Arthur John Hubbard.

The fate of empires; being an inquiry into the stability of civilisation online

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has no racial quality, 52

highest expression of, is to be found in socialism, 46, 6l

history a complex of instinct, religious motive, and, 29

history of the growth of, 83

hostility of society to the race under the method of, 95

how can this method help ? 31, 82

how will it deal with the two permanent stresses ? 31

humanity circumscribed by, in absence of freedom of the

will, 75

if man is absolutely dependent upon it this method should

have no flaw, 28

imperious, demands total abolition of the two stresses of

life, 57

in relation to competition, 36, 48, 6l

in relation to reproduction, 48

in the ascendant in Rome, 133

in the matter of the birthrate, 62

incompetent because it does not provide a place for dis-

interested conduct, 68

inevitable work of, is to break the entail of life, 62

inferential conduct stands in the same relation to it that

impulsive action stands to instinct, 30

inferential power of, 45

- instinct fallen into the toils of, 53

instinct held in the leash of, 49

interests of society and, 98

is it competent to abolish competition ? 38

is not destroyed by religious motive, 179

is the method that judges by interest, 39

judged by the cosmocentric standard, 8^

limitations that make it incompetent, 72

loses its old-time cogency, 79

magnifies its office, 63

marred by a disability peculiar to itself, 1 1



Reason (continued) :

may be a sufficient guide if the interests of the individual

and the race can be reconciled, 36

method of, 2.9, 35, 42, 66, 67, 72, 76, 84, 85, 89, 95,


method of, fails racially, 66

modicum of, possessed by modern animals, 20

moral aspect of method, 88

must advance on lines indicated by the interest of the

individual, 32

no record of an enduring civilisation that rested on,


not discarded, but new method superimposed over, 68

office of, is to prevent waste, 46

only in rational world that conduct that is of ultimate

interest to the individual appears, 30, 32

philosophy of Stoic was circumscribed by, 112

power of, 37, 48, l67

pre-eminence in, among ancient Greeks, 149

prepotent, would become self-destructive, 83

progressively increasing ascendancy of, 45

provides a short cut to advantageous position, 26

provides racial liberty, 91

racial anarchy of, 91

racial destruction at the bidding of, 6l

racial immorality and social a-morality of, 89, 103

racial immorality of, precludes its adoption by religious

motive, 89

racial insolvency of, 65

racial liberty of, 92

racially discredited method of, 78

relation of, to its own environment, 70

relations with social stress, 77

removal of both stresses demanded by, 58

retention of element of law under, 85

reverses conditions of instinctive life, 30

scope of, 29

seems to lose its old-time cogency when advocating non-

competitive conditions, 38

sense of cosmocentric duty capable of restraining, 178

social a-morality of, obviated by religious motive, 85

socialism the highest expression of, 46, 6l

socially a-moral character and method of, 81

still operative, 38

stopped at no halfway house in ancient Rome, 1 38

succeeds instinct, 12


Reason (continued) :

supra-rational method no more destroys it than this

method destroys instinct, but is superimposed over it,
68, 178

taking all the earth for its province, 71

the courts of, the method of religious motive in, 178

the demands of, effect upon marriage in Rome, 138

the enemy of the race, 83

the interests of the individual and the race cannot be

identified, because under this method the individual is
greater than the race, 54

the power to make good the special disability of, 71

the predominant partner in the association with instinct,


the prepotent factor, 45

the triumph of, in Rome, 122

the very beginnings of, 20

the work of, 125, 126

this method and that of instinct have failed, 67

to palter with, 57

unsuccessful in any attempt to reconcile interests of indi-

vidual and race, 55

want of, instinct fails for, I9

wanton bidding of, 89

wastefulness of, 63

waxes while instinct wanes, 49

what has been its action in dealing with the strife between

the individual and society ? 36, 31

what is the common element of failure ? 68

why should it not substitute a non-competitive system ? 38

why should it stop with its work half done ? 38

will no longer be a slave to instinct, 27

will overtake instinct, 27

would subordinate the interest of the race to that of the

individual, 55
Reciprocating machinery. See Machinery
Religious Motive :

able to retain element of value in each of the other

systems, 85

and duty, 77, ^5

and non-competitive life, 78

and purely competitive life, 77

as a modus vivendi between the transitory and the perma-

nent, 13

as the basis of a permanent civilisation, 74

attitude of society under the method of, 95

o 2


Religious Motive (continued) :

