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LIPPINCOTT'S

EDUCATIONAL SERIES

EDITED BY

MARTIN G. BRUMBAUGH, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D.

SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, PHILADELPHIA



Lippincott's Educational Series

EDITED BY DR. M. G. BRUMBAUGH
Superintendent of Schools Philadelphia

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Tlie Conservation of the Child

By Dr. Arthur Holmes, Dean of State Col-
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trations. Cloth, $1.25.
AN important new book for teachbrs

Modern Methods for Teachers

By Chaklks C. Bovkr, Ph.D., Professor ot
Pedagogics. Keystone State Normal School,
Kutatown, Pa. 345 pages. Cloth, fiya.



PRINCIPLES

OF

CHARACTER MAKING



BY

ARTHUR HOLMES, Ph.D.

DBAN OF FACDLTIES, PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE; RECENTLY ASSISTANT
PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY, AND ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF THE
PSYCHOLOGICAL CLINIC, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

AUTHOR OF

"THB decay or rationalism," "the conservation OF THE CHILD," ETC., ETC.



PHILADELPHIA & LONDON

J. B. LTPPINCOTT COMPANY

1913 ^ ^ ^

f£6 iQjj



COPTRIQHT, 1013, BT J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY



PtTBUSHIIi 8EPTBMBEB, 1913



PRINTED BY J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY

AT THE WASHlNaTON SQUARE PRESS

PHILADELPHIA, U. 8. A.



3 ut



To
EDGAR F. SMITH

PROVOST OP THE UNIVERSITT OF PENNSYLVANIA,

WHOSE DEVOTION TO THE MORAL AND SPIRITUAL
WELFARE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS IS A DISTINCT
CONTRIBUTION TO THE ACADEMIC WORLD FAR EX-
CEEDING MANY DISCOVERIES IN SCIENTIFIC TRUTH,

THIS VOLUME IS
RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED



FOREWORD



This book aims to be what its title implies. It is, in b
sense, a text-book on applied psychology, with psychology
in its modernized form applied to the most vital function
of the home, the school, the individual and the nation.

It endeavors to see the subject of child-training from
the genetic point of view. The child on his way to manhood
is assumed to climb the stairs in well-marked stages. His
modes of growth are definite and fairly well-fixed. He is
neither plastic nor hard. He is organic, living, developing.
He cannot be kneaded like dough, nor hammered like iron,
nor carved like marble, but he can be guided like a vine
upon a trellis.

To trace his stages of growth a beginning is made with
the remotest origins of the individual. Back of the germ-
cell and beyond to the time of pre-cell formations character
is traced to find its sources. Heredity is presented, not as
a terrible and determined ogre, but full of potentialities
"unpredictable. From this point of view efforts at child-
improvement after birth are practicable and full of promise.
Environment and education are the final arbiters of man's
destiny. Ideas can exercise the controlling force in a
man's life and conduct.

While the book is worded as nearl)'' as possible in lan-
guage any reader can understand, it is not therefore un-
scientific. The dominating thought in its preparation has
been to make it usable both to parents and teachers and at
the same time scientifically sound. It attempts to ground

1



2 FOREWORD

its conclusions upon modern physiological psychology.
Novel and only half -accepted theories in the psychological
world have not been laid down as bases nor incorporated
as necessary parts in the superstructure. At the same time,
conventional and easy explanations by metaphysical dogmas
have been avoided as much as possible. The tone, while
tempered with scientific openness of mind, is optimistic.
The work of the parent, teacher and society is set in bold
relief and given the impetus of hope directed by knowledge.
Here let me add my thanks to friends for the advice
and suggestion, and especially for the criticism and read-
ing of the manuscript, without which help this book would
probably never have been written. It is sent forth to do
service for the millions of children in the land, bespeaking
for them more intelligent sympathy from adults and a
brighter life than they can ask or even think.

Arthur Holmes.

State College, Pa.,
June 10, 1913.



INTRODUCTION

There is a widespread need of a clear understanding
of what even the unreflective mind believes to be essential
in the education of each individual. We have talked about
moral education and we have endeavored in countless ways
to accomplish the moral discipline of the individual. Some
of these ways have been wise, others have not, and it is most
important that we should come to some definite under-
standing of the meaning of education and the place that
moral education has in the wider concept of educational
endeavor.

