Arthur James Weise.

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From the discovery of the Great River, in 1524, hy Verrazzaiio, to

the present time,


E. H. Bender, Albany, 71 & 73 State Street. 1884.
8 vc, pp. 520, ilhistrated, cloth, $5.00.

"Albanians have been looking forward with more than ordinary interest
to the publication of ' The History of the City of Albany,' which has been
prepared and compiled by Arthur James Weise, A. M., who has received
the highest commendations for his careful researches, historical discoveries,
and pleasing diction. * * * His narrative covers a period of 360 years,
and is not only exhaustive but charming. The style of diction is easy and
flowing, and the incidents narrated are fresh, animated and authentic." —
Albany Evening Journal.

" The print, paper and binding will commend the work, as well as the
varied character of its interesting contents." — Albany Argus,

" Hitherto, historians have led us to believe that Henry Hudson and the
crew of the Half Moon were the first Europeans to survey the site of our
city. But this impression is effaced by the convincing evidence presented
in the History of Albany, written by Arthur James Weise, A. M., author
of The Discoveries of America to the year 1525. As the first history of our
city, it will no doubt be a very popular work, and will likely be the only
one of the kind extant for many years." — Albany Press and Knickerbocker.

" The book was greatly needed." — Cultivator and Country Gentleman,

"The ' History of Albany,' by A. J. Weise, A. M., is a work of real
value. It contains accurate and hitherto practically inaccessible informa-
tiun. It is written with dispassionate and discriminating honesty, which is
the very essence of safe and satisfactory history." — Right Rev. Willi.vm
Croswell Doane, S. T. D., LL. D., Bishop of Albany.

" Every page of this excellent historical work gives unmistakable evi-
dence of careful and painstaking research. The book is printed in clear,
handsome type, on choice paper, in elegant binding, and forms a beautiful
volume. Every citizen of the State of New York who possesses a library,
or who has ;i desire even to be classed among the intelligent of this genera-
tion, either with or without a library of his own, cannot afford to miss it
from his possession."— A/fl^'-fl's?;/^ of American History. New York.

" It is a singular fact, and one hardly to the credit of Albany, that al-
though she dates from 1624, yet this, ' The History of the City of Albany,
N. Y.,' by A. J. Weise, A. M , is the first fairly adequate account of her
rise and progress that has yet appeared. It was reserved for Mr. Weise to
supplement and complete, and in some respects to supersede, the labors of
Munsell and others with this creditable volume. Mr. Weise was well
eciuipped for his task, and his work will add to his reputation." Neiv York
Daily Tribune.


To the Year 1525,

G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York : 27 & 29 West 23d Street. London :
25 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 1884.
8 vo., pp. 380, cloth, $4.50.


1. A part.of the map of the world made by Juan de la Cosa in 1500.

2. A part of the map of the world made by Johann Ruysch, contained
in the edition of Ptolemy's geography printed in Rome in 1508.

3. Map of the New World contained in Peter Martyr's "Legatio Baby-
lonica " printed in 1511.

4. A part of the map of the New World contained in the edition of
Ptolemy's geography printed in Slrasburg in 15 13.

5. A tracing representing the limits of the discoveries of Juan Ponce de
Leon and Francisco de Garay, 1521.

6. A part of the map of the world made by Visconte de MaioUo, 1527.

7. A part of the Cabot- map of 1544.

8. Map of Terre de la Franciscane, 1545.

9. Map of a part of North America, 1553.

10. A part of the map of the world made by Gerard Mercator in 1569.

11. Delineation of the hyperborean regions of Sigurd Stephanius in

12. A part of the map of the fourth part of the world, by Andie Thevet.


" The chief merit of Mr. Weise's book, and its distinguishing feature,
is the compression in a single convenient volume, in a continuous narrative,
arranged in chronological sequence, of all the authenticated records of voy-
ages in North American waters and of discoveries on the mainland prior to
1525. * * * To the general reader, who has neither the time nor the
opportunity to consult, much less to study and compare, the multitude of
scattered books and manuscripts in which the narratives of the early voya-
gers and discoverers, or of their historiographers, are preserved in minute
and oftentimes tedious detail, Mr. Weise's epitome will prove an acceptable
substitute, sufficiently full for all practicable purposes, and more trustwor-
thy and intelligible than most of the early relations, especially since many
of them were written in foreign languages. * * * His work is a model
of carefulness and candoV, especially when dealing with rival or controvert-
ed claims." — Harpers' New Monthly Magazine.

