Arthur John Hubbard.

The fate of empires; being an inquiry into the stability of civilisation online

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178 THE FATE OF EMPIRES

competitive stress, and recognising only racial duty,
fails socially, and China is filled by a population
that is brutalised by overcrowding, and rendered
desperate by the struggle for food. None the less,
it has shown us that an entirely racial Religion
is able to perform its proper function by securing
the preservation of the Race, and the permanence
of its civilisation, and that a sense of cosmocentric
duty is capable of restraining pure Reason. In
the whole method of Religious Motive the interests
of Society and of the Race would be reconciled by
a transformation whereby the interest of each
would disappear as an end to be gained whereby
the service of both would be converted into the
means of performing cosmocentric duty, and all
conduct would be held significant.

Yet we have to appeal to Reason itself to decide
whether valid grounds for this transformation are
forthcoming or not. For the supra-rational method
no more destroys Reason than Reason destroys
Instinct, or Instinct destroys Reflex Power. Here,
however, we do not discuss whether a belief in
the cosmocentric significance of conduct does or
does not stand justified in the courts of Reason.
We have nothing to do with the question whether
this, that, or the other Religion is true, false, or
non-proven. All such inquiries are outside the
scope of our work, and belong to the domain of
Theology.

Nevertheless it has become evident that a
Religion that makes all conduct of cosmocentric
significance is the one thing indispensable, and
that mankind has to look, in the first place, not to



A STABLE CIVILISATION 179

the statesman or the politician, not even to the
man of science, but to the theologian; neither
to Law, nor to Medicine, but to Divinity. For if,
upon the one hand, the cosmocentric significance of
all conduct cannot be verified, then a civilisation
that is both true and stable cannot be realised.
Upon the other hand, if Reason gives us the
assurance of the cosmocentric significance of all
conduct, both social and racial, as a matter of
fact, then Reason is not, indeed, destroyed, but
is overcome by obedience : a lifelong self-sacrifice
becomes compatible with it, and interest is trans-
muted into duty. Then, and then only, is it
given to us to build up a civilisation that, marred
neither by the racial death of Rome, nor the social
death-in-life of China, will lead us to limitless
achievement.

Yet, even then, a paradox remains.

In this, the method of Religious Motive, that
which is temporal is never an end in itself, but
becomes only the means of expressing the cosmo-
centric purpose of our lives. Thus a true and
stable civilisation can never be more than a by-
product of Religion. It is to be attained by those
alone of whom it is not sought ; and we see that,
in the long run, the world belongs to the un-
worldly ; that in the end, empire is to those to
whom empire is nothing ; and we remember, with a
sense of awe, the most astonishing of the Beati-
tudes : Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit
the earth.



INDEX

Action :

all possibility of unselfish, is taken away by common

ownership, 80

based upon the faculty of drawing inferences, 24, 25

Chinese thought and, I69

cosmocentric, attains a permanent civilisation, 103

course of, 4, 18, 29

forcibly controlled is not significant, 86

founded upon a disinterested basis, 48, 70

geocentric, cannot attain a permanent civilisation, 103

must be from within to be significant, 86

of racial value cannot be based on reason, 70

of reason in relation to competition, 36

of society, 94, 95, 98

prompted by religious motive, 94

respiratory centre called into, 10

self-interested, prompted by reason, 30

springing from impulse, 30

springing from the inferences of the individual, 30

test of social value of, 99

that is injurious to the social machine, 79

that of the trustee, 101

under the influence of pure reason, 94

which has not the opportunity of being controlled by law, 86

which may be self-instructive, 10
Action (Reflex) :

at the mercy of its surroundings, 10

development of, 9

disability of, 10

example of method of, 9

not merely useful but essential, 9

the first of the successive methods of maintaining life, 9
Agrippa, 143

Akiba, II9
Allegiance :

