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of statistical summary of school supply in England before the
Reformation. It is clear from the number of schools mentioned,
which are by no means all that could be named, that the supply
was more than ample. It may be said broadly that wherever
there was a cluster of houses which could be dignified with the
name of town, there was a grammar school in the midst of
it. Indeed, a grammar school might almost be taken as the
test of that corporate, or quasi-corporate, activity which justified
a place in calling itself a town. It was an institution without
which no community could consider itself respectable.

It is difficult to arrive at a precise estimate of the propor-
tion of schools to population, because, while it is hard to ascer-
tain the exact number of schools, it is even harder, and perhaps
impossible, to ascertain the population of England at any given
date in the Middle Ages. Professor Thorold Rogers puts the
population of England and Wales at not more than a million
and a half before the Black Death of 1 349, and says that " it
is certain that the rate of production precludes the possibility
of its being more than two and a half millions". In 1377 the
poll-tax, levied on all persons fourteen years old and upwards,
gave an indirect census, showing 1,376,442 lay people and
29,161 ecclesiastics who paid the tax. It is assumed, in es-
timating the population, that one-fifth of those who ought to
have paid did not (a very large proportion indeed) ; and that
one-third of the whole population was under fourteen, and
therefore exempt. This would give just over two and a quarter
millions, which it is pretty certain would be an over rather
than an under estimate.

Forty-two towns appear in the poll tax returns, which
ranking, in modern parlance, as county-boroughs, were assessed
separately from the counties they were in. They had a total



330

population of 166,000. Of the eight most populous towns,
six were cathedral cities ; and the whole of the cathedral
towns mentioned amount to seventeen. Each of these had its
cathedral grammar school. London, with 44,000 people, had
at least five grammar schools. York, with 13,500, had its
cathedral school, with its abbey boarding-house and smaller
schools in St Leonard's, and the Trinity or Fossgate Hospi-
tals. Bristol, with 12,000, had its grammar school, besides
one in Redcliffe Church, and there is evidence that there was
teaching in connexion with St. Nicholas Church. All the other
towns had a population under 10,000; and twenty-six of
them had a population under 4000. Yet, with the possible
exception of Dartmouth, with its petty 949 people, every one of
these towns, which would not make a decently sized twen-
tieth-century village, had its grammar school some of them,
like Canterbury, certainly two or three. Nor is there any
doubt that the numbers attending these schools were large.
Whenever we get any numbers mentioned, they are (outside
the cloister or novices' school of a monastery) reckoned not
by units but by scores. Even in a tiny little place like
Wollaton, near Nottingham, we noticed that a strict limit was
being imposed when the master was allowed to teach twenty-
six scholars only, and no more ; and at Bruton there were
120; while a small place like Kynnersley in Herefordshire
had sixty.

To take this single county. The population ;of Hereford-
shire was some 25,000; that of Hereford city, 3568 ; and of
Ludlow (then seemingly reckoned in Herefordshire) 2198, or,
say, in round figures, 30,000 in all. Hereford had its cathe-
dral grammar school ; Ludlow its gild school ; Ledbury its
collegiate church grammar school. Besides these, there
were fourteen grammar schools in the county at the time of
the suppression of colleges and chantries, of which only three
or four survived. That is, there were seventeen grammar
schools for a population of 30,000.

The supply of schools in Herefordshire may have been
rather over the average. But taking one county with
another, the number of grammar schools per county was cer-
tainly not less than ten. This figure would give in forty
counties 400 schools for 2,250,000 people (a probably too



HENRY VIII AND THE SCHOOLS 331

high estimate of population), or one grammar school for every
5625 people. Moreover, at least half, and that the most im-
portant half, of these schools were not confined, like modern
schools, to an endowment of fixed amount ; but, having to be
adequately maintained by the collegiate body, or the gild, to
which they were attached, could, and did, draw on their en-
dowments at large. These endowments were confiscated by
the State, and many still line the pockets of the descendants
of the statesmen of the day. The contrast between one
grammar school to every 5625 people, and that presented by
the Schools Inquiry Report in 1864 of one to every 23,750
people, and even to the enlarged provision at the present day,
is not to the disadvantage of our pre-Reformation ancestors.