comes with its own authority, 84

continuance of entail vital to, 89

does not seek geocentric interest, 101

evidence of ability brought by, 87

has it failed ? 100

history a complex of instinct, reason, and, 29

individual takes his own course in this method, 86

influence of, on society, 94

is wholly distinct from its predecessors, 74

justification of method, 100

law and liberty co-ordinated under, 92, 102

liberty demanded by this method, 101

method falls neither into racial immorality nor social

a-morality, but is perfect both socially and racially, 103

method of, 9, 13, 74, 85, 100, 177-179

mutual relations of society and the race under, 94

not directly concerned with geocentric interests, 95

office of society under, 96

point of view of, 90

possessed of a quality that distinguishes it from its prede-

cessors, 74, 83

power found under, Q2

power of this method to deal with social stress and with

racial stress, 73, 86

reason dissociated from, 28

reason found in conjunction with, 28

reciprocating machinery of, 83

relation of, to racial stress, 87

relation of, to social stress, 74, 77, 78

retains law and liberty, 92

selective power of this method, 92

society under the influence of this method, 96, 98

standpoint of, 77

would be equally stultified by the exclusive adoption of the

racial element in either of the geocentric methods, 89

would be equally stultified by the exclusive adoption of

the social element in either of the geocentric methods, 81
Reproduction :

See Stress, subheading racial or reproductive
Revolt :

against both the social and the racial stress, 60, 100

against the one stress, 60

against the other, 60

against the racial stress in Rome, 137, 139

against the social stress in Rome, 137


Revolt (continued) :

against the two primary stresses, 108

of reason shows itself simultaneously against the social

stress and the racial stress, 60

the emperors of Rome not destroyed by any, 125
Riddle :

of the Sphinx, 13, 1 7

limpet clinging to, as an illustration of method of reflex

action, 9
Romanes (Dr.), 23

Rome, 45, 107, 110, 112, 116-118, 123, 139, 149, 158, 174, 177
Ross (Prof E. A.), l60, l66, l7l, 172
Ross (Sir Ronald), 174

Saint Paul. See Paul
Salome, 102
Scandinavian lemming :

as an illustration of the flaw in instinct, 10
School :

the newer, of economists, 32, 56

the older, of economists, 32, 56
Schools :

of thought, 32
Self-sacrifice :

a life-long, circumstances under which it becomes com-

patible with reason, 179

a life of reasoned, 72

an accident of, stable civilisation only possible as, 103

in the service of Tao, 156

of a rational being, 75, 76, 103, 114

of inborn impulse, 77

of the individual in favour of the race is not warranted by

reason, 68

power of, frees the method of religious motive from the

incompetence of the method of reason, 72

the need of, revealed by reason, 71
Service ;

a life of significant, is the work of the individual under the

method of religious motive, 84

and freedom within the method of religious motive, QSj


Jew held to the, of the God of his fathers, 117

life that is significant is expressed in, 72

of both society and the race under method of religious

motive, 178


Service (continued) :

reason at the, of the individual, 29, 34

that is a method of religious motive, 72

that knew no earthly tie, 117

the expression of conscious relation to the infinite, 72

the life of significant, 72

truly significant, 82
Sex :

antagonism, 52

each is apt to regard the other as the cause of its own

undoing, 52

the childless of either, and the franchise, 99
Significance :

antecedents necessary to, are law and liberty, 81, 82, 92

conduct invested with the dignity of cosmocentric, 76

considerations that are of infinite, 73

cosmocentric, 75, 76, 81, 83, 87, 90, 91, 101, 156, 178, 179

each geocentric method fails to confer, 82

element of liberty necessary to, 85

entailed, 89

in conduct, 81, 82

in each of the geocentric methods, 85, Q2

in racial conduct, 101

in social conduct, 85, 101

liberty and law essential to, 81, 82, 92

life of, 77, 87

lives of, that are to follow after us, 88

of conduct under the method of religious motive, 86

of life, 72, 85, 87, 89

of life is life itself, 79

of life of individual, 85

provision of, 96, 97

provision or non-provision of, 89

racial, 91, 93

standard of cosmocentric, 103

the region of, Salome's question raised into, 102

the very existence of, in the future is at stake in racial

conduct, 89
Socialism :

blend of, with syndicalism under Roman Empire, 128

German, 60

in the Roman Empire, 128, et seq.