of rational individual is to himself and to his work, 84

of supra-rational individual is not to himself, not primarily

to his work, 84

181



182 THE FATE OF EMPIRES

America, 3, 53
Ancestor-worship in China :

illustration of, 154

the system of, 153
Antecedents :

harmony of human social systems with their own, 44

necessary to significance in conduct, 82

of civilisation, 3

the determinist is the creature of, 75
Aristotle, 149

Arnevatn, 44

Athene, 149

Athenian, 110

Athens, 5

Augustus Caesar, 111-114, 124, 139, 142, 143, 145, 146

Aurelius (Marcus), 3, 110, 121, 122, 124

Australia, 146



Babylon, 5

Barchochebas, 119

Bateson (Dr.), 150

Beatitudes, most astonishing of the, l79 .

Berlin, 60

Birthrate :

an ever-falling, 100

" corrected," of Berlin, 60

decline in, 60

failure of, 50, 53, 60

France has the lowest, 53

power of controlling, is a novel racial environment, 6l

power of unrestricted, 174

reason in the matter of the, 62

the German, 60

the liberty to regulate the, 88, 91

the racial evils and dangers attendant upon a low, 32,

56
Bosphorus, 147
Britain, 119
British Registrar-General :

figures issued by, 53
Brown (Sir J. Crichton), 53
Buddhism of China, 153
Bureaucracy :

a despotic, 40

revival of despotism in the form of, 39



INDEX 183

C^SARS (the), 146

Caius Caesar, 143

Caligula, 118

" Casarita " an example of inability to draw an inference, 19

Chain :

of creation, 155

of proximate creators, 155

of worship (in China), 155
Chekiang, l7l

Chemistry, 4
Child :

no place for it under method of reason, 63
Children :

Chinese priest's inquiries regarding, 154

famine of, in France, 64

living in sampan in China, 173

nurture of, 31, 57

of the Jews, 175

Roman laws concerning property and, 141

the future belongs to, 31

the possession of legitimate, the qualification for the

franchise, 99
China, 107, 152, 153, 158, l60, l66, I69, 173, l74, 177, 178,

179
Chinaman, 97
Cicero, 127
Civilisation :

a high, 139

a permanent, 67, 103, 112, 175

a true and stable, 179

advance of, 69

age-long preservation of, 157

ancient Egyptian, 175, 176

ancient Greek, 148

antecedents of, 3

based upon interest, 73

basis of permanent, 67, 74, 75, 151

cannot live by reason alone, 66, 68

Chinese, 110, 156, I69

Chinese race and, 175

consolidated under one administration in the Roman

Empire, 123

cosmocentric, IO9, 115

disappearance of Greek, 149

discovery of underlying principle of, 4

dominant influence in that of the white man, 100



184 THE FATE OF EMPIRES

Civilisation (^continued) :

enduring, l77

enduring in the East, 152

ephemeral in direct ratio to its dependence on reason, 63

exclusively racial in China, l68

exclusively social in the Roman Empire, l68

founded upon interest a flat impossibility if to be per-

manent, 64

geocentric, 108, lOp, 115

indispensable basis for a stable, 177

is everyone foredoomed to failure ? 66

maintenance of the existing, ll6

measure of the vitality of any given, 99

not subject to a fixed law, 4

of Europe and America in the present day, 3

one that would be marred neither by the racial death of

Rome, nor the social death-in-life of China, 179

permanence of, 175, 178

purely geocentric under Roman Empire, 122

purely rational, foredoomed to decay, 28

religion as the basis of, 73

resting upon a utilitarian basis, 66; cannot endure, 177

Roman, 109, 11 6, 122

suffered an eclipse that lasted for a thousand years after

the fall of Rome, 147

supra-rational in character, 108

that has already persisted for a long time, 109, 175

that is our heritage, 4

the existing, 3

the highways of, 62

the records of past and present, 107

two great examples of, 107

unshakable Chinese, 155
Civilisations :

all Western, 66, 100, 156

great ones of the West in the past, decay of, 5

struck down one after another, 63

the records of past and present, 107

two great, 109

Claudian line of Emperors in ancient Rome, 1 24
Cleavage between the interests of society and the race, 56
Clement of Alexandria, 102
Coemptio, 137
Commodus, 124
Competition :

abolition of, 36^ 79



INDEX 185

Competition (continued) :

abolition of, suggested in ancient Greece, 150

,j under Roman Empire, 128, et seq.