In spite, however, of the ample and continually growing
supply of schools, the results were disappointing. So long as
the monasteries furnished a safe and easy refuge from the
struggle for existence, and monasticism enforced celibacy on
churchmen, who largely depended on the patronage of the
monasteries for their chances of promotion, education made
little impression on society at large. It was in vain for clever
boys to be educated and to be promoted to the chief offices in
church and state, when they were doomed to die without
issue ; or worse, produce the "scholars " who filled the papal
purse by obtaining the innumerable dispensations from the
bar sinister, which recent Calendars of Papal letters have re-
vealed to us. The advancement of science and learning comes
from a cultured middle class. No such class could be formed
when the cultured individual established no family to be a
centre of culture, and left no sons behind him to inherit his
ability and widen the circle of culture, by founding more edu-
cated families to hand on the lamp of life. The success in
life of the child of the parsonage and the manse has become
proverbial. While monasticism prevailed, that source of
national energy was cut off. The extension of education to
the laity, in the prince, the noble, and the merchant, which was
the distinguishing mark of the Renaissance, produced great
results, and Henry VIII himself was not the least of them.
But as long as the clergy was sterilized, and yet monopolized
a large and ever-increasing proportion of the territory and
wealth of the world, progress was checked. The quiet



332 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND

thinker was lured into the cloister, the progressive thinker was
under a ban, originality was a crime, and repression prevailed
especially in the region, in which it is most dangerous, of re-
ligion and philosophy. In Italy, Spain, Portugal, Flanders,
the most populous and naturally the richest countries, the
Renaissance was strangled almost in its cradle by monasticism
in its most formidable development, the Inquisition : while
its growth was stunted in France and Germany by the pro-
longed series of wars and massacres between the upholders
of monasticism arid the friends of free thought. Its full de-
velopment was reserved for England and Scotland, where the
monasteries, and with them clerical celibacy, were suddenly
and wholly swept away.

The expansion of Elizabethan England, which took the
world by surprise, not only in navigation, in commerce, in
colonization, but in poetry and the drama, in philosophy and
science, was due to the immense extension of lay initiative and
effort in every department of national life ; and not least in
the sphere of education and the schools. The crop was reaped
by Elizabeth in a Spenser and a Sidney, a Bacon and a
Shakespeare ; but it was Henry VIII, aided by the three
Thomases of progress (not the Tres Thoma of reaction), by
Thomas Wolsey, Thomas Cranmer, and, above all, Thomas
Cromwell, who cleared the field and sowed the seed.



INDEX



AACHEN, palace school at, 55, 63.
Abberwick, William of, 201.
Abboteslee, Roger of, 114.
Abbott, John, 244.
Abelard, 89, 129.
Abingdon Abbey, 86, 104.

Grammar School, 209.
Acaster College, 274.
Acca, Bishop, 47, 48, 64.
Adaliza, Queen, 94.
Adderley, Hugh, 299.
^Ifeah, Bishop, 80.

jElfric's Lives of the Saints, 67.

school-books, 85-91.
./Eneas, schoolmaster, 27.

.<Eneas Sylvius, Pope Pius II, 249, 250.

Aidan, 48.

Ailric the schoolmaster, 94.

Albert, Archbishop, 57, 58, 59, 60.

Albinus, Abbot, 33, 38.

Alcimus, see Avitus.

Alcock, John, Bishop, 226.

Alcuin, 46, 49, 51, 53-60, 63-5, 95.

AJdhelm, 37-43, 61, 146.

Aldwinckle Chantry School, 321.

Alexander III, Pope, 132.

Alexander Severus, 19.

Alexandria, Clement of, 9, 10.

Cyril of, 9.

Demetrius of, 9.

school at, 7, 10, 13, 14.
Alfred the Great, 67-75, 86.
Alfvvold the priest, 95.
Allhallows the Great, petition for school

at, 266, 267.
All Souls' College, 253, 291.

fellowships at, 19.

Warden of, 327.

Almonry Schools, 93, 213-34, 3 11 -
Alnwick Grammar School, 269.