" Mr. Weise has produced a charming as well as an exhaustive work on
an obscure but by no means an uninteresting subject, and the general read-
er may join with the antiquarian scholar in animated gratitude for the
achievement. * * * The book is not top large for convenience, it is
elegantly printed, and we know of no other which contains so well-con-
densed and thorough an account of the discovery of America." — Magazine
of American History, Nezu York.

" This author has not satisfied himself with following 'standard ' author-
ities, with repeating their errors and reaffirming their theories. He has
gone to original sources, and, as generally with that kind of industry, he
has found plenty of important matter that has been hitherto overlooked.
His ' Discoveries of America' is a very thorough piece of scholarship. * *
Mr. Weise writes for all cultivated people ; not only for the historical student,
but for the teacher and all the 'general readers' who know what good books
are. Thus, while he is careful to show his methods, to indicate his author-
ities, and to outline the character of his researches and into what ground
they led him, and while to this extent his book is severe, yet the agreeable-
ness of his style is so ever present, and the story he has to tell is in itself so
fascinating, that the book is as 'readable' as Prescott or Irving." — Evening
Telegtaph, Philadelphia.

" Mr. Weise's handsome valume, with fac-similes of many rare maps, ex-
amples of the labors of former cosmographers, contains the gist of what is
known in regard to the discovery of America." — New Yoi-k Titnes.

" Mr. Weise furnishes a good synopsis of Vespucci's celebrated narrative,
and a still better one of the striking story of Verrazzano. * * * The
reader will find an explanation of the derivation of ' Manhattan' from the
French manants, a name formerly applied to persons of low condition, and
used by the first explorers to designate the aborigines of New France." —
Nexv York Daily Tribune.

" In the thorough and scholarly work before us, Mr. Weise has not only
rendered valuable service to the reading public, but has made an extremely
importan*. addition to the political and geographical history of the American
continent." — The World, New York.

" He has not written for specialists, but for plain people who care more
for the totality of what is presented to them than for a nice discussion of
disputed points." — The Mail and Express, New York.

"The volume brings together information which otherwise would lie
widely apart, scattered through books, many of which are rare, and many
others inaccessible to general readers. * * * It will prove a welcome
and useful addition to the history of the New \Nor\di.— The Independent,
New York.

" Mr. Weise has searched far and wide in the libraries of Europe and
America to gather the material for his work, and the result shows that his
labors have been to good purpose."— The Nezv York Observer.

" The value of this volume, as a record of the different discoveries, is
unquestionable." — Boston Daily Advertiser.

" Every library should have this record of the authentic accounts of the
discoveries made by the ancients on the Western Continent."— AVw Eng-
land Journal of Educatmt.

•' The volume is a monument of special study, and a work which will
take a deservedly high rank." — The Hartford Courant.

" It is not often the reader will find a history more charmingly written.
* * * The valuable facts of its chapters attest the rare good judgment
and scholarly acquirements of the ax\l\iox:—Inter.Ocean, Chicago.

" This book bears the marks of industrious research in fields that have
not yet been overworked, and which offer irresistible allurements to the his-
torical inquirer." — Popular Science Monthly.

" Eight years of earnest study and research have been devoted by Mr.
Arthur James Weise to preparing and perfecting his admirable and instruc-
tive work, wherein is displayed throughout a high order of narrative and
descriptive skill." — Times-De?iiocrai, New Orleans.

" Sustained by an ambition to gather in one volume, embellished with
many quaint maps, all the authorities possible to be secured, he has
afforded readers an impartial insight into that far-away realm — the early
ages of America. It is an American book, permeated with the true Ameri-
can instinct, and produced with proper scholarship, judgment and taste." —
Hartford Post.

" Students of history will be greatly interested in this volume." — Star,

"A strong feature of the work is the number of valuable maps and
charts of this country as it was known to the geographers of that remote
period." — Times, Philadelphia.


From the expulsion of the Mohegan Indians to the present centennial
year of the independence of the United States of America, 1876,

By A. J. WEISE, A. M.