absence of, 39, 78

all that the individual gains by, 85

among a multitude of individuals, 40

among animals, 20

among contemporaries, 31, 51

an internecine contest, 37

and its reverse, 84

and private ownership, 45

between the individual and society, 45

between traders eliminated under the Roman Empire, 129

cannot be got rid of, except by getting rid of that for which

it is carried on, 42

duty of the individual with regard to, 86

elimination of, 39, 42

entire relief from the incubus of, 42

example of, among swans in Iceland, 44

for the absolute necessities of life, 1 6

genuinely to the interest of the individual to abolish, 42

how can it help ? 82

impulse to, 44, 45

internecine and lifelong under the method of instinct, 17

is it in the power of the individual to abolish? 38, 42

is it to his interest to abolish ? 38, 42, 49, 77

life of, 101, 133

object of eliminating, 128

objectless under Socialism, 43

problem of its abolition under reason, 36

reward of success in, 43

ruthless under instinct, 15

still one of the two great factors in the stress of life, 37

stimulus of, 3Q, 41

stoical endurance of, 108

strain caused by, 32, 56

stress of, l6, 32, 34, 37, 46

system of social, is instinctive, 49

system of unlimited, 77, 81

the self-seeking of, 79
Conduct :

a new rule of, when in the presence of the infinite, 71

a rule of, 75, 76

antecedents that are necessary to significance in, 82

avoidance of that which is injurious to contemporaries, 79

change from geocentric to cosmocentric, 74



186 THE FATE OF EMPIRES

Conduct (continued) :

constrained is not righteous, however right, 86

cosmocentric, 75, 76, 83, 178, 179

cutting off the entail of life, 88

disinterested, 63, 68

each of the geocentric methods fails to confer significance

upon, 82

earthly, when it becomes an instrument and not an end,

76

enlightened, of the determinist, 75

futile to say that instinct still governs it, 53

geocentric motive follows, 79

individual, in a socialistic society, 80

inferential, 30

interest of rational, 68

interested, 71

invested with the dignity of cosmocentric significance, 76

lawless, and constrained, neither significant, 86

of determinist purely geocentric, 75

of fatalist, 75

possibility of unselfish, 79

racial, 87, 89, 9I, 93, 97, 101

rational, 48, 49, 68, 156

significance in, 81, 82, 86, 93, 101

significant, 86, 97, l67, 178

social, 81, 85, 101

social in China, 156

that is of ultimate interest to the individual, 30

that is suitable to the environment of religious motive, 71

that will be of racial value, 66

unselfish, 76, 79

with regard to the race, 90
Confarreatio, 137

Confucius, 156

Constantine, 147

Cranial capacity of Chinese compared with other races, I66

Criterion of statesmanship, 99

Darwin, 18, 23
Death :

a little thing from the point of view of the Christian, 120

Christian welcoming, as the entrance to the world of his

Redeemer, 117

draws distinction between the individual and the race, 50,

52

duties in England, 98



INDEX 187

Death (continued) :

individual in the presence of, 50
in-life of China, 179

of a father is taken as an opportunity for plundering his

children, 98

racial, 13

racial, of Rome, 1 79

Salome asks how long it shall prevail, 102
Decay :

all purely rational civilisations foredoomed to, 28

cause of, 4

forces making for, 6, 67, 108

underlying forces making for, 45
Degeneration :

of character essential to smooth working of non- competitive

society, 41
Demetrius, 128
Despotism :