Song School, 269.

, Bishop of Lincoln, 269.
Alphege, Archbishop, 34.
Altsig, Abbot of York, 64.
Ambrose of Milan, 9, 22, 60.
Ammonius Saccas, n.
Andre, Bernard, 277.
Angilbert, 37, 38.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 3 61



Annus Sperchius, 24.

Anselm, Archbishop, 98, 99.

Antoninus Pius, 19.

Apollonios, 27.

Appleby Grammar School, 268.

April-beard, William of the, 124, 125.

Arator, 26, 27, 43, 61.

Arborius, 24.

Arches, School of the, see St. Mary-le-

Bow.
Aristotle, 61.
Arithmetic book, 95.
Arundel, Archbishop, 143, 238.

School, 177.

Thomas, Earl of, 236.
Ascham, Roger, 296, 306.
Ashburton Grammar School, 197.
Asser's Life of Alfred, 68-75.
Aston, Master Richard of, 183.
Aston in Ivinghoe, school at, 325.
Astronomy, 42.

Athalaric, 28.
Athanasius, St., 60.
Athelard, Master, 93, 94.
Athelstan, King, 49, 76, 79, 95.
Athens, University of, 10, 12, 17, 147.
Athestane, 95.
Athletics, 140.
Aucher, Canon, 115.

John, 171.
Auger, Prior, 122.
Augustine, St., 2-5, 8, 13, 34, 46.

of Hippo, 21-3.
Augustinian canons, 120-5.
Ausonius, 21, 23, 24, 43.
Austin, John, 226.

Avebury, Backhampton Chapel, 327.
Avenell, William, 268.
Avitus, 25, 29, 43, 61.

BABBBS' Book, The, 306.
Babyngton, William, 282.
Bachelor, origin of name, 187.
Bachelors at Beverley, 186.

Canterbury, rgo.

St. Alban's, 185-7.-

Baker, Alice, 299.
Bakewell Chantry, 321.
Baldock, Ralph, 141.

333



334 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND



Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, 71.
Balsham, Hugh, Bishop, 157, 166.
Banbury School, 271, 297.
Baptism, 8, 21.

Bardney Abbey, boys at, 221.
Barnard Castle Grammar School, 323.
Barnstaple Grammar School, 327.
Barnulph, King of Mercia, 227, 233.
Barton, Agnes, 254.

Henry, 253.

John, 243.

Thomas, 254.
Barton-on-Humber School, 192.

vicar of, 156,

Barym, Thomas, 143.

Basil, Bishop, n, 12, 60.
Basingstoke Grammar School, 293.
Baskervyle, Sir John, 326.
Bata, Aelfric, 88.
Bath Abbey, 38.

School, 317.

Bath and Wells, Bishops of, see names,
Burnell, Robert ; Marsh, William ;
Stillington, Robert.

Battle Abbey, 255.

School, 177.
Beauchamp, Simon, 122.
Beaufort, Cardinal, 228.
Beauvais, Vincent of, 250.
Bee, monastery at, 97.

school at, 97, 98.
Beccles School, 210.
Becket, Thomas a, 93.

Bede, 3-6, 32, 33, 37, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46,

49, 50-3, 61.
Bedford, burh at, 78.
Collegiate Church, 121.

School, 77, 122.
Bedingfield, Richard of, 218.
Bek, Anthony, Bishop, 167.
Bekyngham, Robert, 283.
Belmeis, Richard de, no.
Belvoir Castle MSS., 178.
Benedict, Biscop, 32, 49.
Benedictine rule, 100.
Benet, Dr., 326.

Bennet, John, 261.

Bennett, James, 307.

Bereford, at Merton College School, 173.

Berengarius, 99.

Bergen-op-Zoom, School of St. Ginno-

cus, 304.

Berkeley, Katharine, Lady, 208.
Berkhamsted Grammar School, 291.
Bermondsey School, 141.
Bernard, John, 285.
Berwick St. John, Asserton Chapel,

327.

Bdthaire, 29.

Beverley Grammar School, 79, 171,
182.



Beverley Grammar School, admission

of choristers to, 183, 214.
Bachelors at, 186.