Troy, N. Y., William H. Young, 8 & 9 First Street. 1876.

8 vo., pp. 400. illustrated, cloth, $3.50.

" It more than fulfills the promise of Mr. Weise when he first announced
his intention of undertaking so arduous a task." — Troy Daily Times.

"A work which for many years will be the standard history of the city,
and which, when it is displaced by subsequent publications, will become
the foundation for all works of similar character." — Troy Daily Press.

"Mr. Weise has given the public a history for which every man, woman
and child claiming to be a Trojan should be grateful and thankful."— 7"//^
Troy Northern Budget.

" One of the best and most carefully prepared local histories which we
have seen." — Evening Post, New York.


From the year 1770 to 1877.

By A. J. WEISE, A. M.

Troy, N. Y., William H. Young, 8 & g First Street. 1877.
S vo., pp. 44, cloth, $1.00.










Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1886, by

Arthur James Weise,
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

All rights reserved.

r\ t

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In writing the History of the City of Troy in 1876. my lime was too lim-
ited to permit a satisfactory presentation of the city's industries, so long
having wide fame in the United States and in foreign countries. Induced
by the desire of those conceiving that a work including the events and cu-
cumstances of the settlement and growth of Troy, and the causes and
issues of the origin and development of her manufactures should be pre-
pared while there was opportunity to obtain reliable information from per-
sons connected and contemporary with the beginning and expansion ot
these local undertakings, I began the inviting and yet toilsome task accom-
plished in the publication of this unpretentious volume.

Within the period of the century, from 1786 to 18S6, beginning with the
first occupation of the site of Troy by emigrants from the New England
Stales I have grouped, under the different subject-headings, the pnnc.pal
facts appertaining to the history of the village and city. Should the one
hundredth anniversary of the naming of the place, Troy, be celebrated m
1880. much of this information will make the event more significant and
memorable. Troy is not only noted for the manufacture of collars, cuffs,
shirts, horseshoes, iron, steel, stoves, cars, railroad rails, surveying instru-
ments, church hells, chains, knitting and laundry machine.y, but enjoys
the distinction of distributing her productions in more countries than any
other city in the United States of like population and wealth. The infor-
mation I have presented respecting her banks, churches, schools, newspa-
pers. charitable and other institutions, will, I doubt not. be appreciated by
those desiring knowledge of the city's history.

Troy, N. Y.. September 18, 1886. "







The author is under many obligations to the large numbtr of persons
contributing illustrations to this work. The kind favors of William Gur-
ley, Lewis E. Gurley, Richardson H. Thurman, Reuben Teckham, William
II. Young, and other gentlemen are gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are
due to James L. Thompson for the engraving of the Day Home, and to
James F. Cowee and to John W. Sherrerd for special courtesies.


Francis I., King of France, in
1523, commissioned Giovanni da Ver-
razzano, a Florentine, to discover new^
lands. In January, 1524, after touch-
ing at the Deserted Islands, off the
west coast of Africa, he sailed west-
wardly toward the unexplored part of
North America, between Nova Scotia
and Florida. He came in sight of
the continent at the thirty-fourth par-
allel, near Cape Fear, on the coast of
North Carolina. Coasting northward-
ly, he discovered, late in April, the
Bay of New York, where he beheld
the noble stream, now called the
Hudson, flowing into it from the

The domain, which France had ac-
quired by right of discovery, was first
called Francesca. After Verrazzano's
voyage, the Great {Grande) River, as
the Hudson was then named, was fre-
quently ascended by French traders
to obtain furs from the tribes of In-
dians living along its banks. On a
map of the world made in 1569, by
Gerard Mercator, the river is delineat-
ed to the height of its navigation, at
the mouths of the Mohawk River, op-
posite the sites of Troy and Lansing-

Henry Hudson, employed in 1609
by the East India Company of Hol-
land, to search north of Novaya Zem-

lya for a navigable way to Asia, find-
ing an impassable barrier of ice en-
girdling the Arctic Ocean, gave his
officers and crew the choice of two
proposals : one to come to the coast
of North America, at the fortieth par-
allel of latitude, to search for a river
or strait by which he might pass from
the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean ;
the other, to seek a passage at Da-
vis's Strait. The first field of explo-
ration was preferred, not only because
it wa^ in a warmer region, but on ac-
count of Hudson's inclination to make
the voyage, inasmuch as Captain John
Smith had sent him letters and maps
from Virginia, showing, as the former
thought, that it was possible for the
English navigator to sail from the
north part of America and reach the
Pacific Ocean, supposed at that time
to be not far west of the settlement
on the James River.

