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Ua Lochlainn stood forth as a rival claimant, and both parties
prepared to gather around them, by persuasion or force, the
minor chieftains and their fighting men. Omitting minor
operations O'Conor sailed down the Shannon and made a
partition of Munster between O'Brian and Macarthy. He
established a firm alhance with Tighernan O'Ruairc, who ruled
over Cavan, Leitrim, and Longford. On his side O'Lochlainn
was equally active. Immediately after the death of Turlough
he invaded Ulidia and took away choice hostages. He
then marched south and took the hostages of Leinster from
Diarmaid Mac Murcadha in return for giving him the whole
province. Diarmaid thenceforth stood firmly by him in his
contest with O'Conor. O'Lochlainn next marched with the
men of Oirghiall into Ossory, and received the submission of
the chieftains there. The following year he attended the
great ceremony at the consecration of Mellifont, when he gave
eight score cove's and sixty ounces of gold to the Lord and to



390 EARLY IRISH HISTORY.

the clergy. Magraidin, the continuator of Tigernach, states that
TighernaQ Ua Ruairc and Dearbforgaill were both present on
that occasion, when the latter gave, as ah-eady stated, sixty
ounces of gold and other valuable presents. The Annals of
Ulster state that Tighernan Ua Ruairc was also present,
and it may, we think, be fairly assumed that he and Dearbforgaill
were not then living apart, though the contrary is often stated.
In 1159 O'Loehlainn marched into Meath, and put Donncadh
Ua Maelseachlainn in full kingship of it from the Shannon to
the sea. After this O'Conor mustered all his forces and
advanced to attack him. He was joined by strong battalions
from Munster. Tighernan Ua Ruairc brought the O'Ruaircs,
O'Reillys, and O'Farrels from Leitrim, Cavan, and Longford.
O'Conor marched to Ardee, the historic fighting ground of
Cuchulainn. There he was met by Ua Lochlainn at the head
of the Cinel Eogain, the Cinel Conaill, the Oirghialla, and the
Ulidians. A battle rout was inflicted on O'Conor. The six
battalions of Connacht and Ua Ruairc were overthrown, and
the two battalions from Munster " were dreadfully slaughtered."
O'Loehlainn then led his victorious army — the Cinel Eogain,
the Cinel Conaill, the Ulidians, and the Oirghialla — into
Connacht, but had to return " without peace and without
hostages." O'Conor MJ^as, however, not crushed. He continued
the struggle with stubborn pertinacity. The next year, lltiO.
he made a hosting into Teffia, sailed down the Shannon, and
took hostages from the Dal Cais. Then he went to meet
O'Loehlainn at Eas Ruaidh with a view to making peace ; but
they could not come to an agreement. In 1161 O'Conor, with
Tighernan Ua Ruairc, invaded Meath, and took hostages from
the Ui Faclain and the Ui Failghe, but was himself obliged to
give hostages to O'Loehlainn. In 1165 he made a hosting
into Desmond, and took hostages from MacCarthy. At this
time, notwithstanding his having given hostages to O'Loehlainn,
he seems to have had a nominal suzerainty over Desmond,
Thomond, Meath, and Breffni. The following year brought
the downfall and death of his rival. O'Loehlainn had treacher-
ously blinded Eocaid, the son of Donnsluibhe, King of Ulidia,
against the guarantee of Ua Cearbhail, the King of Oirghialla,
and "after dishonouring the co-arb of Patrick and the statf of
Jesus, and the co-arb of Columba, and the (xospel of St. Martin
and many clergy, besides Ua Cearbhail and the Oirghialla."



THE EMERALD RING'. 391

The Ulidians rose against him, and O'Conor led the Connacht
men and Ua Ruairc's men into Tyrone. A battle was fought
at Leiter Luinn, near Newtown Hamilton, in Armagh, and
O'Lochlainn was slain, O'Conor then marched to Ath Cliath
with Ua Ruairc and Maelseachlainn and their forces. There
" he was inaugurated king as honourably as any king of the
Gael was ever inaugurated, and he presented their ' retainers '
to the foreigners, in many cows, for he levied four thousand
cows on the men of Erin for them."

