Arthur John Hubbard.

The fate of empires; being an inquiry into the stability of civilisation online

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death draws distinction between the, and the race, 52

definite disadvantage to, under method of instinct, 15

diagram of interests of society, the race, and, 35 , 55

divergence between his interests and those of the race, 56

divided from society by competitive stress, 34

does reason confer upon him the power to act in his sole

interest? 53

duty of the, with regard to the race, 87

equal to society, 55

greater than the race, 54, 55

has but a brief span of life in comparison with the race, 50

held in subjection to the race under method of instinct, 17

hostility between his interests and those of the race, 52

how does he fare under the method of instinct? 14

identification of his interest with that of society, 55, 57

if he lived as long as the race, 50

if society takes the place of, 56

impelled by instinct to the care of the young of the species,


in contact with the race, 33, 34}

in relation to the creative principle of the universe, 155

incurs stress of competition, 34

instinct does not necessarily act to his advantage, 29

instinct leaves no judgment to the, 14

instinct secures his subordination to the race, 14, 25

instinct subjects him to social competition, 49

interaction of his interests with those of society and the

race, 33, 34)

interest of, 30, 32-34, 42, 46, 48, 55, 95

interest of, in relation to unborn generations, 34

interest of society and, 34, 36, 37, 42, 50, 56, 94

interest of the race and, 34, 54, 56, 59

is it his duty to adopt a non-competitive life ? 77

is it his duty to carry the multiplication of the race to its

utmost limits ? 87

is it his duty to perpetuate conditions of strife ? 77

is it to his interest to abolish competition ? 38, 48, 49, 77


Individual (continued) :

is it to his interest to break the entail of life ? 52

is it to his interest to decline the provision of future

generations ? 49

is it within his power so to frame his life that his conduct

shall be of cosmocentric significance? 81, 87, 90

is it within his power to avoid the racial a-morality of

instinct and immorality of reason ? 89^ 90

is it within his power to avoid the social immorality of

instinct and a-morality of reason ? 81

lines indicated by interest of, 32

lives in the presence of an ever-approaching death, 50

logical position of, vis-d-vis to the race, 58

marriage an act of madness on the part of a rational, 58, 96

method of instinct costly to, 1 7

minimum of reproduction on the part of, 57

moral position in the absence of competition and in a world

wherein all property would be vested in society, and
nothing would be owned by him, 78

moved only by interest, 51

mutual dependence of himself, society, and the race, 9^

nature inflicts no penalty on, for childlessness, 51

racial conduct of, 97

racial duty of, its cosmocentric importance, 92 ; transmuted

into duty to family, 96

rational interests of, 35

rational relations of society and the, 55

rational relations of the race and the, 55

reason at the service of the, 29, 34, 55

sacrificed without mercy under method of instinct, 15, 17,


secures for the race a future in which he has no part, 13

self-sacrifice of, available under method of religious motive,


separated from the race, but not from society, 34

stresses that bear upon the, 32, 56

strife between society and, 37

subjection of, to society, 85

subjection of, to the interest of the race, 48

subjection of, to the race under religious motive, Q2

subordination to the race under method of instinct, 14, 15

supreme power passes from the race to, under method of

reason, 30

the duty of, is clear under method of religious motive, 86,


the purview of, future of race far removed from, 95


Individual {continued) :

the term needs no definition, 32

the transitory, 13

to him it makes no difference whether the stress falls upon

him as the father of a family, or as a citizen of a
socialistic society, 58

under the influence of religious motive, 9^, 103
Individuals :

acting in social concert, 94, 95

existing sum of, constitutes '^ society," 33
Inference :

"casarita" had not the faculty of drawing, 20

man acts upon, drawn from observation, 31
Inferences :

action springing from, appears under method of reason, 30

advantage of power of drawing, 29

faculty of drawing, I9, 25

fox able to draw several, 24

lack of the power of drawing, leads to wastefulness of life,

19-21, 62

movement in the direction of acquiring the power of

drawing, 22

power of drawing, 10, 12, 20, 26, 28, 29

purely instinctive animal knows nothing of, 30

rational individual draws his own, 29
Inge (Dr.), 115, 118, 132, 138, 139, 141
Inscription on bridge at Fatehpur Sikri, l77
Instinct :

