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University of California
Form L I
This book is DUE on the last date stamped below
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OWLER & COLWELL
WEST SECOND STREET
THE LAWS OF HEALTH IN RELATION
TO SCHOOL LIFE.
ARTHUR NEWSHOLME. M.D.,
AND DIPLOMATE IN PUBLIC HEALTH, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON; UNIVERSITY SCHOLAR AND
GOLD MEDALLIST IN MEDICINE; MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH FOR CLAl'HAM;
MEDICAL EXAMINER OF PUPIL TEACHERS TO THE SCHOOL BOARD FOR
LONDON; AND MEDICAL REFEREE TO THE WESTMINSTER AND
SOUTHLANDS TRAINING COLLEGES FOR TEACHERS.
D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS.
The importance of the subject here discussed must be evident
to all who have bestowed even a cursory attention on the sub-
ject of popular education. As a matter of fact, it has engaged
the serious attention of School Boards and Committees, and
been made the subject of repeated legislation by the Educa-
tion Department. The result of all this is seen in the improved
character of the school-buildings which are everywhere being
erected. In these, we find that greater attention is paid, not only
to the space demanded for each pupil, to which a few years
ago the official legislation was almost exclusively confined, but
educationists have come to see that lighting, warming, ventila-
tion, and general sanitary conditions, are of prime importance
in their bearing on the health and progress of the children
gathered in these schools.
Much still remains to be learnt in regard to these matters, and
it is of the highest importance that school-managers and all who
are concerned in the erection of school premises — or what is
perhaps equally important, the modification of already existing
schools — should be well acquainted with the principles which
determine the sanitary condition of all school premises and
But, however healthful the sanitary conditions of school-
premises, it is evident that the health of the school must depend
also largely upon llic routine, the distribution of work in relation
to age, the amount of exercise and rest, and other matters
which concern the personal treatment of the scholars.
This branch of School Hygiene is necessarily more exclu-
sively in the hands of the teacher, and it is therefore important
that he should be well instructed in the general laws of health as
applied to school-life. It is gratifying to observe that, after re-
peated references to the subject in their Official Reports, this
has been finally recognised by the Education Department in
their last Syllabus for Training Colleges, where a knowledge of
the " laws of health as applied to school premises, scholars,
and teachers," is made an essential part of the professional
training of teachers.
The present manual has been written to supply accurate in-
formation on these two branches of School Hygiene, and it
is hoped that it will be useful to all interested in the subject,
and especially to those engaged in studying it in Training
Colleges or elsewhere.
My own official exi)erience as Medical Officer of Health,
and as medical referee to two Training Colleges, as well as to
several large private schools, has frequently forced the study of
this subject upon me, and given the opportunity of becoming
acquainted with its practical details. The entire subject mav
be regarded as a particular application of the general Laws o
Health, which I have already treated in detail in my Manual o
Hygiene. The large circulation which this book has had, and
its favourable reception by teachers and scientific authorities,
encourage me to hope that the present work will be found
equally useful and acceptable.
39, High Street,
Part I.— schools.
Chaptlr I.— Site of School.
Desiderata of Site.— Level of Ground-Water.— Consump-
tion, Rheumatism, &c., from Damp Soils.— Special Sus-
ceptibility of Children —Drainage of Soil. -Character of
Soil— School not in Main Street. Not to be Over-
shadowed. —Allow for Playgrounds. ... ... ... 3
Chapter II.— Construction of School Building.s.
Foundation of School. —Walls.- Style of Architecture.— Inter-
nal Wall-surfaces.— Floor.— Arrangement of Rooms.^
Corridors. -Staircases. — Cloak-room.— Playground.
Chapter III.— School Furniture. 7
Desks and Seats.— Evil Effects of Long-sitting in one Pos-
ture.— Varieties of Bad Desks and Seats.— Results of
These. — " Distance" and " Difference."— Slope of Desk. —
Height and Width of Seat.— Height of Back— Long or
Short Desk.— Desks according to Height, not Age.— Black-
board. — Pictures ... ... ... ... ... I2
Chapter IV.— Lighting of School-rooms.
Evil Effects of Deficient Light.— Amount of Window-area
required. — Direction of Light. — Artificial Lighting ... 17
Chapter V.— General Principles of Ventilation.
Physiology of Respiration. — Tests for Impurity of Air. —
Effects of Breathing Impure Air.— Effect on Mental
Powers.— Tjernperature of Air required. — Dryness of Air. —
Amount of Air required.— Amount of Floor Space ... 21
Chapter VI.— Natural Ventilation.
Rules Respecting Ventilation.— Natural and Artificial Ven-
tilation.— Ventilation through Window, Wall, Chimney,
Ceiling. ... ••- ... ••• ••• 29
Chapter VII.— Ventilation and Warming.
Difficulties of Successful Ventilation by Warm Air.— Open
Fire-place.— Heating by Gas.— Closed Stoves.— Central
System of Heating.— Hot Air Furnaces.— Steam Appara-
tus. —Hot Water Apparatus. -Entrance Flues and Extrac-
tion Shafts.— The Bridgeport System ... ... ... 36
Chapter VIII.— Drainage Arrangements.
Lavatories,— Urinals.— Water-closets.— Soil-pipe. — Drains.—
Earth-closets ... ... ... ... ... ••• 46
Part II.— SCHOLARS.