In attempting to define the end of educational en-
deavor in the Republic, it is well to keep in mind the
fact that in part the aim of the school is to prepare the
individual for the widest possible participation in govern-
mental functions. The interest of the State in education
is primarily that of guaranteeing to itself, and therefore
to its own perpetuity, an enlightened citizenry. It seeks
to achieve this result by imparting to each pupil as
effectively as possible the common elements of an approved
education. These elements, expressed in the formal
elements of the curriculum, are the tools of democracy.
The keynote here is education for co-operation, to the
end that the entire population may be able to think to-
gether and thus plan to live together under civil order.

In another sense, the aim of our educational endeavor
is to fit each individual for the widest possible participa-
tion in the legitimate activities of organized society. To

3



4 INTRODUCTION

accomplish this, it seeks also so to discipline the mind as to
make it readily capable of a rational approach to the real
problems of life. It also aims in this connection to in-
form the mind upon such substantial and fundamental
matters as underlie all economic procedure. The keynote
here is education for orderly co-operation, to the end that
the individual may make a maximum contribution to the
common good.

The school aims also to conserve the physical well-being
of the individual : by securing proper physical environment
during the school years; by systematic training in whole-
some physical disciplines; and by imparting such a fund of
practical knowledge relating to hygiene as to guarantee
the continuance of this care by the individual as a self-
regulated, informed unit of society. Knowledge must not
be bought at the price of health. The keynote here is
education for the conservation of the health and, hence,
of the physical vigor of the race.

Finally, it aims, by its organization and administration,
and by formal instruction, to establish such habits of
reaction on the moral side as to establish the conduct of
the individual, both as a citizen and as an economic unit
above criticism. This moral phase of our education seeks
to secure from each pupil courtesy, which is the virtue
of the social life ; and dependableness, which is the virtue
of the ethical life. It also endeavors, as to be typical must
succeed, in establishing in each pupil the crowning good
of a humble spirit, which is the virtue of religion. The
ke3T3ote here is a reverent regard for the rights of others
and a wise orienting of the individual for right living.

It may, therefore, be claimed that the education pro-
vided by the Republic aims to establish a stable, enlightened



INTRODUCTION 6

citizenry capable of performing satisfactorily the social,
vocational, and moral obligations incumbent upon each,
citizen.

In this treatise we have set forth in order the prin-
ciples underlying what is generally regarded as moral
education. The Author has chosen a happy title, for, in
the last analysis, moral education has no meaning worth
considering unless it projects itself into the character and
crystallizes itself into the activities of the individual.
"We are all fairly well informed as to what right conduct
is, but we are not all impelled to follow right conduct.
Our appreciation of it as an intellectual discernment is one
thing, and our incorporation of it as a life procedure is
quite another thing. The problem always facing the young
is to elevate the plane of conduct to the plane of thought,
thus achieving in conscience that which, without this, is
purely intellectual achievement. There must be a lessen-
ing of the tension between the way the individual thinks
and the way the individual acts. When this tension is not
lessened by the elevation of conduct to the plane of the
ideals entertained by the individual, it almost invariably
follows that the individual forsakes his ideals and becomes
merely a creature of impulse expressing itself in terms of
conduct. It is always an unfortunate thing when the
ideals of the individual, planted by the institutions of
the school, the home, and the church, are not vitalized
steadily and absorbed consciously in the actions of the
individual.

Character making has not achieved its present work
in the schools for the reason that there has been no common
basis of accepted guidance and, what is more important,
pedagogically, there has been no interpretation of these



6 INTRODUCTION

principles into concrete specific terms within the reach of
the child mind. We need a literature of moral material
couched not only in the vocahulary of childhood, but also
in the thought forms of childhood. This literature should
be so suffused with emotional predisposition as to make it
easy, if not necessary, for the reactions of the individual
to be in harmony with the moral content of the material
presented. There is to-day no more pressing need than the
need for this type of literature for our schools.

Such material, of course, must conform in its quality
to certain definite guiding principles, and this volume is a
presentation in a definite way of these guiding principles.
It is therefore the preliminary step to the solution of the
most important phase of modern education.

The Author's wide experience as a teacher, and his
scientific training, coupled with his extended research in
applied psychology, justify the conclusion that this state-
ment of the underlying principles in the making of char-
acter and, therefore, in the equating of conduct, is a most
valuable contribution to the pedagogy of that part of
education which ought to claim first place with all right-
thinking people.

M. G. Brumbaugh.
June 12, 1913.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER I.— CHARACTER.

PAoa

The Necessity of a Plan and Purpose in Work 15

The Ideal of the Child-trainer 16

The Child-trainer Must Have a Distinct Ideal 17

'■ Emerson's Idea of Character 18

Such Character Cannot be Made 19

Character as Being 20

\ Character as Doing 21

-Character as Scientists View It 22

Such Character is Evolutionary 24

None of These Theories of Character Can Aid the Child-
trainer 24

Character and Personality 25

., Character and Other Traits 27.