a new faculty arises to remedy the defect of, 24

a stereotyped inheritance, 29

action springing from impulse stands to it as inferential

conduct does to reason, 30

advantage wholly to the race, 15

advantages and limitations of, 12

alone speaks in the imperative mood to an animal, 18

and reason pull in opposite directions, 49

appearance of method of, supplements reflex power, 70

arose and survived, conditions under which, 62

as a modus vivendi between the transitory and the perma-

nent, 13, 17

as contrasted with reflex power, 10

avoidance of wastefulness of, by means of reason, 24

"casarita" obedient to, I9, 20

character of method of, 90, 92

comparison of method with that of reason and of religious

motive, 28, 29, 74


Instinct (continued) :

condemns individuals to die in myriads, l7

definition of, 12

does not destroy reflex power, 178

does not touch reason^ 28

element of liberty in method of, 85

essentially a property of the race, 29

ever-increasing power of reason as compared with, 27

example of the limitation of, 1 9

excluded by reason, 83

flaw in, 17, 20, 24

furnishes law against anarchy of method of reason, 91

futile to say it still governs conduct, 53

gap in, filled, 23

gratification of impulse of, 13, 27, 68

great as are its advantages it does not provide any escape
from the stress of competition, 1 8

held in the leash of reason, 49

history a complex of reason, religious motive, and, 29

history of the overthrow of, 83

hostility of the race to the individual is masked by, 52

how far is the interest of the individual consulted under

this method? 14

how has it answered the problem ? 1 3

illustration of method of, 1 8-20

impossibly cumbrous if asked to provide for every change

of environment, 26

impulses of, 63

inability to deal with competitive stress, 72

individuals impelled by it to the care of the young of the

species, 14

its racial a-morality precludes its adoption by religious

motive, 89

knows nothing but immediate impulse, 10, 13

leaves no judgment to the individual, 14

limitless wastefulness of this method is reduced by reason, 38

method of, 12, 13, 26, 29, 67, 72, 76, 77, 87, 88

no record of an enduring civilisation that rested on this

alone, 177

obeyed just as blindly as reflex action, 10

outruns the limits of possible sustenance, l6, 30

parental, 14

parents the tools of, 15

power of rational action superadded to, 25

power to control birthrate absent under method of, 6l

purely an appurtenance of the race, 14


Instinct (continued) :

racial a-morality of, 88, 90, 92, 103

reason does not destroy, 178

reason does not exist apart from, 28

reason the predominant partner in the association with,

27, 38, 46

reason will overtake, 27

reliance on, in respect of reproduction, 49

social chaos of the method of, 82

social immorality of, 81, 85, 88, 103

strong though it is, it has fallen into the toils of reason, 53

subjects the individual to competition, 49

succeeds reflex action, 9, 62

supersessiqn of, by reason, 30

tendency towards perfection of the method of, 26

the constraint that ensures the continuance of the entail of

life is absolute under this method, 52

the enemy of society, 83

the flaw lies in its wastefulness, 17

the servant of the race, 83

tyranny of, 15

unable to dominate its environment, 62

useful inborn impulses of, 70

wanes while reason waxes, 49

wastefulness of, 19-21, 37, 62, 63

what are its advantages and disadvantages? 13, 14

what is the common element of failure in methods of reflex

action, reason, and ? 68

would come into its own again when reason becomes self-

destructive, 83
Instincts :

operation of two, 1 5
Interest :

all unknown to purely instinctive animal, 1 2

arguments put forward on the grounds of, 39, 40

blank which separates that of the race from that of society,


civilisation founded upon, is a flat impossibility, 64

duty takes the place of, under method of religious motive, 73

family, among Chinese, 173

how does death affect ? 50

in carrying on the race, 56

instinct acting in that of the race, 29

interaction of that of the individual with that of society

and the race, 33

is dominant under reason, 126


Interest (continued) :

most complete expression of, is to be found in a socialistic

form of society, 47, 63

necessary disappearance of any civilisation based upon, 73

of a socialistic society identical with that of the individual,


of all the living to break the entail of life, 62

of every individual to eliminate competition from life, 42

of society, 57, 70, 98, 156

of society and the race, 58, 64

of the individual, 14, 30, 32-34, 40, 45, 51,52, 54, 79, 9*,

95, 178

of the individual and society, 42, 46, 47, 50, 55, 57

of the individual and the race, 52, 68

of the individual in regard to competition, 42, 48, 49, 77

of the race, 14, 36, 56, 6l

of votaries not considered by Chinese religion, 156

pure reason does not subordinate its owner to any consi-

deration outside, 29, SO

purely and inevitably a matter of, in a socialistic society, 78

race acting in its own, by means of instinct, 29

rational, 51

reason acting in that of the individual, 30, 55, 94

reconciliation of that of the individual with that of society,


sacrifice of private, impossible in socialistic society, 79

subordination of that of the individual to that of the race, 68

temporal, is nothing under method of religious motive, 72

the only guiding principle under reason, 71

transmuted into duty, 179

ultimate, of the individual, 30
Interests :