a revival of, in the form of bureaucracy, S^

presence of, in socialistic society, 41
Determinist :

does not believe that conduct is pre-ordained, 75
Development :

of reason, 10, 151

of reflex action, 9

physical and intellectual in China, I66

sudden, of reason in Greece, 150
Diagram :

illustrating growth and decay of civilisation, 7

illustrating the interests of the individual, society, and the

race, 35

of parallelogram of forces, 7
Dill (Sir Samuel), 11 6, 125, 127
Diocletian, 120, 128, 147
Disability :

arising from method of reason, 68

of merely reflex power contrasted with instinct, 10

peculiar to reason, 11, 67, 71

second, one of reflex power, 10

shared in common by reflex power and instinct, 10
Domesticated animals :

a pair of martins, 1 5
Duties :

EngUsh death, 98

social, 169

social, but no racial, under method of reason, 99



188 THE FATE OF EMPIRES

Duty:

Chinese sense of, 170

Christian, 152

clear region of, in Taoism, 156

cosmocentric, 76, 94, 167, 174, l78

interest transmuted into, 179

is it that of the individual to accept a competitive life ? 77

is it that of the individual to adopt a non-competitive life ?

77

is this in the power of the individual ? 77, 87

manner in which the individual can carry out his, 95

of significant racial conduct, 97

of the individual, 74, 77, 86, 87, 96

owing to the race, 153

racial, 92, 95, 96, 98, l67, I69, 178

religious, 152, 153, 158

social, 94, 152, l67

society possessed of, 94

takes the place of interest, 73

the portion of the individual, 103

to the family, 96

EcHARD, 118, 119, 120, 144
Education (" Higher ") :

of women in America leads to avoidance of motherhood, 53
Egypt, 176

Egyptians (Gospel according to), 102
Elimination of competition, 38, 39, 42
Ellett (G. G.), 174
Embassy :

from Marcus Aurelius to China, IO9, 110
Empire :

after empire struck down by reason, 63

an end in itself in Rome, 122

is to those to whom empire is nothing, 179

of Rome, 111, 117, 120, 123, 138, I68, 173, 174, 177

Socialism under the Roman, 128

society under the Roman, 134

the family and the race under the Roman, 1 34
Empires :

of Rome and China contemporary, 110

of the past, 4

of this world nothing to the Christian, 117
England, Socialism and a falling birthrate in, 6I
Entail of life :

continuance of, 51, 52, 53, 6I, 88, 89



INDEX 189

Entail of life (continued) :

interest of the individual to break, under method of reason,

52

law of, 92

must not be selfishly broken, 92, 102

power to break, 5S, 6I, 92
Environment :

change of, under Socialism, 43

created by inborn impulse, 70

created by instinct, 62, 70

created by reason, 70, 71

created by reflex power, 70

new racial, created by power to control birthrate, 61-63

of interest of society, 70

of life widened by each successive method, 69

of limitless wastefulness under instinct, 62

quite different under each new method, 62

relation of reason to its own, 70

that does not admit of further extension, 70, 71

that is not earthly, 71

the new, of religious motive, 71
Environments :

several, 70
Ephesus, 128
Eugenic measures :

immediate success of, 151

modern study of, 151

probably adopted in ancient Greece, 150, 151
Europe, 3, bS, 100, l7l

Experience :

a word of no meaning to the plant, 18

among Arctic foxes, 24

cannot dictate to the purely instinctive animal, 18

of no value without the power of drawing inferences,

20

we have no, of the efforts whereby life is maintained in

the animal world, 30

Family :

agnatic, 134, 136, I69, 173

among many and various peoples is regarded with venera-

tion, 97

and the faith among the Chinese, 97

and the race in China, I69

and the race under the Roman Empire, 134

as a link between society and the race, 96



190 THE FATE OF EMPIRES

Family (continued) :