Character Defined for Our Purpose 27_

A Broad Definition 28

Character, Thus Defined, is Not Superficial 28

. It Agrees with Common-Sense 29

Dewey's View 30

Character is Made Up op Five Classes of Reactions... 31;,

Three Leading Questions in Character-making 32

CHAPTER II.— VIEW-POINTS IN MODERN PSYCHOLOGY.

The Popularity op Psychology 34

The Essentials op Psychology 34

Definition of Psychology 35

The Field op Psychology 38

Illustrated by Color 39

How Psychology is Distinguished from Other Sciences. 40

The Fundamental Assumption op Psychology 44

This is the Reform Principle of Educational Psychology 44

Varieties of Psychology 45

The Method of Studying Psychology 46

The Two Aspects op Psychological Phenomena 46

How Ideas Arise 48

Volitions Are Feelings of Muscle-strain 48

Summary 49

7



8 CONTENTS

CHAPTER III.— THE SOURCES OF CHARACTER.

Inherited Character 51

Character Acquired 52

No Real Line between Heredity and Environment 54

A Logical Distinction 54

Hereditary Effects Thought to be Unchangeable 55

Heredity as All That is Born 56

The Scientific Meaning of Heredity 56

Maternal Impressions are Not Hereditary 57

Alcoholic Effects 57

True Heredity 59

The Two Aspects op Heredity 59

Heredity is the Name of a Relation between Generations . 60

The Germ-cells of All Mammals Appear to be Similar. 62

How Individuals Get into Germ-cells 64

The Preformation Theory 64

The Metaphysical Theory 65

The Pan-Genesis Theory 65

The Continuity op Germ-plasm 66

The Real Origin of Individual Character 67

The Practical Outcome of This Chapter 68

The Richness of Heredity 69



CHAPTER IV.— THE DEVELOPMENT OF HEREDITARY
CHARACTER.

Germ-cell Structure 71

Chromosomes or Color-bodies 71

The Physical Basis of Paternal and Maternal Traits. 72

Cell Development 72

How the Human Takes on Human Form 73

Drummond's Description 73

Huxley's Description 75

The Human Embryo Passes Through Animal Stages. ... 76

Physical Remains op Animal Stages 76

Character Remnants of Animal Stages 76

Evidence from Idiocy 77

Evidence from Mongolianism 79

Evidence from Cretinism 79

The Meaning of Embryology for the Teacher 81

The Vestiges op Animal Stages Affect the Self 82

Laws of Heredity 82

Law op Similarity Illustrated by Idiocy 83

The Jukes and the Ishmaelites 83

The Law op Diversity 86

The Law op Diversity Reduced to the Law op Uniformity 87

Galton's Law of Inheritance 87

Modes op Inheritance 88



CONTENTS 9

Particulate Inheritance 89

Exclusive Inheritance 90

Unexpected Dominant Traits 91

Germinal Variations 91

Summary 92

The Meaning for the Teacher 93

CHAPTER v.— THE INSTINCTS.

The Powers of the Baby 94

Instincts Form the Foundation op Character 95

Instincts and Emotions are Treated Together 95

The Popular Conception of Instincts 96

Scientific Definitions of Instincts 97

Reflexes and Instincts 97

Psychological Definition of Instinct 98

The Feeling of Finality in Instincts 99

The Number of Human Instincts 100

Most Habits Come from Instincts 101

The Uniformity op Instincts 102

Origin op Instincts 102

This Theory Depends Upon the Truth op the Transmis-
sion OF Acquired Characters 103

The Transmission Theory Has a Long History 104

The Meaning and Implications op the Theory 104

Are Acquired Traits Always Transmitted? 105

Travis' Investigation 105

Are Any Acquired Traits Ever Transmitted? 107

The Question is Still Open 108

Transmission Nullifies Itself by Cutting Both Ways. . 109
The Darwinian Theory of the Origin op the Instincts 110

Instincts Originate in the Germ-plasm Ill

New Instincts May Arise at Any Time Ill

The Hope for the Teacher 112

Human Instincts Vary 112

Animal Instincts Vary 113

Variableness IN InstinctsAllows Divergency IN Character 114

Instincts are Transitory 114

Human Instincts are Also Transitory 115

The Epoch Theory Applied to Instincts 116

Difficulties With the Theory 116

Danger of the Theory 116

How to Treat the Instincts 117

Let Some Instincts Express Themselves 118

Some Instincts Need to be Suppressed 120

How Shall Instincts be Suppressed? 120

Many Instincts Should be Modified 121

Play-Modified Instincts on a Large Scale 122

Summary 124



10 CONTENTS

CHAPTER VI.— THE MAKING AND BREAKING
OF HABITS.