O'Conor then received the submission and hostages of the
Oirghialla and other chieftains, and gave them "retainers."
Next he marched against Diarraaid MacMurchada, who advanced
against him and gave him battle, but was defeated.

It was on this occasion, in our judgment, that Diarmuid
fled from the kingdom, was deposed, and his kinsman, Mur-
chadh, the son of Alurchada, set up by O'Conor in his stead.-^
There is an entry in the Book of Leinster — evidently of con-
temporary date — which refers to this event. It rans as follows : —
" Wirra, wirra (ttluit^e) 'tis a great deed that has been done this
day, the Kalends of August, viz., Diarmuid, the son of Donn-
cadh MacMurchada, King of Leinster and of the foreigners, to
have been banished over the sea (eastwards) by the men of
Erin. Oh, Holy Trinity ! uch ! uch ! What shall I do ? "
This entry was, we suggest, made by, or at the dictation of, Aedh
MacCrimthainn. He had been tutor of Diarmaid, and was now
Ferleighinn at Ferns. It was by him, we think, or under his
direction, that the Book of Leinster was compiled, and not, as
O'Curry thought, by Finn, Bishop of Kildare, who died in
1160 A.D. There is an interesting letter from the latter copied
into the Book of Leinster. It runs : — " Life and health from
Finn, Bishop, {i.e. of Kildare) to Aedh MacCrimthainn,
Ferleighinn of the chief king of Leth Mogha, and co-arb of
Colum MacCrimthainn, and chief historian of Leinster in
wisdom, and knowledge, and cultivation of books, and science,
and learning. And let the conclusion of this history be written
for me by thee. O acute Aedh, thou possessor of the sparkling
intellect. . . „ Let Mac Lonain's book of poems be given

^' The accounts in our Annals arc confused by the introduction of a separate
invasion en revanche, by O'Ruairc. Wo follow Magraidin's account up to tlie
battle (continuation of Tigernach, Rev. Celt., 18 p. 16S). The entry in the Boot o/
Leinster, to be presently mentioned, says he was bauiihed, not by Ua Ruairc but
by the men of Erin, i.e., O'Conur's army.



392 EARLY IRISH HISTORY.

to me that wq may find out the sense of the poems that are in
it."-'"

The cijrief of Aedh, if we are right in our surmise, was not
destined to be of long duration. Glad tidings were coming to
him from over sea. Diarmaid fled to the Court of Henry IL,
who was then in Acquitaine. He was cordially received, and
obtained from the King Letters Patent authorising his subjects
in every part of his dominions to aid him in recovering his
kingdom. He further obtained — what was, perhaps, scarcely of
less importance, what is commonly known as the Bull
Laudabiliter. The document was, in our judgment, composed
or issued at this time. We shall state in full detail our
view respecting it in our next chapter. Here let. us give,
with our translation, the text from the Book of Leinster,
hitherto unpublished, and, with one exception,^^ unnoticed
in the voluminous works and treatises on this subject.^*

The prefatory lines are, we suggest, from Aedh MacCrim-
thainn, who probably survived his pupil. The date of his
death is not known.

[I-/AUDABILITER.]

Ah, men of the faith of the world how beautiful !
When over the cold sea in ships Zephyrus wafts glad tidings
(Hterally presents).

[A Bull granted to the King of the English on the collation {i.e. grant)
of Hibernia, in which nothing is taken away from the, rights of the
Irish, as appears by the words of the text.]

Adrian, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to our well-beloved
son in Christ, the illustrious King of the English, health and apostolical
benediction. Laudably and profitably enough does your magnificence
think of winning a glorious name on earth and heaping up the reward
of eternal happiness in heaven while you purpose like a prince (truly)
Catholic to extend the bounds of the Church, to proclaim to a rude and
untaught people the truth of the Christian faith, and to root out
nurseries of vice from the field of the Lord, and for doing this with
greater propriety you ask tlie advice and support of the Holy See. In
which matter we are confident your progress will be more successful,
with God's help, in proportion as you proceed with loftier purpose and

" LL. Facsimile, lower margin, p. 228. Colum MacCrimthainn wa.a the
founder of the Abbey of Tir-da-glas in Tipperary. The entry is written under
the atoiy of Tadg, the son of Cian, which is, perhaps, tlie story referred to. See
Todd, }Va7- of the Gael, X.