John of, 192.

Minster, schoolmaster at, 114.

St. John of, 47.
Biddenham, prebend of, 162.
Bigod, Roger, 123.
Bingham, Robert, Bishop, 178.
Birchwood, Thomas of, 190.
Birinus, 36.

Bishop Auckland, Collegiate Church,

167.
Bishops ordered to provide schools, 65,

132.

Bishops' schools, 133.
Black Death, the, 195, 198, 201, 202,

203.

Blackburn Grammar School, 284.
Blake, Robert, 327.
Blandford School, 326.
Blois, Henry of, in, 112, 133, 134.
Blomefield, F., 224.
Blomer, Henry, 295, 296.
Boarding Schools, 59, 119, 125, 325.
Bocking, John, 276.

School, 210.
Boethius, 26, 42, 60.

Consolation of Philosophy, 193.

De disciplina scolarium, 192.'
Bologna, law schools at, 129.
Bolton-le-Moors Grammar School, 299.
Bor, William, 191.

Bordeaux, schoolmaster at, 23, 24.

University of, 252.
Boroughbridge School, 323.
Borsted, Stephen of, 191.
Bosa, Bishop, 47.
Bosbury School, 325.
Bosel, Bishop, 44.

Bost, Provost of Eton, 307.
Boston School, 192.
Boteler, Dame Alice, 251.

Sir Thomas, 299.

Bourchier, Thomas, Cardinal Arch-
bishop, 261.

Bourne Grammar School, 199.
Bowes, Sir Martin, 263.
Boy-bishop, 41, 144, 146, 148-54, 187,

194, 276, 309.

Bradbury, Dame Johane, 285.
Bradford (Wilts), battle of, 39.

Free School, 326.

Grammar School, 323.
Bradshaw, Henry, 113.
Braintree Grammar School, 210.
Braybrooke, Lord, History of Audley

End, 285.
Brecon, Christ's College, 318.
Bredgar, College of, 208.

exhibition foundation, 209, 213.



INDEX



335



Bredgar, Robert, 208.
Brereton, Sir Roger, 320.
Bridgenorth, early school at, 77.
Bridgewater, St. John the Baptist's
Hospital, 178.

School, 178.

Bridport, Giles of, Bishop, 165.
Bristol, Gaunt's Hospital, 128.

Grammar School, 128, 312, 330.

Kalendars' Gild, 127.

population of, 330.

- Redcliffe Church School, 330.

St. Augustine's Abbey, 127.

Almonry boys, 226.

school for Jews at, 128.
Britons, the, I.
Brompton, Thomas of, 182.
Bromsgrove Grammar School, 324.
Bromyard School, 211, 326.
Bronescomb, Bishop, 166.
Brotherhood, school founded by, 291.
Browne, Bishop, 37, 39.

Thomas, 293.
Brunne, Roberd of, 199.
Bruton, Richard, 243.

Roger of, 243.

School, 284, 311, 330.
Brynge, William, 285.
Buckingham Grammar School, 243.
Bucknill Grammar School, 326.
Bucler, Walter, 319.

Bucwell, John of, 191.
Bund, Dean of Thetford, 123.
Bunting, Master William, 168.
Burdon, Master John, 170.
Burford, schoolmaster at, 325.
Burhs, building of, 76-9.
Burnell, Robert, Bishop, 178.
Burton, Dr., 47.

William, 325.
Burton-on-Trent Collegiate Church,

318.

Bury, Richard of, 27.
Bury St. Edmunds Collegiate Church,
91.

School, 119, 172, 188.

Song School, 120, 188.

Bustenall, John, 211.
Butler, John, 299.
Buttie, Robert, 323.
Byard, Libeus, 292.
Bygbroke, Robert, 228.
Byngham, William, 256.

CAEN, University at, 252.

Caesarea, school of philosophy at, n.

Caldtric, 29.

Cambridge, Christ's College, 201, 256.

Corpus Christi College, 201.

first college at, 166.

Gonville and Caius College, 157.



Cambridge, Jesus College, 226.

King's College, 253.

Master of Glomery at, 157, 171, 180.

