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kfaAay

UNIVERSITY OF

CALUORNIA

SANDIEGO






/






THE CREED OF HALF JAPAN



THE CREED OF
HALF JAPAN



HISTORICAL SKETCHES OF JAPANESE
BUDDHISM



BY

ARTHUR LLOYD, M.A.

LECTURER IN THE IMPERIAL UNIVERSITY, NAVAL ACADEMY, NAVAL MEDICAL

COLLEGE, AND HIGHER COMMERCIAL SCHOOL, TOKYO ;

SOMETIME FELLOW OP PETBRHOUSE, CAMBRIDGE



NEW YORK

E. P. BUTTON & COMPANY

31 WEST TWENTY-THIRD STREET

1912



TO THE MEMORY OB 1

MY DEAR WIFE

MARY

WHOSE LOVING CAKE AND CONSTANT
GOOD COMBADESHIP, DURING EIGHTEEN
EVENTFUL YEARS, HELPED ME ALONG
MANY OP THE STONY DEFILES OF HUMAN
LIFE



PKEFACE

I CAN only plead for my book that it is the work of
a pioneer, and every pioneer knows that his labours
must necessarily be crude and imperfect. I foresee all
the strictures that criticism will pass upon my labours,
and shall be more than content if what I have written
stimulates others to further research.

More should have been said about the lives and
teachings of Honen, Shinran, and other leaders of the
Jodo or Pure Land sects. The omission is due to
the fact that I have already dealt with these thinkers
in a monograph entitled " Shinran and His Work,"
which I published in Tokyo last year. Even with these
omissions I fear this book will seem rather bulky.

My best thanks are due to the Master of Peterhouse,
who has put himself to much trouble on my behalf.



A. LLOYD.



TOKYO,

June 24, 1911.



CONTENTS



CHAPTER PAGE

I. MAHAYANA 1

II. THE STAGE ON WHICH S'AKYAMUNI MADE HIS

APPEARANCE 5

III. THE BUDDHA AND HIS GREATEST DISCIPLE . . 18

IV. THE PEE -CHRISTIAN EXPANSION OF BUDDHISM . 28

V. PUSHYAMITRA 47

VI. THE NEW TESTAMENT IN TOUCH WITH THE EAST . 51

VII. ALEXANDRIA AND ANTIOCH AT THE TIME OF CHRIST 58

VIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. THOMAS 71

IX. THE CALL FROM CHINA 76

X. BUDDHISM JUST BEFORE THE COMING OF CHRISTIANITY 85

XI. As'VAGHOSHA 96

XII. NAGARJUNA 105

XIII. THE MISSIONARIES OF THE HAN . . . .117

XIV. DHARMAGUPTA 131

XV. MANICH.EISM 145

XVI. CHINA IN THE THIRD, FOURTH, AND FIFTH CENTURIES 152

XVII. BUDDHISM REACHES JAPAN 168

XVIII. THE CROWN PRINCE SHOTOKU TAISHI . . . 178



x CONTENTS

' HAITI u I'AGK

XIX. BUDDHISM DURING THE NAEA PERIOD (WITH

APPENDIX) 191

XX. I IKI AN BUDDHISM 225

XXI. NAMUDAISHI 243

XXII. THE BUDDHISM OF THE GEMPEI PERIOD . . 259

XXIII. THE BUDDHISM OF KAMAKURA .... 275

XXIV. NlCHIREN AND THE EARLIER SECTS . . . 287

XXV. RISSHO ANKOKU RON 807

XXVI. THE MONGOLS 329

XXVII. THE BUDDHISM OF THE MUROMACHI AGE . . 841

XXVIII. THE PERIOD OF THE CATHOLIC MISSIONS . . 350

XXIX. THE BUDDHISM OF THE TOKUGAWA PERIOD . .367

XXX. RECAPITULATION 381

INDEX ........ 387



The ornament on the side of the cover is a facsimile of
Shinran'a handwriting, representing the character for
Buddha.