^•' Boichorst refers to the LL. casually in a note.

2^ As regards the pagination of the y!oo!c of L( /inter it is to be noted that the
original book ends onpa^'e 3j4. From 35.5 to 376 inclusive there is a blank. From
877 to the last page, 411, is mouera — about 300 years old. Facsimile LL. Intro-
duction.



THE EMERALD RING. 393

greater discretion, because those (projects) usually have a happy end
and issue whioh have their beginning in ai'dour for the faith and love
of religion. Truly there is no doubt, as you freely (voluntas tua) recoci;-
nize, that Hibernia and all islands on which Christ, the Sun of Justice,
has shone, which have received the teachings of the Christian faith,
belong to the "jus" of the blessed apostle Peter and the Holy Roman
Church. Hence we have the greater pleasure in planting in them a
nursery of the faith and seed pleasing to God, as conscience tells us,
and we see that this is strictly demanded of us. Since you intimate to
us, well-beloved son in Christ, that you wish to enter the island of
Hibernia to subject that people to laws and root out the nurseries of
vice from it, and are willing to pay from each house one denarius
annually as cess to blessed Peter, and to preserve the rights of the
Church of that land unimpaired and inviolate, so we, seconding your
pious and laudable desire with the favour it de.serves, and according to
your request a benignant assent, are pleased and willing that to extend
the bounds of the Church and for preventing the re-growth of vice
(recursu) and for amending morals and sowing the seeds of virtue and
for the advancement of the Christian religion, you shall enter that
island and do therein what tends to the honour of God and the salvation
of the people. And let the people of that land receive you honourably
and respect you as doviimbs — that is, the rights of the Church remaining
unimpaired and inviolate and saving to blessed Peter and to the Holy
Ptoraan Church from each house one denarius annually as cess. If,
therefore, you shall bring to completion effectively what you have
planned in your mind, strive to discipline that nation in good morals,
and act as well by yourself as by those whom you have ascertained to
be by their faith, their words, and their manner of life, fit for the task,
that the Church may be adorned there, that the religion and faith of
Christ may be planted and grow, and that what appertains to the
honour of God and the salvation of souls may be so ordered by you
that you may merit to obtain from God the abundance of the eternal
reward and succeed in winning a glorious name on earth and in heaven.

Text from the Book op Leinster.

A -ouine nA cpeic Don cpAosol 51T) AlAinn.

Aequore cum gelido Zepherus fert. (A Fexennia)2« (rcc^e) xennia
kymlns.

[Bulla conoeKS& regi anglorum super collationem Hybernife in qua
nichil derogotur juri Hybernicorum sicut in serie verborum patet.]

Adrianus episcopus servus servorum Dei carissimo in Claristo filio,
illustri regi Anglorum Henrico salutem et apostolicam benedictionem.
Laudabiliter et satis fructuose de glorioso nomine propagando in terris
et reternie felicitatis prfemio cunnilando in cfelis tua magniticentia
cogitat, dum ad dilatandos ecclesi;e terminos et ad declarandam indoctis
et ruJibus populis Christiana3 fidei veritatem et vitiorum plantaria de

2' The conchision shoulrl he, we think : — " Tliat you may merit to obtain an
abundance of the eternal reward in heaven, and succeed in winning a glorioua
name on earth." The words have been transposed.

2' "A Fexeiinia "should, we suggest, bo "Xennia." The proper word is
" Xenia," but tiio writer Uoubles the " u " to get his dactyl iu tiie iith place.