Peterhouse, 166.

position of schoolmaster at, 157,

158.

St. John's College, 288.

Sigberct's school at, 4.

Trinity College, 222.

University established, 157.
Cannock Grammar School, 298, 324.
Canon law, 131, 156.

Canterbury, Archbishop of: see names,
JElfiic, Alphege, Anselm, Arundel,
Augustine, Bourchier, Thomas ;
Chicheley, Henry ; Courtney,
Deusdedit, Dunstan, Heath, Lan-
franc, Parker, Matthew ; Peckham,
Plegmund, Theodore, Whittlesey,
Winchelsea.

Cathedral, 34, 35.

Almonry, 209, 213, 217.

Choristers, 217, 314.

School, 3-5, 98, 133, 170, 179,

312.

founder of, 32, 46.

Master, 188, 191, 261.

Statutes, 313-6.

Monastic school at, 35.

St. Alphege Church, 170, 189.

St. Augustine's Monastery, 32, 34.
Almonry School, 223.

St. Martin's School, 191.
Canute, 91.

Carlisle, Bishops of: see names, Halton,
Welton.

School, 125, 169, 312.

Carlisle's Endowed Grammar Schools,

125.

Carpenter, John, 261.
Cartesius, IT.

Carthage University, 22, 26.
Cassian, 43.
Cassiodorus, 27, 28, 61.
Catechetical Schools, 7-11.
Cathedral Schools, 106-13, J 37 I 56,
160, 162-4, 169, 170, 312-6.

Statutes, 158.

Cathedrals of the new foundation, 311.
Cato's Moralia, 95.
Cecil, Sir William, 306.

William, 292.
Cenwalh, King, 36, 37.
Ceolfrid, Abbot, 49, 50, 53.
Ceolwulf, King, 54.
Chad, St., 43, 50.

hambers, E. K., 146.
Chancellor, i.e., Schoolmaster, 58, 107,
108, 113, 180, 181, 189.

differentiated from Schoolmaster,

132-



336 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND



Chandler, Thomas, 247.
Chantries Act of Edward VI, 323.

Henry VIII, 320.

Chantry Commissioners, 273, 320.

schools, 197, 199, 200, 210, 211, 267,

268, 269, 294, 297, 298, 299, 321,

322, 323, 325, 326, 327.
Chapman, John, 299.
Charlemagne, 63, 65.
Chartres, school at, 29.
Chaucer, 250.

Chaucer's litel clergcon, 137.
Chelmsford Grammar School, 211.
Cheltenham Grammar School, 325.
Chester, Bishop of, Walter Durdent,

124.

burh at, 78.

Cathedral Grammar School, 312.
Chester-le-Street Collegiate Church,

167.

School, 79.

Chesterfield School, 177.
Chesterford School, 298, 325.
Chicheley, Archbishop, 86, 253.
Chichester, Bishops of: see names,
Sherborne, Story.

Cathedral, statutes of, 160.

Grammar School, 208.

Childrey School, 300.
Chilperic, King, 74.
Chipping Norton School, 267.
Chirmir, 29.

Choristers, in Beverley Minster, 183,
214.

Canterbury, 314.

Ely, 225.

Fotheringhay, 241.

Lincoln, 215, 216.

monasteries, 213.

St. Paul's Cathedral, 214.

Salisbury, 217.

secular churches, 213.

Tattershall College, 256.

York, 216.

Christchurch, Hants, 122.

Christianity, coming of, I.

Christ's College, Cambridge, 201, 256.

Christ's Hospital, 208, 262.

Chrysoloras, 247.

Chrysostom, 60.

Chubbs, John, 194.

Cicero, 27, 43, 61.

Cirencester School, 176.

Citharius, 24.

City Companies made school trustees,

244, 245, 246, 279, 328.
Claudian, 15, 43.
Clement, see Wilbrord.
Clerkys, Richard, 210.
Clitheroe School, 323.
Clive, Peter, 174.



Clovesho, Council of, 55.
Cluniacs, the, 120, 123, 176.
Cobham College, Kent, 203.