Chapter IX.— Mfntal Exercise.
Full Scope of F.diiration. — Quantity and Quality of Brain. —
'I he Hrain a Ccmipound Organ.— Functional Habits of
Brain - Blood Supply. — Sensory and Muscular Education
of Brain ... ... ... ... ... ... 57
Chapter X.— Excessive Mental Exercise.
Symptoms and Effects of Brain-forcing.— The " Cram " Sys-
tem.— Causes of Over-strain. — Home- Lessons.— Badly-ar-
ranged Work.- Importance of Technical Instruction. —
Good and Bad Examinations. — Consumption from Over-
work.— Punishments ... ... ... ... ... 62
Chapter XI.— Age and Sfx in Relation to School
Duration of Srhool-vvork at various Ages. — Statistics of
Children attending School at various Ages. -Growth and
Development in Relation to School-work.— Weight and
Size of Children.— Chart of Growth of Children. — Sex in
Education. — Character of Education in Relation to Sex. 70
Chapter XII.— Muscular Exercise and Recreation.
Analogy between Mental and Muscular Exercise. — Influence
of Exercise on the System. — Influence on the Brain. — Ex-
cessive Exercise. — Deficient Exercise. — Rules for Exer-
cise. — Forms of Exercise. — Gymnastics. — Calisthenics ... 83
Chapter XIII.— Rest and Sleep.
Law of Rest and Action. — Partial Rest — Complete Rest. —
Duration of Sleep.— Rules respecting Sleep. — School Dor-
mitories ... ... ... ... ... ... 91
Chapter XIV.— Children's Diet.
Quantity and Quality of Food. — Food required for Growth. —
Relation of Food to Work. — Frequency of Under-feed-
ing. — Amount of Food Required.— School Dietaries. —
Water at School. ... ... ... ... ... 95
Chapter XV.— Children's Dress.
Amount of Clothing Required. — Relation of Clothing to
Food. — The Hardening Process. — Distribution of Cloth-
ing.— Rules respecting Clothing ... ... ... 99
Chapter XVI.— Baths and Bathing.
Necessity for Cleanliness —School Baths and Swimming ... 102
Chapter XVII.— Eyesight in Relation to School Life.
Structure of the Eye. — Causation of Long and Short Sight. —
Use of Eyes for Near Objects.— Inadequate Light. — Badly
Printed Books. — Fine Needlework. — Influence of General
Health on Eyesight. ... ... ... ... ... 104
Chapter XVIII.— Communicable Diseases in Schools.
Moral Duty of Parents and Medical Men. — Symptoms of On-
set of Infectious Diseases. — Rules for Guidance of Teach-
ers. — Durationof Infection.— Isolation of Healthy Members
of Household.— Diseases from Insanitary Schools. — Ques-
tion of Closing Schools for Epidemics. — Management of
Infectious Diseases in Boarding Schools. — Other Commu-
nicable Diseases.— Ringworm. — Itch. .. ... ... ii6
Chapter XIX.— School Accidents.
Importance of First Aid. — Fainting.— Fits.— Suffocation. —
Drowning. — Foreign Bodies. — Stings and Bites. —
Wounds. — Haemorrhage.- Nose Bleeding and Spitting of
Blood. — Fractures. — Dislocations. — Sprains.— Contu-
sions. — Concussion. — Football. ... ... ... ... 131
Index ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 141
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
1 Diagram of foundation and damp-proof course ... 8
2 Diagram of desk and seat ... ... ... ... 15
3 Ventilating gas-pendant ... ... ... ... 20
4 Ventilation by hinged window ... ... ... 31
5 Ventilation between window-sashes ... ... ... 32
6 Ventilation by Tobin's tube and exit-shaft from cenue 33
flower of ceiling ...
7 Sheringham's ventilator ... ... ... ... ^3
8 Boyle's mica flap ventilator ... ... ... ... 34
9 Slow combustion ventilating-stove ... ... ... 38
10 The Calorigen stove... ... ... ... ... 39
11 Closed stove arranged to warm incoming fresh air ... 41
12 Lavatory wash-basin... ... ... ... ... 47
13 Pan-closet with D trap beneath ... ... ... 48
14 An improved valveless closet ... ... ... 49
15 A sanitary valve-closet ... ... ... ... 50
16 Section of disconnecting chamber for school-drain ... 51
17 Iron cover to disconnecting chamber ... ... 52
18 Chart of height and weight from birth to 25 years of ,ige 79
19 Chair giving complete spinal support ... ... 87
20 Vertical section of the eyeball ... ... ... 105
21 Diagram showing effect of biconvex lens on rays of light 106
22 Section of hypermetropic eye ... ... ... 107
23 Section of myopic eye ... ... ... ... 109
24 Chart showing prevalence of near-sight and far-sight
at different ages ... ... ... ... m
25 The Itch Insect ... ... ... ... ... 125
26 A burrow tormed by the Itch Insect in epidermis ... 126
27 Ringworm ... ... ... ... ... ... 128
28 The inspiratory movement in artificial respiration ... 133
29 The expiratory movement in artificial respiration ... 134
Site of School.
Desiderata of Site. — Level of Ground-Water. — Consumption,