Arthur L. (Arthur Lincoln) Frothingham.

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American Journal of
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ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA



AMERICAN



JOURNAL OF ARCHEOLOGY



AND OF THE



HISTORY OF THE FINE ARTS



VOLUME X

1895



PRINCETON: The Business Manages

LONDON: Trubnir & Co. PARIS: E. Lraoux

TURIN, FLORENCE and ROME: B. Lokschm

LEIPZIG : Karl W. Hisrsimann



PRINCETON UNIVERSITY PRESS.
FQblUhod Quarterly. 4mio»I Subscription,



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EDITORS.

Managing Editor : Prof. A. L. Frothingham, Jr., of Princeton Univer-
sity, Princeton, N. J.

Editorial Committee for the Archaeological Institute of America and the
American School of Classical Studies at Athens: Prof.
B. Perrin, and Prof. Thomas D. Seymour, of Yale
University ; Pro£ J. R. Wheeler, of Columbia College,
New York.

Business Manager : Prof. Allan Marquand, of Princeton University,
Princeton, N. J.

All literary contributions should be addressed to the Managing
Editor ; all business communications to the Business Manager.



CONTRIBUTORS.

The following are among the contributors to past volumes :

M. E. Babelon, Conservateur au Cabinet des M&lailles, National Library, Paris.

Prof. "W. N. Bates, of Harvard University, Cambridge.

Mr. Samuel Beswick, Hollidaysburg, Pa.

Mr. Carleton L. Brownson, of Yale University, New Haven.

Prof. Carl D. Buck, of University of Chicago, 111.

Dr. A. A. Cabuana, Librarian and Director of Education, Malta.

Mr. Joseph T. Clarke, Harrow, England.

Dr. Nicholas B. Crosby, New York City.

Mr. Herbert F. de Cou, Athens.

Dr. Wilhelm Dorpfeld, Secretary German Archnological Institute, Athens.

M. &mils Duval, Director of the Musee Fol, Geneva.

Dr. M. L. Earle, of Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa.

Prof. Alfred Emerson, of Cornell University.

Mr. Andrew Possum, of St Olaf College, Northfield, Mass.

Prof. Harold N. Fowler, of Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Mr. A. L. Frothingham, Sr., of Princeton.

Prof. A. L. Frothingham, Jr., of Princeton University.

Dr. A. Furtw angler, Professor of Archaology in the University of Berlin.

Mr. Ernest A. Gardner, Director of the British School of Archaology, Athens.

Padre Germano di 8. Stanklao, Passionista, Rome.



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Mr. Wm. H. Goobteab, Curator, Brooklyn Institute.

Mr. Henbt W. Hatneb, of Boston! Mass.

Prof. "W. Helbio, former Secretary of the German Archaeological Institute, Rome.

Dr. 610. B. Hitssst, of University of Chicago, 111.

Dr. Albert L. Long, of Robert College, Constantinople.

Prof. Allan Mabquand, of Princeton University.

Comte de Mabsy, Director of the Soc Franc. d' Archeologie, Bulletin Monumental, etc.

Prof. Obazio Mabucchi, member of Archjsol. Commission of Rome, etc.

Prof. G. Maspbro, former Director of Antiq., Egypt; Prof, at College de France, Paris.

M. Joachim Menant, of Rouen, France.

Mr. William Mbrcbr, of Gainsborough, England.

Prof. Adolph Michaelis, of the University of Strassburg.

Prof. Waltbr Millbr, of Leland Stanford, Jr., University, Palo Alto, Gal.

Prof. Thxodor Mommsen, Berlin.

M. Eugene Muntz, Librarian and Conservateur of the ficole des Beaux- Arts, Paris-

A. S. Mubbat, Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum.

Prof. Charlbs E. Norton, of Harvard University, Cambridge.

Mr. Richard Norton, of Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa.

Rev. John P. Peters, 8t. Michael's Church, New York City.

Mr. John Pickabd, Professor in the University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo.

Mr. Thbo. J. Pinchb8, of the British Museum, London.