as an institution attacked by death duties, 98

belonging to the river population in China, 173

Chinese assiduous only for the, 175

Chinese girl passes entirely out of her own, on marriage,

173

Chinese workman returns to his, after serving labour

association, 159

cognatic form of, 134, 136, 139

descent of agnatic family absolutely direct, 1 36

duty to the, is duty to the race, 96

events connected with, are of racial import, 97

fortune, and the Lex Sumptiiaria, 142

ignored in the polling-booth, Q^

importance to the Chinese, I69

in contact with the race under agnation, 137

in contact with society under cognation, 136

interest, and the destruction of female infants in China, 173

not directly benefited when the father gives up his life for

his country, 170

possesses an importance which extends beyond its thres-

hold, 98

preservation of, under Taoism, 156

racial duty is focussed upon the, 98

religious veneration of, leading to submission to racial

stress, 109

rewards to render fashionable, in Roman Empire, 142

so much paid to that of Chinaman who takes the place of

criminal condemned to death, 170

society the protector of, 98

State only exists for, 108, IO9, 170

supplanted by municipality in Roman Empire, 126

Taoism takes nothing into account except, I69

the agnatic, stands supreme in China, I69

the coming generations of the, and the purely rational

individual, 51

the disappearance of the, and the race, 51

the form of, among white men, 136

the form of, among yellow men, 136

the franchise an appurtenance of, Q^

the life of, is longer than that of the individual, shorter

than that of the race, 96

the nexus between the individual and the race, 98

the nexus between society and the race, 99

to strengthen the, is the aim of all right social action, 99

two forms of, 134



INDEX 191

Family (continued) :

under the Roman Empire, 134, 137-139

wife leaves hers, and passes under that of her husband,

136, 137
Fatalist:

believes that all conduct is preordained, 75
Fate:

of present civilisation of Europe and America, 3
Fatehpur Sikri, inscription on bridge at, 177

Firth (J. B.), Ill, 113, 114
Flaw :

can we discover any underlying the methods which have

failed to secure permanence ? l7

in instinct, destructiveness of, 20

lies in the method of instinct, 18

method of reason should have none that is inherent, 28

that involves the wastefulness of the method of instinct, 19

to make good the one in the previous method, 83

underlying instinct, 17, 20
Force :

authority of cosmocentric motive a decaying, 100

making for decay, 5, 67, 108

making for growth, 5, 67, 108
Forces :

constructive and destructive in civilisation, 4, 5

history gives resultant of, 5, 6, 101

magnitude of, in civilisation, 5

parallelogram of, 5, 7

that have been in operation from the very beginning, 6

themselves must be constants, 5

those that we are seeking, 6

two component, 6

underlying, discovery of the, 45
France, 53, 6l, 63

Franchise :

an appurtenance of the family, 99
Fung-Shui, 153

Future :

believed by fatalist to be foreordained, 75

building up the, burden of, 52

generations of the, 32, 33, 49, 56

in which the individual has no part, 13, 51

no mark left upon it by those who die before the age of

parenthood is reached, l6

not petrified by an external fiat, according to belief of

determinist, 75



192 THE FATE OF EMPIRES

Future {continued) :

provision for, needless to society, 36

provision that is of significance in the, 97

the dim, and the individual, 95

the living of the, linked to those of the present, 96

Gap:

in instinct, 23

left by instinct is filled by reason, 70

left by reflex action is filled by instinct, 70
Generation :

