fable of ysop to be
said without book and construed ", and the First, and pre-
sumably the Second, " a fabull of JEsope ".

The books used in the two higher forms can only be in-
ferred from the Eton list. They were Horace or Cicero every
day from Monday to Thursday, and on Friday and Saturday
the ALneid of Virgil. For grammar they read Mosellanus'
Figures of Speech. They made verses and epistles and
read Erasmus Copiam verborum to help them. The most in-
teresting thing about the two curricula is that both schools
used Sulpicius, the recent Roman writer, the one for " versifical
rules ", the other for his " Quos decet in mensa " or table
manners. Eton used the French schoolmaster Despautier's
Method of writing letters or Ars Epzstolica, first published at
Strasburg in 1512, and a second edition at Antwerp in 1529,
when he was master of the School of St. Ginnocus at Bergen-
op-Zoom ; so that it was quite the latest foreign school-book.

The school-books of the day were still under the influence
of the over-refining spirit of dissection and classification, which
had been imbibed from the schoolmen. Epistles, for instance,
are divided by Despautier into three classes, the descriptive,
the political and the familiar, while each letter is said to con-
sist of a salutation, a statement, a petition, and a valediction
or conclusion, though, as he naively remarks, all these charac-
ters are not always found together. All letters, in fact, were
not begging letters. The treatises on versification dwindle
down into the most appallingly minute rules, with ex-
ceptions more numerous than the rules, as to the quantities
of the various vowels in different locations.

The medieval grammar was not made less maddening by
being almost invariably in verse. In these late fifteenth and
early sixteenth century writers the verses meandered like
slender rivulets of text through meadows of marginal notes and
prose commentary.

Arte novata aliqua dicendi forma figura est,

Sunt ejus species metaplasmus, schema, tropusque,

Schemata dant species tibi lexeos et dianeas.



HENRY VIII AND THE SCHOOLS 305

Such is the exordium of the excellent Mosellanus, who is very
scornful on his predecessors for occasionally sacrificing metre
to sense, but as he can only avoid the fault by interlarding his
discourse with Romanized Graecisms, the learner might well
prefer the sacrifice. No doubt it sharpened the wits for such
encounters as those theological controversies which soon over-
whelmed the nation. But the practice of distinctions without
differences and classifications without contents was responsible
for a great deal of the word-splitting that sent men to the
stake or the gallows on theological minutiae. The Quos
decet in mensa of the Italian Sulpicius out of which the
schools learnt at once manners, morals and Latin verse, is a
much superior work. It got its name from its beginning :

Quos decet in mensa mores servare docentes
Virtuti ut studeas litterulisque simul.

Good manners for the table here we tell
To make our scholars gentlemen as well.

In elegant elegiacs are set out all the good old nursery
rules as to behaviour. Boys are to have clean gowns, and be-
fore meals wash hands and face, clean their teeth and blow
their noses. Part I then goes off into general maxims of conduct
and morals. Never return abuse or lose your temper, avoid
gluttony and idleness, do not be morose nor get too easy in
your manner, and so forth.

Part II returns to manners strictly speaking. Spread the
tables neatly, see that the trenchers (quadrantes) are clean.
Don't champ your jaws when eating, sit upright, don't put
your elbows on the table, take your food only with three
fingers and in small mouthfuls. Remember that you eat to
live and do not live to eat (Esse decet vivas, vivere non ut edas\
Did Sulpicius invent this famous epigram ? Use your napkin
often (napkins were supplied at Winchester, as appears in the
first account roll), don't bite your food but cut it, nor gnaw
your bones. Only lift the cup with one hand, unless it's of
the kind that Theseus or Bel used to hurl at an enemy ; don't
look over it while you are drinking, don't swallow it too fast
or drain the pot, or whistle when you drink. Wipe your
mouth after it, and wash your hands and mouth when you
leave the table. Bend your knee, join your hands and say
" Prosit " for grace.

20



306 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

This book of Sulpicius is by no means original. TJie
Babees Book, which gives its title to the amusing collection of
English, Latin and French books on manners, published by
Dr. Furnivall for the early English Text Society, was trans-
lated from the Latin somewhere about 1475. They all ap-
pear to be derived from a common original written by Facetus,
a pseudonym of Johannes de Garlandia, an Englishman who
wrote a Latin-English vocabulary and a treatise on manners
in the thirteenth century, copies of which were in Winchester
College Library ab initio, and which was frequently printed
by Wynkyn de Worde and Richard Pynson from 1500 and
onwards.