Prof. Wm. C. Poland, of Brown University, Providence, R. I.

Mr. W. M. Ramsay, Professor in the University of Aberdeen.

Dr. Franz v. Rbbbb, Professor in the University and Polytechnic of Munich, etc

M. Salomon Rbinach, Conservateur of the Musee National de St Germain.

Prof. Rurus B. Richardson, Director American School at Athens.

Prof. John C. Rolfb, of University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Prof. Mtbon R. Sanpobd, of Middlebury College.

Dr. Th. Schbbibbb, Prof, of Archssol. in the Univ., and Director of Museum, Leipzig.

Mr. Robert Sswell, Madras Civil Service, F. R. G. S., M. R. A. S.

Mrs. Cornelius Stevenson, Curator Museum University of Pa., Philadelphia.

Prof. Frank B. Tarbell, of University of Chicago, 111.

Mr. S. B. P. Trowbridge, of New York.

Dr. Charles Waldstein, of Cambridge University, England.

Dr. Wm. Hates Ward, President Am. Oriental Society, and Ed. Independent, N. T.

Mr. Henry 8. Washington, Locust P. O., N. J.

Prof. J. R. Wheeler, Columbia College, New York.

Dr. Paul Woltebs, Secretary of the German Archsdological Institute at Athens.

Hon. John Worth inoton, U. S. Consul at Malta.

Prof. J. H. Weight, of Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.

The Director and Members of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens.



Copyright, 1895, by A. L. raoTHWOKAii, Jb., and Allah MABquAiro.



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME X, 1895.



No. i. JANUARY— MARCH.

Pa«e.

I.-4 DISCOVERY OF HORIZONTAL CURVES IN THE ROMAN TEMPLE
CALLED "MAISON CARRJ&B" AT NIMES [Plates 1, 11; Fig. 1],

by William H. Goodyear, 1
1LSOMB RECENT RESULTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
EXCAVATIONS AT NIPPUR, ESPECIALLY OF THE TEMPLE HILL,
[Plates III, IV, V; Figures »-«i], by John P. Peters, 18

NECROLOGY.

Brugseh-Pasha, by "W. Max Muller, 47

CORRESPONDENCE.

Note to "A Torso from Daphne", by Rufus B. Richardson, 51

REVIEWS AND NOTICES OP BOOKS.

W. Frohner: La Collection Tyszkiewicz, - 52

H. Stuart Jones : Select Passages from Ancient Writer* Illustrative of

the History of Greek Sculpture, 58

Schreiber: Atlas of Classical Antiquities, 58

Dehli and Chamberlin : Norman Monuments of Palermo and environs, 54

Le Oallerie Nazionati Italiane. Notizie. Documenti, 56

Wilhelm Bode : Denkmaler der Renaissance Sculptur Toscanas, ... 50

Leonardo da Yingi : Codex AtlanHcus, 60

Alois Risgl : Stilfragen, 61

Solone Ahbrosoli : Manuals di Numismatica, 62

Charles Diehl: VArt Byzantin dans Vltalie meridionale, 68

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS (Figure 22).

Africa (Egypt, Central Africa, Tripoli, Tunisia, Algeria) ; Asia
(Arabia, Babylonia, Persia, Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Kypros,
Asiatic Russia) ; Europe (Krete, Greece, Turkey, Italy),

by A. L. Frothingham, Jr., 65



No. a. APRIL— JUNE.

h-SOMB EARLY ITALIAN PICTURES IN THE JARVB8 COLLECTION OF
THE TALE SCHOOL OF FINE ARTS A T NEW HA VEN [Plates Vl-Xll],

by William Rankin, 18T

IL— NOTES ON BYZANTINE ART AND CULTURE IN ITALY AND ES-
PECIALLY IN ROME [Plates XIII, XIV, XV; Figures tft-82],

by A. L. Frothingham, Jr., 162

U1.-PAPEP8 OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT
ATHENS.
L— A SACRIFICIAL CALENDAR FROM THE ATTIC BPAKRIA
[Plate XVI> by Rufus B. Richardson, 909



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0ONTBirn. t

NECROLOGY.