THE CREED OF HALF JAPAN



CHAPTER I
MAHAYANA

THE Mahayana is a form of Buddhism. The word means
^ " the Large Vehicle " or " Conveyance," and is used to
distinguish the later and amplified Buddhism from the
Hlnayana or Small Vehicle, which contains the doctrines
of that form of Buddhism which is purely Indian. The
original language of the Hlnayana Scriptures is Pali, the
language of Magadha in S'akyamuni's lifetime ; that of
the Mahayana books is Sanskrit, the literary tongue of the
Brahmans, adopted by Greeks, Parthians, and Scythians
as a means of theological expression, when they came in
turns to be masters of North- West India and the fertile
valleys watered by the Indus and its tributaries, in the
Punjaub and in Afghanistan, the language of many a
controversy about philosophy human and divine, as
Brahman and Buddhist strove in the early centuries of
our era for the spiritual supremacy of India.

It would be a mistake to suppose that the Greater
Vehicle differs from the Lesser only because it contains in
it more of subtle dialectic and daring speculation. The
case is not so : the Pali books are every whit as deep
and every whit as full of speculation as their Sanskrit

B



2 THE CREED OF HALF JAPAN

rivals. The Hinayana is the Lesser Vehicle only because
it is more limited in its area. It draws its inspiration
from India and from India only, and had it been
possible to confine Buddhism within the limits of the
Magadhan kingdom, or even within the limits of As'oka's
actual dominions, we may safely infer that it would have
continued to be Hinayana only, as has been the case in
Ceylon, where it has not been obliged to rub shoulders
with deeply modifying or disturbing influences. But
when once Buddhism stepped outside the limits of India
pure and simple, to seek converts amongst Greeks and
Parthians, Bactrians, Medes, Turks, Scythians, Chinese,
and all the chaos of nations that has made the history
of Central Asia so extremely perplexing to the student,
immediately its horizon was enlarged by the inclusion of
many outside elements of philosophic thought. It was no
longer the comfortable family coach in which India might
ride to salvation : it was the roomy omnibus .intended to
accommodate men of all races and nations and to convey
them safely to the Perfection of Enlightened Truth. It is
true that it never forgot the rock from whence it had
been hewn ; that it always spoke of itself as a religion
intended primarily for the world of India. With a
touching shamefacedness. it tried to gloss over the in-
consistency of its own missionary zeal. The boundaries
of India were supposed to enlarge themselves as the
missionaries of Buddhism advanced towards the East.
The Hindu Kush and the Himalayas ceased to be the
boundaries of the sacred land of Jambudvipa. In process
of time Jambudvipa included Central Asia, China, and
even Japan. 1

1 Nichiren, for instance, constantly speaks of ichi em bu dai (which is
his way of writing Jambudvipa) as = India, China, and Japan. It was a
protest, by way of adaptation, against the idea that a Buddha could not
be born outside of India.



MAHAYANA 3

The Mahayana was probably a matter of slow and, at
first, unobserved growth. Among the numerous sects
which divided the Hinayana at the commencement of the
Christian era, some were probably more comprehensive,
more advanced, than others, and there must have been
some which had almost reached to the expansive fulness
of the Mahayana itself. Ver little indeed is known of
the history of Buddhism between the death-ni AsLoka and
the dawn of the Christian era during the period, that is,
when the Mahayana was in the state of gestation. What
we do know is that about the end of the first century of
the Christian era, between five and six hundred years
after the death of Buddha, the Mahayana comes into
existence in Kashmir and North- West India and the
valley of the Indus ; that it enjoys the patronage of the
Scythian conquerors of those districts, whose conversion to
Buddhism may have been due, in the first place, to a politic
desire to stand well with their newly acquired Buddhist
subjects ; that it was adorned by some great names of
saints and doctors ; and that it spread from the land - of
its birth to the most distant regions of Northern and
Ease_rn_Asia.