The Eton "Order " gives besides the curriculum an inter-
esting general account of internal organisation. The only
questions asked of a proposed new boy were " whens he
comyth, what frends he hathe ; whether there be any plage ".
School began at 6 a.m. they got up at 5 with prayers, ending
at 9 with De profundis, and then to breakfast. In a quarter
of an hour come again, i.e. 9.45, and school till dinner at
II o'clock. Afternoon school I to 5, and then supper after
another De profundis. The prefect system was in full vogue.
Two prepositores, now called prepostors, to take the names
of the absents in every form ; two in the body, i.e. nave of
the church, two in the choir. In every house a monitor.
They go home two in two in order and have a monitor to see
that they do till they come to their " hostise " or Dame's door.
Privy monitors to spy on the others " how many master
the will ". Prepostors everywhere ; in the field when they
play, " for fyghtyng, rent clothes, blew eyes or sich like " pre-
postors for "yll kept hedys, unwasshid faces, fowle clothis
and sich other ". If there are four or five boys in a house
" monytors for chydyng and for Latyn spekyng ".

The prepostors were not themselves to keep order or punish
so much as to report delinquents to the master. That the re-
ports were not without results we may gather from the char-
acter given of Cox, the master who supplied this account, by
Walter Haddon, in the conversation on flogging in schools
reported by Roger Ascham, which was the occasion of his
Scholemaster. The Secretary of State, Sir William Cecil,
having expressed himself against flogging, Mr. Peters had



HENRY VIII AND THE SCHOOLS 307

argued that it was both necessary and useful : " the rod was
the sword of justice of the school ". " Then ", writes Ascham,
" Mr. Haddon was fullie of Mr. Peter's opinion and said
' That the best scholemaster of our time was the greatest
beater ', and named the person. ' Though ', quoth I, ' it was
his good fortune to send from his schole unto the university
one of the best scholers indeede of our time, yet wise men do
thincke that that came so to pass, rather by the great toward-
nesse of the scholer .than by the great beating of the master ;
and whether this be true or no, you yourselfe are best wit-
ness.' " This " best scholemaster " and " greatest beater " is
commonly said to be Udal. But it is quite clear that Ascham
was referring to Haddon's master, Cox. If Haddon had meant
Udal, who was then dead, Ascham would not have hesitated
to give his name ; but Cox was still alive and a bishop, and
therefore for obvious reasons the name was suppressed. The
mistaken reference to Udal was originally made by James
Bennett, " master of the Boarding-School at Hoddesdon in
Hertfordshire ", in his edition of Ascham 's Works in 1761, and
has been blindly repeated ever since. Udal was no sparer of
the rod. But Cox must have the credit, or otherwise, of being
reputed by an old pupil the best schoolmaster and greatest
beater of his age.

Cox's Elizabethan successor Malim, gave a time-table of
the year as well as the week, an account of the feasts and
holidays as well as the work. The net result was that hard as
the whole schooldays were, each a ten-hours' day, there were
only five or indeed four of them a week ; and there were so
many feasts that hardly a week could have passed without at
least one whole or half holiday. For every greater feast day
was a whole holiday, and on every eve of the "greater
doubles ", feast days on which double rations were enjoyed,
there was a partial holiday, no work being done after dinner
at II a.m. Ash Wednesday was given up, not to lessons, but
to confession to the fellows or conducts, each boy choosing
his own confessor. On the obit of William Wayneflete, 13
January, every boy received 2d. ; on 7 February, the obit of
Provost Bost, there was a half holiday ; on 27 February, the
obit of Roger Lupton, every boy received id. and there was a
holiday from dinner-time (i I a.m.) ; and on 26 May, the obit



308 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

of Henry VI, every boy had 2d. On Saturday before Easter
" while the custom flourished " of the Easter Sepulchre, three
or four of the eldest boys chosen by the master at the request
of the sacrist watched round the sepulchre with wax lights and
torches, " lest the Jews should steal the Lord ". At Easter the
school did not break up, though, to judge from Winchester,
there were extensive exeats for those who could go home.
For all there was a ten-days' holiday (cessatum a publicis
studiis). On May Day, St. Philip and St. James, those who
wished got up at 4 a.m. to gather boughs of may ; but with a
curiously grandmotherly care, which shows a very different
spirit from that commonly imputed to our scholastic ancestors,
the licence was coupled with the proviso " that they do not
wet their feet ". The windows of Long Chamber were then
hung with may and herbs.

" St. John Lateran before the Latin gate ", 6 May, " brings
many advantages, for from now after dinner they had a siesta
in school, until the prepostor of hall and the ostiarius call out



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