Augustus Chmpman Merriam, by Clarence H. Youno, 227

NOTES.

Notes on Italian Paintings in two Loan Exhibitions in New Fork,

by William Rankin, 280

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS [Plate xvii ; Figures 88-87].

Africa (Egypt) ; Europe (Greece, Italy, Sicily, Prance, Spain,
Portugal), . . by A. L. Frothinoham, Jr., and Allan Marquand, 288



No. 3. JULY— SEPTEMBER.

L-PAPBBS OF THE AMERICAN 8CH00L OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT
ATHENS,

11.— THE CHORUS IN THE LATER GREEK DRAMA WITH REFER-
ENCE TO THE 8TAOB QUESTION, . . by EDWARD CaPPS, 287
HI.— A TEMPLE IN ERETRIA [Plate XV1I1],

by Rufub B. Richardson, 826
IV.— EXCAVATIONS IN THE ERBTRIAN THEATRE IN 189U [Plate

XIX; Figure 88,] by Edward Capps, 888

IL-SOMB SCULPTURES FROM KOPTOS IN PHILADELPHIA [Figures, 8940],

by Sarah Y. Stetenbon, 847
III.— UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA EXCAVATI0N8 AT NIPPUR.
II.- THE NIPPUR ARCH [Plate XX; Figures 41-46],

by John P. Peters, 852

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS [Piottre 47].

Africa (Egypt, Tunisia, Tripoli) ; Asia (Babylonia, Persia, Palestine,
Syria, Asia Minor, Kypros) ; Europe (Erete, Greece, Turkey, Italy),

by A. L. Frothinoham, Jr., and Allan Marquand, 860



No. 4. OCTOBER—DECEMBER.

L— UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA EXPEDITION TO BABYLONIA.

IlL—THB COURT OF COLUMNS AT NIPPUR [Put* XXI; Figures 48-68],

by John P. Peters, 489
11.-PAPBRS OF THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT
ATHENS

V.—GRA VB-MON UMENTS FROM A THENS. I [Figures 69-74],

by T. D. Goodell, 460
VL-QRA VB-M0NUMENT8 FROM ATHENS 11 [Figure 75],

by T. W. Heermance, 470
IIL-A KYLIX BY THE ARTIST PSIAX [Plate XXII; Figures 76-80],

by Joseph Clark Hoppin, 486

REVIEWS AND NOTICES OP BOOKS.

W. M. Flinders Petrie : Egyptian Decorative Art, 494

William Doerpfeld: Trqja^lSdS, 496

Paul Girard : De I' Expression des Masques dans les Drames aV Esehyle % 496

P. L. Van Cleef : Index Antiphonteus, 600

W. M. Ramsay : The Cities and Bishopries of Phrygia, 601

Otto Waser : Skylla und Charybdis in der Literatur und Kunst der

Q r i mhm md Momar, iOt



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Ti CONTENTS.

Salomon Rxinach : Pierre* Ghravees dee Collections Marlborough et

d' OrUans, dee Recueils d' Eckhel, etc., 606

Walter Bksant : Thirty Fears Work in the Holy Land, 606

James L. Bowes : Notes on S hippo, 606

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS.

Asia (Babylonia, Assyria, Syria, Persia, Kypros) ; Africa (Carthage) ;
Europe (Greece, Turkey, Bosnia, Rumania, France, Belgium, Ger-
many, Switzerland, Hungary) by Allan Marquand, 607



PLATES.

Paoss.