When Hudson ascended the Great
River, the Indians informed him that
the French had been coming in sloojjs
to the height of its navigation to trade
with them. Finding that he could go
no farther in the Half Moon than the
site of Waterford, Hudson sailed

The information respecting the
large quantities of beaver and otter
skins to be obtained from the natives


inhabiting the region of the Great
{Groote) River, as the Hudson was
first called by the Dutch, induced cer-
tain capitalists of Holland to send a
number of vessels to the river to traf-
fic for peltry. The profitable re-
turns of the ventures led to the organ-
ization of the West India Company,
of Holland, which in 1621, obtained a
charter from the government, which
granted the corporation the exclusive
privilege of trading with the natives
of that part of New France lying be-
tween the fortieth and forty-fifth par-
allels of north latitude. This terri-
tory, discovered by Verrazzano in
1524, and delineated on many rare
maps made in the same century, the
usurping Hollanders in 1614 called
New Netherland.

The members of the West India
Company, desiring to increase its rev-
enues, advertised in 1629 that any per-
son belonging to the association get-
ting fifty emigrants, over fifteen years
of age, to settle within four years on
a tract of land extending eight Dutch
or sixteen English miles, on one side
of a navigable river in New Nether-
land, or one-half that length on oppo-
site sides of a river, should be a pa-
troon and the proprietor of the land
on which the colony had been planted.
In 1630, Kiliaen Van Rensselaer, a
pearl merchant of Amsterdam, began
to send colonists to the North River,
or, as it was also called, Hudson's
River. He, having complied with
the requirements of the West India
Company, became the patroon of
Rensselaerswyck, a manor twenty-four
miles long and forty-eight wide, now
included within the limits of Albany,
Rensselaer and Columbia counties.
The great estate is delineated on a
parchment map, made about the year
1631, and preserved in the archives of
the Van Rensselaer family. The
north , boundary line of the manor
crossed the Hudson a little north of

the confluence of the Mohawk ; its
south one immediately below Beeren

The northeastern part of Rensse-
laerswyck included the site of Troy,
and was denominated on the map
Pafraets Dael, (Pafraets' Part), so
named, no doubt, in honor of Kiliaen
Van Rensselaer's mother, who was
called before her marriage Maria Pa-
fraets, or Pafraats, as the name was
sometimes written. On the map is a
delineation of an Indian fort, called
Unumats Casteel by the Dutch map
maker. This palisaded village of the
Mohegan Indians was seemingly on
the north bank of the stream now
known as the Poesten Kill. Some
years before the map was made, the
Mohegan tribe of Indians had pos-
sessed the land on the east side of
the Hudson, but they had been driven
from it by the Mohawk Indians liv-
ing along the Mohawk River.

It is related by J. Romeyn Brod-
head, the deceased historian, that the
site of Troy was included in a tract
of land purchased from the Indians
on March 13, 1652, by the agent of
the patroon of Rensselaerswyck, and
that it was called Paanpaack. Wheth-
er this be true or not, there is a con-
firmation of a patent in the office of
the Secretary of the State of New
York, given by Richard Nicolls, the
English governor, on April 13, 1667,
to Sweer Theunissen, declaratory of
his ownership of that part of the
the " Great Meadow Ground " which
was in the year 1659 purchased of the
Indian proprietors by Jan Barentsen
Wemp, with the leave and consent of
Jan Baptist Van Rensselaer and Arent
Van Corlaer. This tract of land,
Sweer Theunissen sold on May 6,
1679, to Pieter Van Woggelum. The
latter enlarged his possession of this
part of the site of Troy by purchas-
ing of Robert Saunders, on Septem-
ber 19, 1681, a part of the wood-