The Problem of Child-training Before Twelve 125

Habit-making and Habit-breaking 126

The Physical Basis of Habits 126

The Formation of a Simple Ideational Habit 128

The Nervous Mechanism op Habit 129

How Do Habits Actually Begin? 131

The Kinds of Chances Open to Habits 131

Habits Due to Nervous Structures 132

Habit Comes from Rebuilding Broken-down Structures 132

Breaking Habits 133

The Psychological Basis op Habit 135

First Stage op Habit-making 135

Second Stage op Habit-making 135

The Third Stage op Habit-making 136

Pure Habit 138

Degrees of Habit 139

How TO Break Pure Habits 139

How TO Break Mixed Habits 141

CHAPTER VII.— THE SERIOUS SIDE OF PLAY.

Play as a Maker op Character 142

History op Play 142

Greek Philosophers' Attitudes Toward Play 143

Play in the Roman Period 144

The Eclipse of Play 145

The Revival of Play 146

The Practical Application op the New Play-Theories

Followed Slowly 146

The Recent Expansion of Play 147

Froebel Made Play Altogether Spiritual 148

Why Children Play at All 149

Play as a Change of Occupation 151

Why Children Play What They Play 151

Groos' Theory 151

The Epoch Theory Applied to Play 152

The Savage Stage 152

The Barbarian Stage 153

The Nomadic Stage 153

The Agricultural Stage and Age op Chivalry 154

The Adult Viewpoint 155

The Child's Viewpoint 155

The Inner Essence of the Play-world 157

Child-play is Hard 167

The Child Cannot Quit Playing when He Chooses 157

The Real Joy op Play is Self-expansion 158

The Older School Ideals 160



CONTENTS 11

A Bit of Progress 161

The Modern Spirit 162

The Dream of the Future 163

CHAPTER VIII.— THE SELF.

A Connecting Word 165

The Common Notion of Self 165

The Function of the Self 166

The Truth is There are Many Selves 166

The Transcendental Self or Pure Ego 167

The Material Self 169

The Social Self of Altruistic Impulses 169

The Self as Egoistic Instincts 170

The Psychological Self 170

The Self is a Feeling of Bodtly Movement 171

The Changes in the Self 173

The Origin of the Self 173

Some Ways of Losing Self 174

Unnatural Ways of Losing Self 174

Total Amnesia, or Loss of Memory, Brings Loss of Self. . 175
The Self Owes Its Dominance to Its Permanency in Con-
sciousness 176

Double Multiple Personalities 177

The Case of Dr. Hanna 178

Other Double Personalities 181

Case op Many Selves 182

The Case of Miss Beauchamp 182

Cases op Multiple Personalities Common 187

Conclusions 187

An Idea Dominates the Self 188

CHAPTER IX.— THE WILL.

The Will in the New Psychology 191

' How We Perform Voluntary Acts 192

Ideo-motor Action 193

James' Ideo-motor Action 194

First Class of Ideational Acts 195

Second Class op Ideational Acts 196

Ideas are Supreme in Character-making 197

The Role op Ideas in Every-day Acts 198

Ideas in Hypnotism 199

Ideas in Mind-reading 200

Mind-reading Explained 201

Stigmatization 202

The Case op St. Catherine op Siena 202

The Case op Louise Lateau 203

The Case op Mrs. Stuckenborg 203

Stigmatization Analogous to Hypnotic Suggestion 204

Ideas Have Power to Affect the Physical Organism . . . 205



12 CONTENTS

The R6le of Ideas in Character 206

Ideas Abe in Control 207

Can Ideas Be in Any Way Regulated? 207

Ideas Submit First to the Laws of Association 207

All Ideas of Movements are Memories 209

Contiguity the Fundamental Law of Association 210

Partial Reconstruction of the Past 210

'A Partial Summary 211

Why One Idea Dominates 212

Attention Gives an Idea Its Ideo-motob Force 213

How AN Idea Can Become an Ideal 214

Two Kinds of Ideas 214

How to Gain Entree for Ideas into Consciousness. . . . 215

The Nature op the Child and the Laws of Association . . 216

The Laws op Association Applied to Youth 217

How Ideas Can Command Attention 221

Allowance Must Be Made for Abnormal Minds 221

Can All Normal Children Pay Attention? 222

Ideally Controlled Conduct 223

-Real Free Will 224

Freedom of the Will and the Teacher 225

Freedom of the Will and Determinism as Abstract The-
ories Have Little Application to Character-making . . 226