I. Bird's-eye view of the Maison Carree at Nimes, 1-12

II. Bird's-eye view of the Inner Temple Court at Medinet-Habou, . . 1-12
III-V. University of Pennsylvania Excavation at Nippur in Babylonia, 18-46

I. Mortar and inscribed Basreliefs of period of Bur-Sin,

c 2400 b. c.
ii. Early-Babylonian and late-Greek terracotta Figurines
found in the Temple of Bel.
in. Plan of Temple of Bel at Nippur,
iv. Raised Map of the first year's excavations at Nippur,
v. Objects found at Nippur.
VI-XII. Early Italian Pictures in the Jarves Collection at the Yale

School of Fine Arts, 137-161

XIII-XV. Byzantine decorative Mosaics, 162-208

XVI. A Sacrificial Calendar from the Attic Epakria, 209-226

XVII. Temple of Jupiter Anxur at Terracina, Italy; face of Sub-

structures and view through interior, 261-267

XVIII. XIX. Excavations by the American School at Eretria in 1894.

xviii. Foundations of a Temple in Eretria, 826-887

xix. Theatre at Eretria, 888-846

XX, XXI. University of Pennsylvania Excavation at Nippur.

xx. The Nippur Arch, 862-868

xxi. Plan of Levels, showing Excavation at Nippur, .... 489-468

XXII. A Kylix by the Artist Psiax, 486-498



FIGURES.

Paom.

1. Rear of Maison Carree at Nimes, 8

2-21. Excavation at Nippur in Babylonia by the University of Pennsyl-
vania Expedition : Ziggurat of the Temple of Bel, 13-46

22. Mycemean Palace of Gha 120

28-82. Byzantine Marble and Mosaic Decoration, 186-207

88-87. Temple of Jupiter Anxur at Terracina, Italy, 261-266

88. The east and west Parodoi of the Theatre at Eretria, 842

39. Sandstone Statute of the Ptolemaic period, from Koptos, .... 848

40, Head of Caracalla in syenite, from Koptos, 860



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CONTENTS.



til



41-49. University of Pennsylvania Excavation at Nippur.

41. The Nippur Arch from the inside, 868

42. More distant view of the Nippur Arch, 864

48. The Ziggurat from the southeast, 866

44. Eastern Corner of the Ziggurat, 868

46. Altar and Curb, 861

46. Excavation about and above the Arch, 862

47. Plan of Excavations on the western slope of the Akropolis, Athens, 416

48-68. University of Pennsylvania Excavation at Nippur, 489-468

69-76. Grave-Monuments from Athens, 469-484

76, 77. Alabastron at Karlsruhe, 486

78. Seilenos : central picture of Kylix by Psiax, 487

79. Figure of "Warrior, from Kylix by Psiax, 488

80. Signature of the Artist Psiax, 488



ALPHABETICAL TABLE.



Paois
American School or Classical Studies at Athens, Papers or :

i. A Sacrificial Calendar from the Attic Epakria, 209

ii. The Chorus in the later Greek Drama with reference to the stage

question, 287

in. A Temple in Eretria, uncovered in 1894, 826

it. Excavations in the Eretrian Theatre in 1894 888

y. Grave-Monuments from Athens, I, 469

vi. Grave-Monuments from Athens, II, 479

Archaeological Discoveries and Investigations :

Africa (Central), 74 Krete, 98, 899

Algeria, 77 Kypros, 97, 899, 618



Arabia, 80

Asia Minor, 89, 896

Assyria, 610

Babylonia, . . . . 81, 888, 607

Belgium, 676

Bosnia, 669

Egypt, 66, 288, 869

France, 282, 661

Germany, 677

Greece, .... 104, 286, 408, 628

Hungary, 686

Italy, 184,241,424



Palestine, 86, 894

Persia, 84, 898, 616

Portugal, 286

Rumania, 661

Russia, 96

Sicily, 279

Spain, 286, 286

Switzerland, 686

Syria, 86, 896, 612

Tripoli, 74, 886

Tunisia, 74, 886, 622

Turkey, 96, 422, 669



Capps (Edward). The Chorus in the later Greek Drama, with reference

to the stage question, 287

Excavations in the Eretrian Theatre in 1894, 888

Review of Paul Girard's De V Expression des Masques dans Us drames

d } EschyU, 496

Fowler (Harold N.). Reviews and Notices of Books :

Otto Waser : Skylla und Charybdis in der Literatur und Kunst der
Orieehen and Ramer, 608



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▼tti ALPHABETICAL TABLE.