394 EARLY IRISH HISTORY.

agro Doniiiiico exstirpanda, sicnt Catholicus princcp^.s, intendis, et ad
id couuenientius exseqaendum consilium apostolicum exigis et favorem.
In quo facto quanto altiori consilio et majori discretione procedis tanto
in eo feliciorem progressum te, prsestanto Domino, confidimus (hahi-
turum) eo quod ad bonum exitum et finem soleant pertingere quae de
ardore fidei et religionis amore principium acceperunt. Sane Hiberniam
et omnes insulas quibus sol justitioe Christus illuxit qure documenta fidei
perceperunt ad jus beati Petri apostoli et sacrosanctfe Romanae ecclesige,
quod tua etiam voluntus recognoscit, non est dubium pertinere. Unde
(tanto) in eis libentius plantationem fidelem et germen gratum Deo
inserimus (quanto) id a nobis interno examine districtius prospiscimus
exigendum. Significasti nobis siquidem, fili in Christo carissime, te
Hibernise insulam, ad subdendum populum ilium legibus et inde vitiorum
plantaria exstirpanda velle intrare et de singulis domibus annuam
beato Petro unum denarium solvere pensionem, et jura ecclesise illius
terras illabata et integra conservare. Nos itaque pium et laudabile
iesiderium tuum favore congruo proscquentes, et petitioni tuae
benigiie impendentes assensum, gratum et acceptum habemus ut pro
dilatandis ecclesise terminis, pro vitiorum restringendo recnrsu, pro
corrigendis moribus et virtutibus inserendis pro Christianas religionis
augmento, insulam illam ingrodiaris et quae ad honorem Dei et salutem
terrte illius spectaverint exequaris, et illius terrae populus honoriflce te
recipiat et sicnt dominum veneretur, jure nirairum ecclesiarum illibato
et intogro permanente, et salva beato Petro apostolo et sacrosanctae
Romanae ecclesiae de singulis domibus unum denarium annua pensiono.
Si ergo quod animo concepisti effectu duxeris persequente complendum,
studeas gentem illam bonis moribus informare et agas tam per te quam
per illos quos ad hoc fide verbo et vita idoneos esse perppexeris ut
decoretur ibi ecclesia, plantetur et crescat fidei Christianas religio, et
quae ad honorem Dei et salutem pertinent animarum taliter ordinentur
ut a Deo sempiternae mercedis cumulum consequi merearis, et in terris
gloriosum nomen valeas et in coelis obtinere. Vale.^^

^ We have italicised the principal variants in this text : —

Henrico ia absent in other texts.

VolwitOr^. — Here and in Matthew Paris, Rolls series, I., p. 304 only. In
Baronius and elsewhere, nohilUas. We make no doubt voluntas is archetypal ; no
scribe would change nohilitas into voluntas. We are unable to say whother the
codox of Matthew Paris in the Vatican, from which Baronius probably got his
version, has vohmtas.

Recurm is elsewhere decursu.

In c'dis, olscwhero ui scecidian, or in sceculis. Baronius Las valeas in sreculis.
In ccelis is, we think, the true text.

The context indicates, we suggest, that the final clause should run : — " Ut a
Deo scmpiteniic morcedis cunuilnm consequi merearis in coelis et gloriosum nomen
valeas in terris obtinere. Vale."

Bon/c of Leinsier, Facsimile, p. 342, Giraldus, Rolls series, I„ 65, III. 195,
Rad. de Piceto, R.S., I. 300. Baronius, vol. 19, p. 128, A.D. 1150., this is the
text of Miijiie, vol. iSS, p. 14il, elo.



1 395 j



CHAPTER XXVII.

THE CYMRO-FRANKISH ADVENTURERS.*

BEFORE considering what we shall call for brevity, the
Papal Documents, whether genuine or spurious,
relating to the alleged Donation of Ireland to Henry II, it
is necessary to say a few words about Diarmaid himself.

Diarmaid at the time of his banishment had been forty
years on the throne. The date of his birth is uncertain, our
texts agree that he was the son of Donnchadh Mac Murcadha,
and 20th in descent from Enna Ceinselach who was king of
Leinster in the 4th century. Donncadh was slain in 1115,2 and
was succeeded by Enna who reigned eight years (1117-1125).
Diarmaid who, according to our view, was too young to
reign when his father died, mounted the throne on the death
of Enna in 1126. We would place his birth about the yeai
1100.3 Till his flight he had shown himself an active,
ambitious, and withal a politic ruler. Shortly after his
accession when he was firmly seated on the throne of Leinster
he claimed the over-lordship of Leath Mogha, that is, of
the whole South of Ireland. He invaded Ossory in 1134:

* The followers of William the Conqueror, commonly called Normans,
called themselves Francii long after their settlement iu England. The
adventurers to Ireland were from Wales, i.e., Cymri, or Francii. They
epoke either Cymric or French, or in some cases I.atin. Henry II, though
brouglit up in England for four years could'nt speak English.