means the identification of the interests of the individual

with those of society, 57

ordinary definition of, 43

prominence of, and a falling birthrate, 100


Society :

a communistic, 58, 63, 96

a member of a socialistic, gains everything else, but has

sold his soul, 79

a non-competitive, 3Q, 40, 42, 58

a socialistic, 49, 57, 58, 63, 79, 80

acting in its own interests attacks the family, 98

acting under the influence of religious motive, 95, 96

and the race are guarded under the method of religious

motive, 102

argument dealing with, is analogous to that dealing with

the race, QO

as an organism, 36

ascendancy of, under Roman Empire, 139

blank that separates the interests of the race from that of,

58, 71

character of, in the present day, 99

character of, under the Roman Empire, 134

claims of, 39, 76

cleavage between the interests of the race and, 56

competitive, does not require the individual character that

is essential to a non-competitive, 41

conception of, 33

conduct that benefits, under method of religious motive,


conflict between the individual and, 47

consideration of relative interests of individual and, 33, 34

co-ordination of work necessary to carry on, 40

corporate action of, with regard to the family, 98

definition of, 33

degradation in forms of marriage in, under Roman Empire,


diagrammatic illustration of triangle of interests of the indi-

vidual, the race, and, 35, 55

distinction between the race and, 35, 123

duty of, 94

earthly conduct concerning, 76

enfeeblement of, in China, 170

essentially contrived to secure material ease, if socialistic,


every member of, interested in raising the general standard

of living, 78

exaltation of, under Roman Empire, 122, 132

French, 64

friction in a socialistic, would be caused by unselfishness

and self-reliance, 41


Society (continued) :

has provided a link in the family that shall join the living

of the present to the living of the future^ Q^

hostility between the individual and the race uncovered in

a rational, 52

hostility of, to the race, 95

identification of interests of the individual with that of, 46,

55, 57

impoverishment of, in China, 157

in China, 158

in Roman Empire, 123, 128, 130, 138, 158

individual equal to, 55

individual incurs stress of competition in contact with, 34

instinct the enemy of, 83

interaction of interest of individual with that of, 33

interest of, 33, 51, 83, 156

interest of individual in relation to, 34, 36, 42, 45, 46, 55,


interest of the race and, 34, 35, 55, 64, 98, 146, 178

involved in horrible conditions in China, 174

logical position of, vis-a-vis to the race, 58

members of, seek their own ends under socialistic condi-

tions, 46

moral position of individual in a world wherein all property

would be invested in, 78

most splendid period of Roman, 138

mutual dependence of the individual, the race, and, 94

mutual relations of the race and, 94

new attitude of, under method of religious motive, 95

no more than individuals acting in concert, 94

of unparalleled magnificence under the Roman Empire, 123

office of, under method of religious motive, 96

our duties to, 89

racial duty of, 95

racial ideas shut out from meaning attached to the word,


rational character of a non-competitive, 42

rational relations of the individual and, 55

reaps the benefit of death duties, 98

relations between the race and, 34, 55, 5d, 94

religious motive retains the element of liberty in, 85

riches spent upon, under method of reason, 88

same character in Greek and in Roman civilisation, 148

splendour of Roman, 139

State not ancillary to, in China, 170

strife between a given individual and, 34, 37


Society (continued) :

takes the place of the individual vis-t-vis to the race, 5Q, 58

the family in its contact with, shown in cognation, 136

the family in relation to, 9?

the necessary work of, how carried on in the absence of

competition, 39

the subjection of the individual to, under the method of

religious motive, 85

the unit of, is not the family, 99

under a system of common ownership, 5Q

under the influence of religious motive, 86, 98

under the method of reason, 55, et seq.

use of the word, SS
Soranus, 140

Spain, 171
Species :

actual struggle for life is among the young of every, 1 6

how does the individual fare as apart from? 14

instinct leads to the most rapid reproduction of, l6

perpetuation of, under method of instinct, 13

stress involved in the rearing of the young of the, 17

subordination of the individual to the interests of the, 29

the care of the young of the, and the true interest of the

adult animal, 14
Spencer (Herbert), 26, 27, 41
State :

and patriotism count for very little in China, 170

assumption of supreme and intrusive power in Rome, 108

can barely exist in China, 156

Chinaman careless of the, l67

Chinese religion no polity of the, 156

Church and, Augustus becomes head of both in Rome, 112

compulsion, the curse of, 86

convulsed for thirteen years in Rome after the death of

Julius Caesar, 111

encouragement of geocentric religions by Roman, 11 6, 117

good and evil in the, discovery of, 4

feebleness of, as a source of disaster in China, 170

less able members prevented from contributing to the

numbers of the Greek, 150

maintained by influx of aliens in Rome, 145

necessity, manumission of slaves under Roman Empire was

a, 145

only exists for the sake of the family, 108, 109, 170

religion as an instrument of, 11 6, 117

religion recognised by, 11 6, 117


State {continued) :

religions that subserved the, 108, 114

the married, aversion from, under Roman Empire, 138

the Roman, and abolition of competition, 128, et seq.