It is not necessary in this work to write a long and
elaborate life of S'akyamuni. That subject has been
exhaustively treated of by many great scholars, and Japan
has very little of new material to contribute towards it.
Ijjhall take up the main thread of jny story from the time
when the Mahayana makes its first distinct appearance
on the stage of Eastern religious life, that is, during
the first century of the Christian era. In doing so, I shall
have to touch on the first beginnings of Christianity also,
the contemporary faith which, in those early days, converted
the West, while failing, comparatively, to win the East for
Christ, just as the Mahayana seemed to be hindered from



4 THE CREED OF HALF JAPAN

impressing itself on the West, while it has had a free
course and a lasting success in the lands of the Far East.
In the course of these pages certain considerations will be
advanced (with how much of convincing power it must
rest with the reader to decide) to show that the two faiths
came into actual contact with one another_in many points
during the first and second centuries of our era, and that
each contributeA^gomething to the success and failure of
the__otheR It is a most difficult subject to handle, and
before setting myself to work at it, I can but pray a
good old-fashioned custom for which I am almost ashamed
to feel myself obliged to offer an apology that nothing I
write may offend against that sacred cause of Truth, which
should be the only aim of the scientific and Christian
scholar.

But, before plunging into my subject proper, it seems
but right that I should devote a few short chapters to the
consideration of the person of the Founder, and of the
extent of As'oka's influence, as shown by the rock in-
scriptions which that monarch has left behind him. These
chapters will enable the reader more accurately to estimate
the extent of the acquaintance which we may suppose
Europe and India to have had of one another at the time
when Christianity and the Mahayana sprang simultane-
ously into life.



CHAPTER II

THE STAGE ON WHICH S'AKYAMUNI MADE HIS
APPEARANCE

THE Sutras which are commonly received as giving an
authentic account of the teachings of the S'akyamuni, 1
will also furnish us with certain geographical and other
data which are necessary for us if we would form a correct
picture of India in the sixth century B.C., the India in
which S'akyamuni taught and laboured. 2

We need not take a very wide geographical survey.
What actually concerns us is a small portion of the valley
of the Ganges, comprising practically the two districts of
Oudh and Behar, 3 stretching to the east as far as Patna, to
the west as far as Allahabad. The Himalayas form the
northern boundary of S'akyamuni' s country, the Ganges
is practically its southern limit ; the only exception being
that Bodhigaya and the district intimately connected with
the Enlightenment of the Tathagata lie to the south of

1 Cf., in Japanese, "Buddha no Juseiron" (by Maeda) ; in English,
" Buddhism in Translation " (Warren), " Gospel of Buddha " (Paul
Cams) ; and in German, " DieReden des Gotama Buddhas " (Neumann).
The first of these is the most useful for the purposes of this book, because
it has been compiled from a frankly Hahayanistic point of view.

* The importance of the sixth century B.C., which inaugurated so
many movements of a religious and philosophical nature, it is hard to
overestimate.

3 Behar is said to derive its name from Vihara, a Buddhist
monastery. It was one of the last, as it was also one of the first,
strongholds of Buddhism in India.



6 THE CREED OF HALF JAPAN

the sacred river. Later developments of the Buddhist
communities may make it necessary for us to enlarge our
geographical inquiries, but for the present these bound-
aries will suffice for our consideration. They will enable
us to follow the life of the Great Master in all its principal
phases.

The Buddhist Sutras tell us a good deal about the
population of the country in which the Wheel of the Law
was set in motion.