John, Lord, 203.
Cockermouth Grammar School, 211,

323-

Cockfights, 174, 284.
Cocks, offering of, 256.
Coggeshall School, 211.
Colchester School, 176.
Coleston, William of, 192.
Colet, Dean, 3, 20, 25, 153, 154, 235,

262, 277-81.
Collections, 139.
Collegiate churches, schools attached

to, 77, 113-5, "9, "I, 132, 166,

167, 296, 299.
Collyer, Richard, 290.
Colstan, Robert, 198.
Combe, John, 197.
Common Pleas, case in Court of,

237-

Commons at Merton College School,
171.

amount allowed for, 315.
Connysbie, Sir Humphry, 298.
Constantine, 19.
Constantius Chlorus, 19.

Coopers' Company made school gover-
nors, 328.

Copeland, Thomas, 311.
Cornhill, Grammar School, 265.

Henry of, 141, 159.

St. Peter's, petition for School at,

266, 267.

Cornwall, John, 196, 197.
Cornysshe, William, 221.
Coronatus, 26.

Corpus Christi College, Cambridge,
201.

Oxford, 242, 297.

Cotoun, Robert, 143.
Council at Basle, 153, 251.

Constance, 251.

Constantinople, 85, 156.

London, 156.

Rome, 65.

Lateran, 112, 132, 156.

Courtney, William, Archbishop, 143,

145, 209.

Coventre, William, 244.
Coventry Cathedral, Almonry School,

223.
Grammar School, 223.

Charterhouse, Scholars in, 222.

City Grammar School, 316.
Cox, Dr., 124.

head master of Eton College, 306.

Leonard, 311.

Coxford Priory Chartulary, 167.
Cranley, Thomas of, 204.



INDEX



337



Cranmer, Thomas, 332,

Crates of Mallos, 15.

Craven, Richard of, 216.

Crediton Collegiate Church, 152, 318,

321, 322.

Crek, Reginald of, 287.
Crewkerne School, 197.
Cricklade, Robert of, 130.
Crispin, Gilbert, 98.

Miles, 104.
Crispus, 24.

Crofton Grammar School, 210.
Cromer Grammar School, 246.
Cromwell, Sir Ralph, 256.

- Thomas, 256, 310, 332.
Crosier, John, 240.
Crosse, John, 298.
Croyland Chronicle, 141.
Cuckfield Grammar School, 290.
Curriculum, School, 279, 287, 301-4.
Cuthbert, 51, 52.

Cuthwin, 51.
Cynegils, King, 36.
Cyprian, St., 23, 43.

DACRE, Lord, 299.

Dacres, Robert, 319.

Dalton, Robert of, 182, 183.

D'Andeley, Master Henri, 172.

Darcy, Richard, 237, 238.

Darley Chartulary, 124.

Darlington School, 243.

Davy, Richard, 237.

Davy's Inn, 235.

Deddington, schoolmaster, 270, 325.

Derby, Collegiate Churches at, 124.

Earl of, 284.

- School, 78, 124, 125.
Desiderius, 29.

Despautier's Ars Epistolica, 304.
Detling, Alexander of, 209.

William, 209.
Deusdedit, Archbishop, 31.
Deuterius, 26.

Devon, Baldwin de Insula, Earl of,

177.

Dialectic, see Logic.
Diceto, Ralph de, 214.
Dilwyn School, 325.
Dionysius, n.
Dionysius Thrax, 27, 250.
Diss, William of, 119.
Diuma, 43.

d'Oilli, Robert, 104, 130.
Donatus, 43, 62, 95, 249, 250.
Doncaster Grammar School, 202.
Dorchester, exhibition from, 326.
Doreward, John, 210.

William, 210.

Douze Gild at Bury St. Edmunds, 120,
188.

22



Dowman, John, 288.
Downham, John, 225.
Dracontius, 26.
Drane, Miss, 7.
Draper, John, 122.

Thomas, 267.
Druett, Peter, 229.

Dugdale's History of St. Paul's, in.
Dunham School, 209.
Dunstable School, 116, 121, 123.
Dunstan, Archbishop, 35, 45, 79-85.
Dunwich School, 4, 5, 6.
Durand, Master, no.
Durdent, Bishop Walter, 124.
Durham, Bishopric of, 198.