Fbothenqham (Arthur L., Jr.,). Notes on Byzantine Art and Culture in

Italy and especially in Rome, 162

Reviews and Notices of Books .-

Dehli and Chamberlin: Norman Monuments of Palermo and environ*, 64

Le OaUerie Nazionali Raliane, 66

Charles Diehl: VArt Byzantin dans Vlialie meridionale, 68

Archnological News, 66, 281, 869

Goodell (T. D). Grave-Monuments from Athens, I, 469

Goodyear (William H.). A discovery of Horizontal Curves in the Roman

Temple called "Maison Carree" at Nimes, 1

Hoppin (Joseph Clark). A Kylix by the artist Psiax, 486

Heebmanoe (T. W.). Grave-Monuments from Athens, II, 479

Mabquand (Allan). Reviews and Notices of Books :

W. Frohner: La Collection Tyszkiewicz, 62

H. Stuart Jones : Select Passages from ancient writers illustrative of

the History of Greek Sculpture, . . . . " 68

Schreiber: Atlas of Classical Antiquities, 68

Wilhelm Bode : Denkmaler der Renaissance Sculptur Toseanas, . . 69

Leonardo da Vinci : II Codice Atlantico, 60

Alois Riegl : Stilfragen, 61

Solone Ambrosoli : Manuals di Numismatica, 62

"W. M. Flinders Petrie : Egyptian Decorative Art, 494

William Doerpfeld : Troja, 189S, 496

Salomon Reinach : Pierres Gravies des Collections Marlborough et

d'Orltans, etc., 606

Walter Besant : Thirty Tears Work in the Holy Land, 606

James L. Bowes : Notes on Shippo, 606

Archaeological News, 281, 869, 607

MtfLLER (W. Max). Necrology :

Brugsch-Pasha, 47

Peters (John P.). University of Pennsylvania Excavations at Nippur,
Babylonia :

i. Some recent results of the Excavations, especially of the

Temple Hill, 18

ii. The Nippur Arch, 862

in. The Court of Columns at Nippur, 489

Pubves (George T.). Reviews and Notices of Books :

W. M. Ramsay : The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, 601

Rankin (William). Some early Italian Pictures in the Jarves Collection of

the Tale School of Fine Arts at New Haven, 187

Notes on Italian Paintings in two loan exhibitions in New York, . . 280

Richardson (Rufus B.). Note to "A Torso from Daphne," 61

A Sacrificial Calendar from the Attic Epakria, 209

A Temple in Eretria, 826

Stevenson (Sara T.). Some Sculptures from Koptoe in Philadelphia, ... 847

Winans (S. R.). Notice of F. L. Van Cleefs Index Antiphonteus, .... 600
Young (Clarence H.). Necrology :

Augustus Chapman Merriam, 227



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JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. * VOL. X. PLATE I.



Bird's-Eye View of the Maison Carree at Nimes.

Drawn by J. W. McKecknie.
{Straight dotted lines show deflection of cornice : curved dotted line shows optical effect of cornice curve!)



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amekican
Journal of Archjeology.

Vol. X. JANUARY-MARCH, 1895. No. 1.

A DISCOVERY OF HORIZONTAL CURVES IN THE

ROMAN TEMPLE CALLED "MAISON CARRIE"

AT NIMES.

(Plates I, II.)



The purpose of this paper is to call attention to an important
observation made in February, 1891, on the fine and well-pre-
served Roman temple at Nimes called the "Maison Carrie" —
viz., that it is constructed with the optical refinement of
the curved horizontal lines hitherto considered peculiar to the
Parthenon and other Greek temples of the fifth or sixth centuries
b. c. This is the first observation of the horizontal curves in a
building wholly Roman and proves their continuance to a date
three or four centuries later than was previously known. 1 This
observation also antagonizes the current presumption of archaeol-
ogists that the imperial period was indifferent to this refinement
or incapable of achieving it.