The India of S'akyainuni's time was under the domina-
tion of an Aryan race, which had conquered the land and
brought into it institutions not unlike those which we
find in some other Aryan countries, Athens, for instance. 1
They had divided the population into four great castes,
of whom the fourth, possibly also the third, may have
been mixed with some of the conquered races, whilst
the two higher ones certainly belonged to the nobility
of the conquest. In S'akyamuni's time the Sudras,
or low-caste people, and the Vaisyas, or merchants and
farmers, lived quietly, without any part or lot in the
privileges of national life, contented to devote themselves
to the pursuit of their several vocations ; the Kshatriyas
and Brahmans, having accomplished the subjugation of
the other two castes, were struggling against each other
for supremacy in State and Society. Chief among the
Kshatriyan tribes which resisted the supremacy claimed
by the Brahmans were the clans known collectively as
the S'akyans, who were politically supreme in the districts
actually affected by S'akyamuni's life. S'akyan was, how-
ever, only a collective name : the clans were distinguished

1 In Athens we find, e.g., the population of the autochthons divided
into four classes corresponding to the four castes of India. Of. Grote's
" Hist, of Greece," chap. x. For the Aryan races, see Hunter, " Brief
History of the Indian people," chap. iv. pp. 52-73.



S'AKYAMUNI'S STAGE 7

from one another by tribal names as well, such as Lic-
chavis, Vrijjis, Mallas, Andhas, etc., some of which remain
to the present day. The S'akyan nobles, 1 it is said,
welcomed the person of S'akyamuni, their kinsman
prophet, whose teachings encouraged them in their resist-
ance to Brahman usurpations, but they were not always
equally willing to adopt his practical teachings. The
Brahmans, ultimately victorious in the struggle for
political and religious supremacy in India, have had their
revenge on these S'akyan tribes by refusing to consider
them as families of pure descent. It is hard to determine
the point. All Buddhists claim that S'akyamuni's lineage
came from Ucshvaku? the descendant of Manu, the de-
scendant of Brahma. Licchavis ruled later, by virtue of
Kshatriyan descent, in Nepaul, Bhutan, Ladakh, and
(through marriage) in Tibet, and the Licchavi dynasty in
Nepaul was succeeded by a line of Malla kings. At the
same time it must be admitted that we have from the
very earliest times traces of intercourse between ISTepaul,
Tibet, and China, which should be considered.

China, as shown by the late Prof. Lacouperie and
others, e.g. Mr. Morse (in his " Trade and Administration
of the Chinese Empire "), was occupied, before the advent
of the Chinese from Western Asia, by many aboriginal

1 The documents tell us how eagerly the S'akyans of Kapilavastu and
Magadha welcomed the teachings of Buddha. The very name S'akya-
muni implies that he was officially accepted as the "teacher of the
S'akyans," and that his creed became, as it were, the national religion
of the district, though Brahmanism still continued to be tolerated.
There are, however, e.g. in Kern's " History of Buddhism," stories which
show that S'akyamuni had to maintain his claim as a religious teacher
by demonstrating to the satisfaction of the S'akyan nobles that he was
as skilful in the use of arms as they were themselves.

2 Hewett, "Notes on Early History of India," pt. ii., in J.E.A.S.,
April, 1889, p. 276, has a note to show that the Ikshvakus came from
Assyria and the Euphrates valley.



8 THE CREED OF HALF JAPAN

tribes, whom it took the Chinese centuries to absorb
successfully into themselves. Many of these original
tribes, such as the Lolo, the Mantsze, and the Miao, took
leading parts in Chinese history, and many of them would
seem to have had dealings with nations beyond the borders
of their empire. The earliest traditions of Nepaul ascribe
the first draining and development of their land, in pre-
Buddhistic times, to the Bodhisattva Manjusri (Jap.
Monju), whose chief temple is at Wu-tai-chan, near Pekin,
who is the patron deity, par excellence, of the western and
northern tribes of China, and who is considered to be
perpetually reincarnated in the person of the Manchu
sovereign of China. 1 It seems probable, therefore, that
Manjusri* was originally the deified hero of one of the
tribes of Northern China, possibly the Mantsze, that he
distinguished himself during his lifetime by his successful
development and colonization of Nepaul, and that he was