vacant legacies inherited by, under Roman Empire, 142

weakness of, in China, l7l
Steam locomotion :

admits of little further improvement, and is already passing

into a less prominent position, 8, 9

supersedes sailing-ship and old system of coaching, 8
Stimulus :

need of a power to act independently of, 69, 70

of competition, SQ, 41

reflex response to, 9, 10, 6S, 68, 69

the respiratory centre called into action by, 10
Stress :

and anxiety falling upon parents, 51

competitive or social, I6, 30, 32, 34, 48, 50, 52, 58, 6I, 72,

74, 77, 78, 86, 93, 100, 101, 158, 178

complete cessation of the competitive, demanded by reason,

38, e/ seq.

escape from racial, only possible by avoidance of parent-

hood, 58

involved in the rearing of the young of the species, 17

no material difference to the individual, 58

of life, 31, 51, 72

racial or reproductive, 32, 34, 43, 50, 54, 56-58, 6I, 6S, 72,

87, 93, 100-102, 109

rational revolt against social and racial, practically simul-

taneous, 60, et seq.

revolt against racial, under Roman Empire, 137, 139

revolt against social, under Roman Empire, 128, et .seq.

still arises from the same two causes, 31

the abolition of, under method of reason, 32, et seq.

the general, of life and the method of religious motive,

Stresses :

endurance of the two, under the method of religious

motive, 101

incidence of two, must be examined separately, 32

severity of both, relieved under reason, 31

social and racial, 60

the revolt against, under reason, 60

the two essential, 31, 51, 72

two great permanent, 31, 74, 77

which should be modified ? 32


Suetonius, 123
Sustenance :

animal world brings forth its young in numbers that far

exceed the limits of, 15

animal world long ago reached the hmit of, l6, 30

to man the possible limits of, outrun reproduction, 31
Syllogism :

man's only sword and only shield, 28
Syndicalism :

a blend of, with Socialism under Roman Empire, 128

Tacitus, 123, 127, 143, 145
Taeping Rebellion, 171

is not ad hoc^ 156

means "The Path," 153

rules in virtue of its own authority, 156

the ancient core of Chinese belief, 153

the path of Creation, 156
Taoism :

makes no attempt to deal with competitive stress, 177

of Confucius, 156

takes nothing into account except the family, I69
Tertullian, 121

Thebes, 176

Theology (the domain of), 178

Thucydides, 151

Tiber, 147

Tiberianus, 120

Tiberius, 143

Titus, 118

Touchstone :

a common factor that will furnish a, 67
Trades Unions :

Chinese analogue of, 158

in the Roman Empire, 128
Trajan, 120

Unification :

of effort under method of reason, 57
United Kingdom, 17 1

Usus :

a form of marriage in the Roman Empire, 137, 138

Vespasian, 118


Waste :

inevitable in the method of instinct, 17, 20, 25

inevitable in the vegetable world, 18

limitless under instinct, 72

of effort, 17, 45, 46

the avoidance of, under reason, 45

to prevent, has been the office of reason, 46
Wastefulness :

avoidance of instinctive, 24

beyond our powers of conception, 17

environment of, created by instinct, 62

inevitable in the method of instinct, 18, 19

limitless in the method of instinct, 38

method of, inconceivable, 77

of effort obviated by reason, 45

of reason parallel to that of instinct, 63

of the environment created by instinct, 62

of the primitive method, 45

practically without limit under instinct, 17
White man :

Chinese mind incomprehensible to the, I69

civilisation of, not yet under religious motive, 1 00

does not easily realise the meaning of ancestor- worship, 153 '

every community of the, shows failure of birthrate, 53

possesses the records of past civilisations, 3

suffers in contest of wits with Chinaman, l67

the average, inferior to average Chinaman, I66

freedom of, 75, 81
Women :

position of, assured in China, 173

the " Higher Education " of, in America leads to avoidance

of office, 53
Worship. See Ancestor

Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson 6* Co.
Edinburgh 6* London





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