land called by the Indians Passquas-
sick, lying south of the Piscawen Kill,
a stream emptying into the hydraulic
canal, near the sloop lock, at the
state dam. On June 3, 1707, Derick
Van der Heyden purchased the two
tracts of land belonging to Pieter Van
Woggelum, and extending along the
Hudson River from the Poesten to the
Piscawen Kill. In 1720, on a map
made by Philip Verplanck of his sur-
vey of Derick Van der Heyden's
farm of 497 acres, two farm houses
are delineated which appear to be
near where now River and Ferry
streets intersect. As the Van der
Heyden farm lay witliin the limits of
the manor of Rensselaerswyck, the
Dutch farmer annually paid to the
patroon a ground-rent, in lieu of all
other dues, of three and three-fourths
bushels of wheat and two fat hens or
capons. In November, 1731, Derick
Van der Heyden divided his farm,
and conveyed an equal third part of
it to each of his three sons, Jacob,
David and Matthias. (See Troy.)


St. Mary's Commercial Acade-
my, No. 237 Fourth Street, between
Washington and Adams streets. The
institution had its beginning in a free
school established about the year
1847, by the Rev. Peter Havermans,
of St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church,
in a building No. 239 Fourth Street,
erected by him. About the year
I852, the school was given the name
of St. Joseph's Academy, and about
the year 1866, that of the Christian
Brothers' Academy. The name St.
Mary's Commercial Academy was ta-
ken in 1878, when the present build-
ing was erected. A number of Broth-
ers of the Christian Schools forms the
corps of teachers.

Troy Academy, northwest corner
of State and Seventh streets. The

act to incorporate the academy was
passed May c, 1834. The act to re-
vive tlie act incorporating it, and to
unite it with the Rensselaer Institute,
was passed May 8, 1837. The act
made it lawful for the two institutions
to become a corporate body, the
Rensselaer Institute to be the depart-
ment of experimental science, the
academy the department of classic
literature. On May 3, 1S3S, the trus-
tees resolved to adopt Charles H. An-
thony's school as the Troy Academy,
and to accept from the city the use of
the Lancasterian school-house, a frame
building, filled in with brick, 65 by 35
feet, two stories high, with a cupola,
erected in 1816, on the lot on the
northwest corner of State and Seventh
streets. On May 8, the city conveyed
to the trustees the school-house and
the lot on which it was built. In the
fall of the same year the first session
of the academy was begun, Charles
H. Anthony, piincipal, and John P.
Isham, assistant teacher. On Febru-
ary 5, 1839, the academy was placed
under the supervision and visitation
of the regents of the university. The
building was burned in the fire of May
10, 1862. The present building was
erected on the site of the former, and
completed in May, 1863. Since 1858,
T. Newton Willson has been princi-
pal of the academy.

Adams' Island. (See Van Scha-
ick's Island.)

Albany. Under the West India
Company, of Holland, a small colony
of French Walloons with a few Dutch
freemen was planted on the site of
Albany, in May, 1624. The place
was first called Fort Orange, the name
of the small fort of logs and earth
erected there that year. In 1652, the
hamlet was named Beverswyck (Bea-
ver Village), by Pieter Stuyvesant,
the Dutch director of the West India

Company. When surrendered to the
English, in 1664, it was named
Albany, in honor of James, Dake of
York and Albany. The village,
when repossessed by the Dutch, in
1672, was called Willemstadt, in honor
of William, Prince of Orange. In
1674, when transferred to the English,
it was again named Albany. It was
chattered a city by Governor Thomas
Dongan, July 22, 1686. Albany be-
came the seat of the state govern-
ment in 1797. The corner-stone of
the first Capitol was laii^! April 23,
1806 ; the corner-5tone of tlie present
imposing edifice, June 24, 1871. Pop-
ulation : 1790, 3,506; 1800, 5,349;
iSio, 9,356 ; 1814, 10,083 ; 1820,
12,541; 1825, 15,974; 1830, 24,238;
1835, 28,109; 1840, 33,663; 1845,
42,139; 1850, 50,763; 1855. 57.333;
i860, 62,367; 1865, 62,613; 1S70,
69,422; 1875, 86,013; 1880, ,0,903.
Distsit from Troy seven miles. Half
hourly trains kave Union Depot dai-
ly for Albany and intermediate places

Online LibraryArthur James WeiseThe city of Troy and its vicinity → online text (page 1 of 39)