Herewith is the attestation of the present official architect of the
city of Nimes, together with that of his predecessor in office, both
of whom have been very helpful to me in the matter of measure-
ments and friendly sympathy. These gentlemen had not pre-
viously noticed the curves; for the reason, as I believe, that they

1 The small remaining portion of the architrave of the temple of Olympian Zeus at
Athens shows the curve. This architrave is supposed by Penrose to date from
Antiochus IV. (174 b. c.) The curved foundations date from Peisistratos. Opin-
ions as to the date of the Maison Carree vary between the first and second centuries

JL. D.



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2 WILLIAM HENRY QOODYEAR.

produce a perspective illusion as to the size of the building and
hence present themselves to the eye as a natural effect, according-
to the principles of curvilinear perspective. Measurements such a&
are usually taken in surveying a building do not indicate the exis-
tence of a curve in the horizontals, because the width or height
is estimated in such surveys by a single measurement or at best by
two; taken at the extremities. At all events it is in point to
observe that although measurements of the Parthenon were under-
taken by Stuart and Revett about 1756, it was not till 1837 that
the horizontal curves were seen and announced by Pennethorne
and not till 1846 that they were measured by Penrose. There is
an archaeologist of distinction resident at Nimes, M. Aures, who
is thoroughly familiar with the observations of Pennethorne and
Penrose and who has published measurements of the Maison
Carrie. His measurements were devoted, however, to questions-
of ancient methods of metrology. They were taken for him by
another person and do not, as published, include the curves. M^
Aures, who treated me with great courtesy, is of advanced age
and so infirm that he was unable to examine the building with
me. The following attestations from the architects Augiere and
Chambaud are therefore important.

I. u Les mesures ci prte 1 ont Hi prises avec Vassistance de M. Augihe,
architecte de la ville de Nimes. II constate avoir observi les courbe»
avec M. Goodyear ', et il constate q\Cil rfy a pas eu poussee dans la
corniche du coU Ouest? Ittant professeur de perspective M. Augihe
veut dire quHl considbre la thAorie de M. Goodyear, sur Veffet perspec-
tive d'une Ugne convexe m plan, noucelle mais raisonnable. Quant h
Veffet d'une Ugne concave en plan a certains points de vue, c'est chose
connue des professeurs de perspective."

(Signed), Auguste Augiere.

Architeete-Directeur des travaux publics de la ville de Nirnes, Pro-
fessewr d y Architecture et de Perspective a Vltcole des Beaux Arts.
Feb. 20th, 1891.

The second letter is as follows :

* This matter is written on the leaf of the note book containing the original
measurements.

* It was on this side that the observations for the cornice were taken as the curve-
is exaggerated on the East side by a movement in the masonry.



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HORIZONTAL CURVES IN THE " MA1S0N CARR&E." «

II. " Le soussigne, Eugene Chambaud, Architects de la vitte de Nimee
en. retraite, apres avoir examine avec M. Goodyear, Us lignes courbes de
la Jfaison Carrie, a constate' V existence de ces Ugnes, comme itant dams
la dUe construction ; toutefois avec la reserve que .la courbe de la cornwhe



Rear of Maison Carrkk at Nimks.

Dratcn from a photograph to show the cornice curve*

du cote Est a eti exagerve par une poussee de la toiture, rnais aussi en
constatant le fait qu'il y a courbe aussi de ce cote dans la construction
originate, en vue du fait que la ligne <&$ bases (Its colonnes e$t combe de
ce c6ti y comme sur les. autres, et qu ? il rCy a pas poussee dans ta Syne



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4 WILLIAM HENRY GOODYEAR.

des bases ; envue aussi que la poussie est loin d'etre assez grande pour
avoir produit la courbe de la cornicfie. 11 estime que les theories de M.
Goodyear y sur Veffei perspectif des courbes, sont raisonnables, et U remar-



Online LibraryArthur L. (Arthur Lincoln) FrothinghamAmerican journal of archaeology → online text (page 1 of 59)