Free-will May Be True 228

Does Environment Control Ideas? 229

The Twofold Aspect Environment 229

Illustrations op this Law 230

Illustrations from Hypnotism 231

Some Practical Thoughts for the Teacher '. 234

CHAPTER X.— THE IMPULSES AND IDEALS OF YOUTH.

Adolescence in General 236

The Physical Changes of Adolescence 236

Social Discords 237

The Prime Interest of Youth 238

The Stages of Sentiment Between the Sexes 239

The Second Stage 240

The Third Stage 241

Fourth Stage 241

Fifth Stage 421

Marked by Love op Clothes 242

Indicated by Muscle-intoxication 242

The Adult's Attitude Toward This Sentiment 243

Two Other Impulses 245

Egoism 246

The Journal of Marie Bashkirtseff 246

The Diary of Mary MacLane 248

Egoism Should not Be Wholly Suppressed 249

Altruism 250



CONTENTS 13

Altrttism as Patriotism 251

Division and Fusion are Normal to Adolescence 253

The Mind op Youth 255

Scepticism 255

Rationalism 257

Idealism 259

Imagination 262

The Youth as a Hero-worshipper 262

CHAPTER XL— GOOD CHARACTER.

What is Good Character? 264

The Opinions op Common People on Right 264

Illustrations 265

Is Lying Justifiable? 267

The Answer op Moral Codes 269

The Answer op Specialists 271

Egoistic Hendonism 272

Intuitionism 272

Utilitarianism 273

Results so far Obtained 273

The Common Element or Essence op Morality 275

The Results op an Act are Interminable 276

Intention is Common to the Three Systems op Morality 277

An Illustration 278

Who Can Judge an Intention? 279

Illustrations 280

Charity for Children 283

Social and Anti-social Conduct 284

Summary 285

An Illustration 287

CHAPTER XXL— THE PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS OF MORAL
EDUCATION.

Moral Education 289

The Factors in Moral Education 289

Moral Instruction and Moral Training 290

The Paradox of Moral Training 290

A Psychological Confusion 291

The Confusion Explained and Removed 292

How the Confusion Affects Moral Training 292

Moral Training is the Work to be Done Before Twelve 293
Not a Teacher's First Duty to Inculcate Morality. . . 294

Codes Adjust Adults to Their Worlds 294

Codes do not Always Agree with General Morality. . . 295

Children's Codes Should be Respected 295

Moral Training Rests upon Instincts 296

Imitation in Moral Training 297

Conformity to Environment 297

Unconscious Moral Training 298



14 CONTENTS

Specific Moral Training 298

The Fallacies of Arbitrary Hardships for Children. . . 299

The Issue Stated 299

Our Task 300

Moral Training Should Begin in the Cradle 301

Fitting the Child to His Own World 302

The Intellectual and Moral Value of Play 304

Self-discovery by Play 304

Play Develops the Real Self 306

Adolescent Moral Training 307

Contrast Between Moral Training and Moral Instruc-
tion 307

Why a Man Adopts a Particular Moral Intention 308

The Motive Back of an Intention 309

The Moral Tinting Power of Instincts 309

How Instincts Change Morality 310

Moral Development 311

All Morality is Genetic 312

Childish Evils Usually Perish with the Instincts that

Give Them Rise 312

The Effect of the Genetic View upon Moral Instruction 314

The Method of Moral Instruction in General 314

The Nature of Child-nature 315

The Moral System That will Modify His Instincts. . . . 315
Boyhood Instincts Differ Widely from Adolescent In-
stincts 316

Boyhood Instincts Follow the Social Progress of the

Race 316

Adolescent Impulses 317

The Hierarchy of Instincts 318

Moral Instruction Must not Only Wait upon Instincts

But Also upon Intellect 319

Childhood Intellectual Processes 319

Intellectual Life of the Adolescent 320

The Morality to be Inculcated 321

The Learning Process in General 321

The Learning Process in Moral Instruction 322

The Morality that Fits the Child and the Youth 323



Online LibraryArthur HolmesPrinciples of character making → online text (page 1 of 24)