geocentric, 95

identity of, of individual and society, 58

of the individual and the race, 52, 54-56, 59

relative, of society and the race, 35, 50, 55, 64, 65, l78

relative, of the individual and society, 34, 36, 56

relative, of the individual and the race, 34, 48

respective, of society and the race, 98, 146

respective, of the race and the individual, 50

those of society and the individual will not be at variance

if both are confined within the same space of time, 36

triangle of, 55

whither do they lead with regard to stress of competition

and stress of reproduction ? 32
Italy, 112, 146, 147


Jew (the), 110, 117, 119, 175, 176

Jews (the), 119

Jones (W. H. S.), l74

Julia. See Lex

Julius Caesar, 111

Julius Severus, 119

Justinian, 139

Juvenal, 127, 128

Karnac, 176
Keble, 3
Kiang-Se, 171

Labour exchanges in China, l60

Lactantius, 147

Lankester (Sir E. Ray), 15, 20, 22


all social, excluded under method of instinct, 82

and liberty, 86, 90, 92, 102

element of, belongs to method of reason, 82

enjoins that the entail should not be broken, 102

failed in its purpose in ancient Rome, 143

instinct furnishes racial, 91

itself essential to significance, 92

method of religious motive retains, 92

none in unlimited competition, 77

not permitted to become a dead letter in Roman Empire,


obedience to the, only significant when liberty is also

possessed, 92

of entail of Ufe, 92

of inheritance under Augustus, 141

of non- competitive method, 85

of the one and liberty of the other method, 91

reason furnishes social, 82

retention of the element of, 85

that justifies the existence of the individual, 92

the Jewish, 175

the opportunity of being controlled by, S6

under which the individual has come into possession of

life, 92

unselfish liberty would take the place of, 102
Lawlessness :

the very height of, 89
Lex :

de adulteriis, 142, 143


Lex {continued) :

de maritandis ordinihus, 141

Julia, 141-143

Pappia Poppcea, 142, 143
Limpet :

as an illustration of the method of reflex action, 9
Literature (Roman), 127

Long (George), 121
Lucius Caesar, 143

Machine (great Roman) provided a socialistic existence, 133
Machinery :

for significance in racial conduct, gS

for significant social conduct, 86

reciprocating, of a method of religious motive, 83

that is perfect both socially and racially, 103
Maine (Sir Henry), 74, 1 35

Man :

advance from protozoal organism to, 9

at the head of the organic world, 28

drawing an inference from his observation is able to make
use of the processes of nature, 31

pre-eminently the reasoning animal, 27

to him the two stresses of life remain unaltered, 31
Marcus Aurelius. See Aurelius

Marriage :

an act of madness in a purely rational individual, 52, 58, 96

Chinese conditions of, 173

^'higher" education of women in America leads to avoid-

ance of, 53

in the Roman Empire, 137, 138, 141, 142

that has not received religious sanction is regarded with

doubt and contempt, 97

under agnatic conditions, 136

under religious motive, 96
Marry (to) :

the great racial act of a man's lifetime, 52
Martial, 127, 128

Matrimony :

aversion from, under Roman Empire, 138
Method. See Instinct, Reason, and Religious Motive
Mill (J. S.), 64

Miocene period, 7
Mithraism, 115, II6
Mohammedans, 97
Montesquieu (de), 142


Motive. See Religious
Musonius, 127

Nationalisation of property, 43
Nazarene, 9?
Nero, 120, 124, 125, 145
Newsholme (Arthur, M.D.), 60

Ovid, 112

Pandataria, 143
Parallelogram of forces, 5, 7
Parentage :

selection for, in ancient Greek life, 151
Parenthood :

avoidance of, alone can remove the stress of reproduction,


self-sacrifice involved in, 54
Parents :

are but tools under the method of instinct, 15

exercise of the franchise should be the joint act of two, 99

instinct subordinates them to the care of the young, l6

must hunt for the insatiable young in the animal world,


of the generations to come incur the stress of reproduc-

tion, 51

only one pair of young can succeed to the position of, in

the animal world, l6

the life of, under method of instinct, 1 5
Paul (St.), 128

Petrie (Prof Flinders), 128, 130, 132, 159
Petronius, 127, 128, 141
Pharaohs :