Bishops of: see names Bek, An-

thony; Langley, Thomas.

Cathedral Grammar School, 134,

135, 219, 239.

Priory, 135, 166.

Almonry School, 219.

Song School, 239.

Dyes, John, 228.
Dyve, William, 298.

EADMER, 35, 83.
Eadred, King, 54.
Eanbald I, 60, 63.

II, 63.

Earl's Colne School, 298.
Easter, date of, 33, 42, 59, 61.
Eastorwine, Abbot, 50.
Eastry, Henry of, 217.
Eata, 48.

Eccleshall School, 324.
Ecclesiastical Courts, 127.

Laws, 85.
Eddi, 46.

Edgar, King, Canons of, 84.
Edith, Queen, 92, 93, 141.
Edmund Ironsides, 91.
Edsi, 32.
Education, age to begin, n.

early Church opposed to, 10.

home and school, 16.

not given in monasteries, 29.

results of extension of, 331.
Edward IV, 259.

VI, 240, 285, 322.

the Confessor, 92.

the Elder, 76-9.
Edwin, King, 6, 59.

Egbert, Archbishop, 46, 50, 52-5, 57,

58.

Eglesfield, Robert of, 195.
Eleanor, Queen, 136.
Elementary schools, 210, 241, 300.
Eleutherius, 37, 38.
Elfthryth, 73.
Elgin Cathedral, 159.
Elton, Mr. C., 170.



338 THE SCHOOLS OF MEDIEVAL ENGLAND



Ely, Bishops of: see names Balsham,
Hugh ; Oldham, Hugh.

Cathedral Grammar School, 312.
Priory, 225.

Choristers at, 225.

Almonry Schoolmaster, 225,

226.

Elyott, Nicholas, 283.
Empedocles, 16.
Emson, Mr. C. H., 286.

Mr. E., 286.
Endford school, 326.
Endowments of schools, 18, 119, 135,

162, 178, 184, 194, 197, 204, 209,
217, 227, 235, 239, 240, 242, 244,
2 45> 2 53> 2 55'57 2 59i 261, 267-9,
272, 278, 282-5, 2 88-99, 311, 316-
20, 322-8.

English schools at the Reformation,
292.

Ennius, 15.

Eonan, 46.

Erasmus, 154, 235, 249, 281, 329.

Erasmus's Institute of a Christian,
280.

Ethalbald, King, 71.

Ethelbert, Archbishop, see Albert.

Bishop of Hexham, 64.

King, 2, 3.
Ethelfled, 76-9.
Ethelred, King, 69, 91.
Ethelward, 73, 74.
Ethelwold, Bishop, 35, So, 86.
Ethelwulf, King, 67-9.
Ethilthrith, Queen, 50.

Eton College, annexed to St. George's,

Windsor, 259.

boy-bishop at, 153.

buildings, 260.

connexion with King's College,

Cambridge, 258.

foundation of, 252.

Greek taught at, 247.

Headmaster of, 7.

internal organization of, 306.

nut-gathering at, 264.

Oppidans, 259, 260.

rank of scholars, 259.

scholars from Winchester Col-
lege, 258.

scholarships, 19.
statutes of, 257.

time-table, 290, 301-4, 307-9.

Eton Latin grammar, 302, 310.
Eu, Robert of, no.

Count of, 115.

Eugenius II, 65, 132.
Eumenius, 19.
Eusebius, 10.
Evtychius, 62.
Euerard, John, 189.



I Eversdone, Hugh of, 187.

j Evesham Abbey, Almonry boys at, 226.

Prince Henry's Grammar School,

3"-

Excommunication for carrying arms,

185.
keeping adulterine schools, 134,

182, 187.

Exeter, Bishop of: see names Brones-
comb, Grandison, Stapledon.

College, Oxford, 193.

Grammar School, 193.

St. John the Baptist's Hospital, 193.
Exhibition endowment at Bredgar, 209,

213-

Durham, 134.

in France, 135.

at St. Cross, 135.

Sherborne, 222.

Exhibitions founded by Bishop of



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