1 Prof. Pelliot, in " Bulletin de L'^cole Franchise de 1'Extreme
Orient," viii. 3 and 4, has an account of a recent find of manuscripts and
books which will do much to settle the question of Manjusri. According
to the Tibetan history recently published at Calcutta, with Index and
Analysis, by Sarat Chandra Das, the conversion of India must be ascribed
to S'akyamuni and his consort Tara, that of Bactria and Central Asia
to the labours of the Bodhisattvas, that of China to ManjuSri or Manju-
ghosha, and that of Tibet to Avalokitesvara. The mention of Tara
clearly shows the lateness of the tradition, but there is in Mr. Tada
Kanae's lectures on the Shoshinge (" Shoshinge Kowa," p. 289) mention of
a certain Buddhist patriarch who went from India to China because he
heard that Manjufiri had been there, as though Manjusri had once been
a real person living in China. If Manjusri may be considered as a real
person, and if theiBodhisttvas of Central Asia are also historical, it may
be possible to assign the place of origin of many of the Mahayana Sutras
according to the speakers in them, those of Central Asian origin being
mainly spoken by one or other of the Bodhisattvas, and those intended,
as it were, for the Chinese market bearing the Manjusri influence, at
least in later revisions. But it is impossible to dogmatize with the
scanty information at hand.

* Sylvain Levi, " Histoire du Nepal," vol. ii. p. 69.



S'AKYAMUNI'S STAGE 9

subsequently adopted into the Buddhist pantheon by the
all-embracing Mahayana. As M. Sylvain Levi has said,
it is impossible as yet adequately to define the extent of
the influence exerted on Buddhism in remote times by
China and neighbouring countries.

Buddhism has always been the religion of merchants.
The Sutras tell us of many wealthy traders who supported
the order by their generous donations. There must have
been a great volume of trade. The S'akyan nobles, who
constantly address S'akyamuni as gotama, " herdsman "
(apparently a common mode of address), were of the same
race as the herdsmen of the Himalayas. There is at least
one Sutra which speaks of the wool merchant from across
the mountains, and it is indeed to wandering S'akyan
herdsmen that is attributed the opening up of the valley
of Lhassa in Thibet. One of S'akyamuni's earliest disciples
was a merchant's son from Benares named Yasas. He
has been identified (wrongly, as I think) with S'anavasas,
the third patriarch of the Northern succession. Now,
S'anavasas is described as having been a ship-captain.
True, he may only have been the skipper of a Ganges
barge ; but there are two later patriarchs of whom it is ex-
pressly stated that they had penetrated as far as Turkestan
in their travels.

To the lowest class, the Sudras, belonged one at least
of S'akyamuni's disciples, Upali, the barber. But there
are traces of lower strata of society more degraded even
than the Sudras. There is a record of a mission, 1 conducted
by the master in person, to a tribe of cannibals, whom he

1 This incident is of importance as showing one of the best features
of the creed as taught by S'akyamuni. The Brahman religion frankly
left out of consideration all those who were not of the "Twice-born,"
which was the name given to the privileged castes. The Kshatriyas, or
Warriors (amongst whom we must include the S'akyans), whilst eager to
assert the privileges of their order as against the sacerdotal caste, were



io THE CREED OF HALF JAPAN

converted to better ways; and many have seen in the
Nagas, Gandharas, Kinnaras, and other half-mythical
companies of beings, the traces of aboriginal tribes of a
low order. This is especially the case with the Nagas,
who are so constantly appearing in the Sutras. They
were most probably savages whose name was given to
them from their worship of serpents (still practised in
India). In the Nepaulese legend they appear as the
original inhabitants of the swamps opened up by the
civilizing Manjusri. Driven out by Manjusri, they take
refuge in Ndgaloka, 1 the world of the Nagas, or serpents,
which to the Nepaulese is Thibet. Strange to say, the
Thibetan records also speak of Nagas and Nagaloka ; but
in their case Nagaloka is China. This seems to me to
be another instance of a very early intercourse between
India and China, or at least with those districts of Central
Asia which had early connections with that empire.