Chinese contemporary with the, 110
Phenomena :

similarity of, in ancient Greece and Rome, 149

socialistic, 50, 60, 108

twin. Socialism and a failure of the birthrate are, 6l
Phenomenon :

an intermittent, civilisation resting on utilitarian basis

is, 66

of Chinese paralysis in scientific research, 170
Physics, 4

Plato, 149
Pliny, 127
Portugal, 171


Power :

assumption of, by the State, 108

called into action by external stimulus, 9

concentrated upon one point, in Taoism, 156

conferred by reason, 27, 57

disability of merely reflex, 10

inherent in religious motive, 76, 84

latent, of the Chinese, 175

need of one that can act independently of a stimulus,


of drawing a conclusion from premisses, 27

of drawing inferences, 10, 12, 20, 22, 28, 70

of husband in Rome, 137

of inborn instinctive action, 24

of involuntary response to an external stimulus, 9^ ^9

of '^ looking before and after," 29

of rational action, 24, 27

of reason, 27, 37, 45, 48, 49, 62, 92, l67

of reasoning, 20

of religious motive, 76, 77, 84, 86, 87, 92

of seeking the good of contemporaries, 79

of self-sacrifice, 72

- of the individual, 32, 43, 49, 52, 77, 81, 83, 87

of the methods to amalgamate, 83

of unrestricted birthrate, 1 74

of working for private advantage, 78-80

reflex, 10, 62, 70, 178

selective, of method of religious motive, 85

superior to reason, 42

that acts ab extra, 15

to break the entail of life, 5S, 6l, 92

to control the birthrate, 6l, 91

to deal adequately with the racial and social stress, 72

to make good the disability of reason, 7 1

to retain both liberty and law, 86

wife passed under the, of her husband under confarreatio

and coemptio in the Roman Empire, but not under
tisus, 137, 138
Problem :

of the abolition of competition, SQ

of the maintenance of the race, 13

the old, new problems raised by solution of, ()[)

the standing, is to reconcile individual and race, 13
Problems :

a series of new ones raised by each new method, Q^

the special ones dealt with by each method, 69


Progress :

under method of instinct is wasteful, 17, et seq.
Property :

nationalisation of, 43
Protozoal organism :

advance from, to man, 9


Race :

advantage of instinct falls to the, l4, 15, 17

advantage of reason is not limited to the, 29

argument dealing with the, analogous to that dealing with

society, 90

attitude of the individual towards, 94

blank that separates its interest from that of society, 71

can only endure under a method which helps the transitory

to act in behalf of the permanent, 25

cleavage between the interests of society and the, bQ

conduct that serves the, 76, 90, 91

continued under influence of instinct, 1 6, 49

cosmocentric considerations require the individual to act

unselfishly in favour of the, 95

death draws distinction between the individual and the, 52

definition of, SS

diagram illustrating the interests of the individual, society,

and the, 35, 55

dim future of the, is far removed from purview of the

individual, 95

distinction between society and the, SS, Q5, 1 23

divergence between interests of the individual and the, 5Q

diverse interests of the individual and, 55

duty towards, 87, 94, 153

earthly conduct concerning, has cosmocentric significance,

76, 89, 101

has a future in which the individual has no part, 1 3

hopes to preserve, Augustus's, 139

hostility of society to the, ^5

hostility of the interests of the individual and the, 52

if the individual lived as long as the, 50

in contact with the individual, SS, 34

in pure reason the individual is greater than the, 54, 55

individual held in subjugation to the, by instinct, 17

instinct a property of the, 29

instinct an appurtenance of the, 14

instinct the servant of the, 83

instinctive individual held in subjugation to the, 15


Race (continued) :

instinctive method successful in subordinating the indi-

vidual to the, 25

instincts that concern themselves about the, 48

interaction of interests of the individual with that of

society and the, SS

interest of the, in no way involved in reconciliation of indi-

vidual and society, SQ

interest of society and the, 34, S5, 58, 64, 98, 146, 178

interest of the individual and the, 34, 48, 5Q

interest of the individual cannot be identified with that of

the, 54

interest of the individual separated from that of the, 1 4, 34

inviolability of Chinese, 175

invulnerability of Chinese, 157

is injured under method of reason, 51

is it the duty of the individual to carry the, to its utmost

limits? 87

lives in an ever-moving present, 50

logical position of society vis-d-vis to, 58

maintained and magnified in China in spite of enormous

difficulties, I69

maintenance of the, 96

means whereby the individual can serve the, 96

mutual relations of society and the, 94'