2 F. M. 1115. Donncadh Ua Maelnambo, the father of Diarmaid, and the
jrreat grandson of Maelnambo, was slain in a battle in which Domhnall
O'Brien and the foreigners of Dublin were victorious.

3 O'Donovan gives his genealogy (F. M. 1052 a.d.) and says he was sixty-
two in 1153, which would place "his birth at 1090. We find it difficult to
accept this view, as if he was twenty-five at his father's death we should
expect him to have succeeded immediately ; and his vigour and activity up
to his death in 1171 would be very exceptional in a man of eighty. There
is an entry in the Book of Leinster, on the other hand, which states that he
reigned forty-six years and died in the sixty-first (LXI) year of his age.
Tins we cannot accept, as it would make him out to 1)0 only fifteen (61 — 40)
at the time of his accession. The entry should probably bo LXXI and not
LXI. Mistakes often occur in the Roman numerals. See F. M. 1052, 1115
and 1153. Todd, War of the Gael xi. and LL p. 39 g.



3tl6 EA.RLY IRISH HISTORY.

and though repulsed at first succeeded afterwards in
defeating the men of Ossory and their aUies, the northmen
of Waterford, and laid siege to the latter town. 4 In 1149
he invaded Meath and in alliance with the Northmen of
Dublin plundered Daleek. He next made alliance with
O'Conor, and helped him, as we have seen, to win the battle
of j\Ioin Mor over the men of Munster, and to invade
O'Ruairc's territory.

Afterwards when MacLochlainn became predominant he
attached his fortunes to him and remained true to him till
he fell at Leiter Luin in 11 66.

Diarmaid also took precautions to secure the support of
the Church. He married Mor, the sister of Saint Laurence
O'Toole, and was a munificent benefactor of religion.
Saint Laurence, after he became Archbishop of Dublin,
replaced the Secular Canons, at Christ Church by Canons
regular of the Augustinian Order of the reform of Aroasia
in Artois, and joined the Order himself in 11 40. Diarmaid
founded and endowed a Convent for Nuns of the Aroasian Order
at St. Mary de Hogges near the site of St. Andrew's Church in
the city of Dublin, and two dependent cells at Kilcleshin
in Kilkenny near Waterford, and at Aghade in Carlow — in
1151, 5 In the same year he founded the Abbey of Baltin-
glass for Cistercian Plonks, and in 1161 an Abbey for Austin
v'.anons at Ferns. About 1160 he confirmed a donation of
lands, etc., at Duisk in Kilkenny to Felix, Abbot of Ossory,
for the construction of a monastery in honour of St. Benedict.
St. Laurence was one of the witnesses to the charter. 6

Diarmaid also founded a Convent for Canons on the spot
where Trinity College now stands, under the title of the
Church, Priory, and Canons of All-Hallows, and endowed
it with an extensive estate at Baldoyle, The charter of endow-
ment which is still extant is made to his " spiritual father

* F. M. 1132. The Siege of Wnterford by Diarmnid Mac Murchadha kinp
of Leinster and Conchobar O'Brien, king of the Dal-Cais, and the foreigners
of Ath-Cliath and L. Carmen who had 200 ships on the sea.

' O'Curry prepared a pedigree of St. Laurence for O'Hanlon's Life of ihe
Saint, it will be found at page 12. He states that he compared the books
of Ballymote, Lecan, and Mac Firhis with the Booh of Leinster and says :
" Mor the daughter of Muirchertach ua Ttiatliail (father of St.Laurence) was
the wife of Diarmaid Mac Murchadha, king of Leinster and of the Danes."
St. Laurence's nephew was at this time (1167) Abbot of the powerful
.^bbey of Glendalough .