Hindoo philosophy, such as we now understand it, 2

not perhaps equally eager to have emphasis laid on the universal
character of the new faith. The Buddha was not fighting for the
privileges of any class, but was busied with a salvation which was to be
a blessing to all men alike. His mission to the cannibals must have
been as distasteful to the Kshatriyas as it was to the Brahmans. See
Watanabe's " Story of Kalmasapada," published by Pali Text Society,
1910.

1 See Sylvain Levi, I.e., and the Analytical Index to the Tibetan
" History of the Rise, Progress, and Downfall of Buddhism in India,"
edited by Sarat Chandra Das (Calcutta, 1908). See also article on
" Serpent Worshipiin India," by Surgeon-Major Oldham in J.R.A.S. for
July, 1891. For us the question of the Nagas will have special interest,
because the Mahayana tradition asserts that it was a Naga king that
revealed to Nagarjuna, in the Dragon Palace under the Sea, the holy
text of the Avatamsaka, or Eegon Scriptures.

* I think it may be shown that there was very little philosophy be-
fore S'akyamuni's time, nothing like the six definite schools which
appear in later centuries. The philosophy of the Hindoos arose partly
from the need for definite thought brought out by the controversies
between Brahmans, Buddhists, and sectaries, and partly also from



S'AKYAMUNI'S STAGE 11

did not exist. That would seem to have been the product
of a later age. The Brahman religion existed, but in its
infancy. The day of the Vedic gods was not yet over ;
men still bowed before Indra, Varuna, and the rest of the
ancient deities, and the gods whom Buddhism has adopted
into its pantheon, such as, e.g., the twin deities that guard
the entrance to the temples of the older sects in Japan,
belong exclusively to the early period. The Brahmans
had doubtless begun the formation of the theological
system which was to fetter the intellect as it had fettered
the social liberties of the people ; but the system was not
yet completed, and there were many among the Kshatriyas
who openly resisted the pretensions of the sacerdotal
class. 1 It was, also, a period of great religious zeal and
inquiry. Time and again, in reading the biographical
notices connected with the proceedings of S'akyamuni, we
find that his converts were men who had for years been
searchers after truth ; in some cases, as, e.g., that of
Uruvilva Kasyapa, they had themselves been religious
teachers, and drew their own followers after them to swell
the ranks of S'akyamuni's disciples. But it would seem
as though before S'akyamuni's time there was but one
path known for the searcher after truth to follow the way
of austerities and penance, which brought power and
influence to the sacerdotal Brahmans, without always
leading the searcher to the much-coveted enlightenment
and peace. 2

contact with extraneous thought, especially Greek. It is interesting to
trace the contemporaneous development of philosophy in India and in
Greece.

1 The order of the castes in Buddhist authors is (1) Kshatriyas,
(2) Brahmans, (3) Vaigyas, (4) Sudras. See J.R.A.S., April, 1894,
pp. 341 ft.

2 And yet S'akyamuni's preaching was nothing new. He was appeal-
ing to truths which had been overlaid and forgotten. Nichiren speaks
of a Buddhism before Buddha.



12 THE CREED OF HALF JAPAN

Not all these searchers were convinced by Buddha's
methods. S'akyamuni had many rivals, of whom one at
least founded a system of belief which has endured to our
own time. Mahavira, the founder of the Jain sect, was
the contemporary of S'akyamuni, and died in the Kosala
country, not many miles from the place where S'akyamuni
went to his rest, apparently in the same year as his more
celebrated rival. Jainism and Buddhism are kindred
faiths, and the Jainists and Buddhists seem to have
always looked upon one another as brethren, or, at least,
as spiritual cousins. 1

It was in such a country and in such an age that
S'akyamuni was born. The son of Suddhodhana, King of
Kapilavastu, and of his wife, the Lady Maya, his birth is
said to have been accompanied with marvels which really
belong to a later chapter of our book, and his boyhood
was marked by a singular precocity of intellect and purity
of character. The wise men summoned to the palace at
the time of his birth, 2 and especially one of their number,
the aged sage Asita, told the happy father that the new-
born babe would be either an epoch-making emperor or a
world-saving Buddha ; and the father, feeling perhaps



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