one that has disappeared, 110

only the individual and the, 33

organic advance and perfection of the, 1 7

permanent, 13

preservation of the, 88, 178

problems of the maintenance of the, 1 3

pure reason careless of the, 54

pure reason the enemy of the, 83

rational destruction of the interest of the, 6I

rational relations of the individual and the, 55

reason deadly to the, 177

reason would subordinate the interest of, to that of the

individual, 55

regarded as an organism possessed of indefinitely prolonged

existence, 50

relation of the interest of society with that of the, 35, 55

relations between society and, 59

religious motive retains law so far as interests of, are

concerned, 92

reproduction of the, 32, 34, 56

result accruing to the, under reason, 48


Race (continued) :

self-destruction of the, the result of eugenic measures, 151

served by Taoism in China, 156

society ancillary to, under religious motive, 95

society and the, are guarded under method of religious

motive, 102

subjection of the individual to the, 48, 92

subordination of the individual to the, 15

sudden development and extermination of ancient Greek,


supreme power passes from the, to the individual, 30

the Chinese, 174, l75

the demands of the, behests of cosmocentric religion higher

than, 76

the family and the, in China, I69

the family and the, under the Roman Empire, 1 34

the family in contact with, shown in agnatic relationship,


the Greek, 148, 174

the individual sacrificed to the, under method of instinct,


the inheritance of the, spent upon society in Rome, 139, 146

the most successful, efforts to breed in ancient Greece, 150

the mutual dependence of society and, 56

the position of the, under Roman Empire, 139

the Roman malaria, 174

the sacrifice of the, in favour of society in Rome, 1 39

the unit of the, is not the family, 99

the use of the word, will be only as defined, 33

toll taken from the, by reason, 63

uses the individual as an instrument under the method

of instinct, 29
Race-suicide :

direct incitement to, by death duties, 98
Reason :

a tincture of, co-existing with instinct, 12, 22

acting in the interest of the individual, 30

action of society under the method of, 94?

advantage of this method is that it waits on the individual,


a method entitled to take precedence of, 66

a population devoid of, I66

an animal endowed with power of rational action will make

itself master of the world, 27

and instinct pull in opposite directions, 49

appeal is ultimately to, 178


Reason (continued) :

arose to remedy the flaw in instinct, and filled the gap left

by it, 62, 70

as a geocentric method, 84

as a modus vivendi between the transitory and the per-

manent, 13

at the service of the individual, 34

blankly a-moral, 80

can it state the terms of the mutual dependence of society

and the race ? 56

can this method be justified ? 35

careless of the race, 54

character of, 90, 92

civilisation is ephemeral in direct ratio to its dependence

on, 63

compelling French society to advance to racial doom, 64

competition from point of view of, 41, 42

condemnation of method of, 60

condemned if it does not afford a basis for a stable civilisa-

tion, 35

confers power to break the entail of life, 53

deadly to the race, 177

definition of, 28

desires identification of interest of individual with that of

society, 55

development of, rapid in ancient Greece, 148, 151

did not spare new-comers in Roman Empire, 146

disability special to, 67, 71

does not exist apart from instinct, 28

does not lend herself to equivocation, 57

does not subordinate the individual to any considerations

outside his own interest, 29, 30

dominant in Roman Empire, 139

environment created by, 70, 71

ever-increasing power of, as compared with instinct, 27

example of movement in the direction of drawing infer-

ences, 22-24

extirpated the great breed of Rome, 147

failure of, to reconcile interests of individual and the race,

54, 56

family not justified under, 98

first achieved predominance by reducing the limitless

waste in the method of instinct, 38

frees the individual from both stresses, 49

generally found in conjunction with some form of religious

motive, 28


Reason (continued) :

gift of, is the true means of subduing surroundings, 31

gives power to break the entail of life, 92

gives power to control the birthrate, 6l, 88

gulf between primarily rational and primarily instinctive,


has already wrought an immense change, 37

has created, but left unsatisfied, the need of a basis of

racial action, 70

has made the human being the overlord of creation, and,

in him, has attained the overlordship over instinct,

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13