Min, the god of, (ancient Egypt), 176

one after the other influences civilisation by the course of

action that it takes, 4

one after the other takes up the labour of instinctive re-

production, 15
Generations :

future, provision of, in absence of competition, 32

past and future, linked in agnatic family, 136

provision of future, 49, 56

the coming, 34, 51, 52, 88, 155

unborn, and definition of terms " society " and " race," 33

unoccupied areas await the coming, 31
Germanicus, 124

Germany, 60, 6I

Gibbon, 115, II6, 117, II9, 121, 139. 146
Greece (ancient), 148-151, 174
Growth :

force making for, 6, 67, 108

of reason, 83

promise of indefinite, under method of religious motive, 71

relative rate of, of instinct and reason, 27

underlying forces making for, 45

Hadrian, II9

Hegemony of world could be seized by China, 175

of world lately held by French, 64
Heliogabalus, 125, 146

Heredity :

the secrets of, do not contain the basis of permanent

civilisation, 151
Hiao :

Chinese classics devoted to the cult of, 170

cult leads to the enfeeblement of society, 170

meaning of, 135

no social influence, 156



INDEX 193

Hiatus between interest of society and the race, 58, 71
Historians :

Chinese, 109

the ancient, and the Roman Emperors, 124
History :

a resultant of forces, 5

Chinese, 134, 171

components of, 107

different course might have been taken by, 65

does not give the direction of its components, 107

European, 100, 126

failures recorded in, 35

of ancient Greek civilisation, 148

of persecutions, 120

of the growth of reason, 83

of the temporary renascence achieved by Augustus in the

Roman Empire, 112

recorded, 5, 6, 28, 29, 101

reports only the end of the journey of organic advance, 6

Roman, 134

showing a non-competitive system, 132

supra-rational motive occupies a dominant position in ex-

amples of long racial persistence, 175

the shadows of, 28

the splendour of man's achievements shines in, 28
Horace, 50

Horror :

followed upon horror during the persecutions of the

Christians in Rome, 120

inspired by socialistic conditions of life, 38

of socialistic conditions of life justified, 79

racial conditions of Roman society excite, 123
Hostility :

between the interests of the individual and the race, 52

essential between reason and instinct, 83

persists also between the race and society, 59

reason not concerned to avert, 52

Roman Emperors never excited any in their subjects by

their conduct, 125

to non-competitive life, 81

Iceland, 44

Ideals of goodness set up by the moralists of the Roman

Empire, 128
Illustration :

historical, 107, ei seq.

N



194 THE FATE OF EMPIRES

Illustration (continued) :

of coincidence of revolt against social and racial stresses, 60

of conditions of growth and decay, 7

of defence of the rights of property in the animal world,

44-

of difference between West and East, 170

of individual ownership, 44

of opposite extremes found in Rome and China, 177

of principle of significance in conduct, 102

of the flaw in the method of instinct, 1 8

of the manner in which a high civilisation can be attained,

139

of the movement in the direction of the power of drawing

inferences, 23

of the whole method of religious motive, 177

of triangle of interests of the individual, society, and the

race, 55

use of parallelogram of forces as an, 5
Impulse :

actions springing from, their relation to reason, 30

gratification of, 13, 14, 29, 68

inborn and unquestionable, of instinct, 14, 18

of racial value acts by gratification of individual, 70

purely instinctive animal dominated by, 14

race acting by means of instinctive, 29

that would spring into useful action in every emergency,

26

to competition, 44, 45

under control of reason, 27
Inborn impulses :

environment created by, is that of the individual, 70

foregone conclusions of, 29, 84

gratification of, instinct knows no more than, 1 0, 1 5

inherited, 12, 13, 17

instinctive animal unable to do more than follow, 62

method of, 70

of instinct, 10, 12, 70

possession of, 10, 70

purely reflex world knows nothing of, 30

self-sacrifice due to, 77
Individual :

a servant under the method of religious motive, 84
advantage of, decides between claims of society and the

race, 35

alone with the race in the region of instinct, 33

as an instrument of the race, 29



INDEX 195

Individual (continued) :

attitude of the, towards the race, 95

can only escape from the racial stress by avoidance of

parenthood, 58

can serve the race, 9^

Chinese religion serves no purpose of, 156

competition between him and society, 45

condemned by method of instinct, 17

conflict between the, and society, 47


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