* See facsimile MS. Gilbert LXIT., where a copy of th?3 charter is given.



THE CYMRO-FRAXKISH ADVENTURERS. 30?

and Confessor, Eden, Bishop of Louth, "7 as a trustee, and
St. Laurence is one of the witnesses.

Against these sohd facts we find a considerable quantity
of adverse and most frequently rhetorical criticism dating
from Giraldus onward. Giraldus' description of Diarmaid
is worth quoting textually : " In stature Diarmaid was tall
and his frame was very large. Among his own people he
was bold and combative. His voice was hoarse from the
frequent and prolonged battle-shouts. He had rather be
feared than loved by all. He pulled down the mighty and
lifted up the weak. Odious to his own he was hated by the
stranger. Every man's hand was against him and his hand
against every man. In his youth at the beginning of his reign he
was an oppressor of the nobility, and raged against the magnates
of his own country with a great and intolerable tyranny." 8

There are, we think, only two acts answering this descrip-
tion recorded of Diarmaid in. our annals. One is the Winding
of Niall ua Mordha of Leix, whom Diarmaid released from
fetters after depriving him of his sight. This abominable
practice of blinding had come west from the east, and was
common in England from the time of the Conquest, as well
as in Ireland.

A second entry in our annals states that Diarmaid '* acted
treacherously towards the chieftains of Leinster, viz.,
Domhnall Lord of UiFaelain, and ua Tuathail, both of whom
he killed, and towards the Lord of Feara Cualann who was
blinded by him. This deed caused great weakness in Leinster,
for seventeen of the nobihty of Leinster and many others
with them were killed." 9

Diarmaid is further charged with having been accessory
to the abduction of an Abbess, ^o a charge which is probably

' The charter is given in the Registrum Priorat. Omn. SS. Ed. R. Butler p. 50

* " Dermod Mac Murchad expelled by Roderick O'Couor for enormous
crimes of a public and private nature." — O'Cooor of Belnagare Dissertations
262, " A beastly prince" Lanigan IV., 184-191. " His whole life was a
record of violence and villainy, he was cruel, tyrannical and treacherous,
and was hated in his own day as much as his memory has been hated ever
since." — Joyce, Short History, p. 245.

5 The Entry F. M. 1141 a.d. appears to point to a revolt of some sort which
Diarmaid put down with probably undue severity. The rebels were not his
tribesmen.

10 1135. The Abbess of Kildare was forced and taken out of her cloister
by Diarmaid Mac Murchadha kimg of Leinster, and compelled to marry one
oi the said Diarmaid's peo-ple, at whose taking he killed 107 of the towasmeu.
— Murphy, Ann. Clon., p. 193.



398 EARLY IRISH HISTORY.

as ill-founded as that of his elopement with Dearbforgaill,
with which we have already dealt. It is not mentioned by
the Four Masters.

These are the only acts of cruelty recorded against
Diarmaid during a reign of 40 years. His record will, we think,
bear favourable comparison with those of contemporary
monarchs at home and abroad.

Assuming the tale told in the Melalogicus to be true, and
that the facts stated were known to some of the ecclesiastics
or monks in touch with Diarmaid, the course he took after
his flight was such as might have been reasonably expected.
When an under-lord or chieftain was unjustly attacked he
appealed for succour or protection in the last resort to the
High King or over-lord. But if the true over-lord of all
was the Pope, and Henry was his vice-gerent (and there can
be no doubt that this was the orthodox teaching, at the time,
of the regular, if not of the secular, clergy in the South of
Ireland), if unable to stand alone against O'Conor and his
allies, and if the Northern Ui Neill were not in a position to
help him, to whom could Diarmaid appeal for succour and
redress but to Henry, after his expulsion and flight ?
Diarmaid, therefore, determined to turn for help to Henry
Plantagenet. He went first to Bristol, where he found shelter
for a time in the Priory of St. Augustin. Thence he proceeded
to Normandy, and finally to Acquitaine, where he found
Henry. He was cordially received, but Henry was not then



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