quist, bearing the name "Det Rdtta Hemlandet,'' sixteen pages large
octavo, issued every other week, alternately with Hemlandet. The
subscription price for the two papers taken together was $1.50, or
$1.00 for the new paper and 75 cents for the older when taken
separately, per year. This new paper was the beginning of what is
now known as Augustana, the official organ of the Augustana Synod.
Its stages of development we shall find occasion to note later.
The needs of the Swedish settlers religiously and politically as
well as from the view-point of news were by these two papers well
taken care of.
Among other publications during this period we note the following :
"50 Sanger. Svenska Boktryckeriet. Galesburg 1856." (50 Songs.
Swedish Bookprinting Office. Galesburg 1856.) 'This was a small
collection of songs gathered from "Ahnfelts Sanger" and others to
be used at divine services, and was, as far as can be learned, the first
song-book published in the Swedish language in America.
"Enchiridion eller Luthers Lilla Cateches. Pa Svenska och Eng-
elska. Noggrann ofvers. af L. P. Esbjorn. Galesburg. Svenska
176 THE AUGUSTANA SYNOD
Boktryckeriet, 1856." (Enchiridion or Luther's Small Catechism.
In Swedish and English. Careful translation by L. P. Esbjorn.
Galesburg. Swedish Bookprinting Office, 1856.)
"Forslag till Constitution for Evangelisk-Lutherska forsamlingar
i Norra Amerika. Godkandt och antaget vid den forenade Chicago
och Mississippi Conferensens sammantrade i Chicago den 18 23
Mars 1857. Svenska Boktryckeriet. Galesburg, 111., 1857." (Pro-
posed Constitution for Evangelical Lutheran Congregations in North
America. Approved and accepted at the joint Chicago and Mississippi
Conference Convention at Chicago, March 18 23, 1857. Swedish
Bookprinting Office. Galesburg, 111., 1857.) Twelve pages octavo.
"Augsburgiska Bekannelsen." (The Augsburg Confession.) Print-
ed at the same place 1857, fifteen pages, including only the 21
"Dokt. Martin Luthers Sandebref till tvanne kyrkoherdar om
vederdopet. 1528." (Doctor Martin Luther's Letters to two pastors
in regard to anabaptism. 1528.) Printed at the same place 1857;
A few small tracts such as "Bor man lasa mer an Bibeln?" (Ought
one to read more than the Bible?), "Den Eatta Enfalden" (True
Humility), etc., were published the same year from the same place.
In 1857 an A-B-C-book, or Swedish Primer, prepared by Dr. A. R
Cervin, was published, also at Galesburg.
November 7th, 1857, the first number of a new paper appeared at
Red Wing, Minn., its name being Minnesota Posten, edited and pub-
lished by E. Norelius and J. Engberg, the former as editor and the
latter as printer. The paper sought to assist with valuable advice
the Swedes of Minnesota during those trying times. The program
and tendency of the paper were similar to those of Ilemlandet. The
paper was issued every other week until Oct. 13th, 1858, after which
time it was consolidated with Hemlandet, when that paper was moved
"Luther-Boken eller Den dyre Gudsmannen Doktor Martin Luthers
Lefverne och Gerningar af Herman Fick. Ofversattning fran tyskan.
Galesburg, 111. Svenska. Boktryckeriet, 1858." (The Luther-Book
or the Life and Work of the dear man of God Doctor Martin Luther
by Herman Fick. Translated from the German. Galesburg, 111.
Swedish Bookprinting Office, 1858.) The work contained 38 pages
PUBLISHING INTERESTS 177
octavo, a good biography of Luther, well translated, the translation
being most probably executed by Mrs. T. N. Hasselquist.
"Salems Sanger" was a small collection of songs by E. JSTorelius,
published 1859 at Chicago, with music for four parts. Of this col-
lection Dr. Norelius himself says: "utan nagot varde" (of no worth).
"Konung Oskar den Fridsalles Minne. En enkel historisk teckning
af hans lif och regeringsverksamhet. Chicago, Hemlandets Office,
1860." (In Memory of King Oscar, the Lover of Peace. A plain
historical presentation of his life and work as ruler. Chicago, Hem-
landet's Office, 1860.) This work of 91 pages was a reprint from
an unknown Swedish author.
The Swedish Lutheran Publication Society in the United States.
The great importance of publishing good literature, both books and
papers, was more and more realized and often discussed by the
leaders, both clerical and lay, and in order to accomplish the plans
proposed and procure necessary funds, it was agreed that a publi-
cation society should be organized. The foundation for such a soci-
ety had practically been laid when contributions had been solicited
and received from the members of the congregations for the equip-
ment of the office at Galesburg, whereby this concern had be-
come the property of the congregations. At a meeting of the
Mississippi Conference at Galesburg in April, 1858, it was decided
to organize a stock-company bearing the name: "The Swedish Lu-
theran Publication Society in the United States." Subscriptions for
stock were solicited during the following months. The movement
met with considerable favor, and yet at a joint meeting of the Chicago
and Mississippi Conferences at Princeton in September of the same
year it was found that only about two-thirds of the required stock
had been taken and that most of the subscribers found themselves
unable to make the required payments, owing to the financial strin-
gency of the times. However, further efforts were decided upon.
A committee was elected to ascertain the status quo of the papers
Gamla och Nya Hemlandet and Minnesota Posten and of the book
store, some time previously started by Rev. Hasselquist at Galesburg.
At a meeting held in Chicago, December 6 9, 1858, the organization
of the Publication Society was effected. The plan of a stock company,
178 THE AUGUSTANA SYNOD
however, was abandoned, and it was decided that the society should
consist of the representatives of the congregations, clerical and lay,
that the property be the property of the congregations, and that the
affairs of the society be managed by a board of eight members, four
pastors and four laymen. The first members of the Board were:
Pastors T. N. Hasselquist, E. Carlsson, E. Norelius, and A. Andreen
and Messrs. C. J. Anderson, Chicago, Carl Stromberg, Chicago, John
Johnson, Knoxville, and P. Fagercrantz, Princeton. The paper
Minnesota Posten with its equipment was purchased and likewise
the stock of the book-store owned by Eev. Hasselquist at Galesburg,
and the office of the society was established at Chicago with the be-
ginning of the year 1859. Eev. Erland Carlsson was elected man-
ager of the book store and Eev. E. Norelius editor of the papers.
Minnesota Posten was "united with Hemlandet, which was now
changed into a weekly; while the church paper, Ratta Hemlandet,
was made a monthly; both, however, retaining their former size and
form." Through the efforts of Prof. L. P. Esbjorn the society was
duly incorporated by special act of the legislature of the State of
Illinois in February, 1859. "After the organization of the Augustana
Synod in 1860, the society was composed of all the Swedish ministers
of the Synod and all the lay delegates to the synodical conventions,
and the meetings were held immediately after the adjournment of
the Synod." (C. W. Foss.)
Developments during the ensuing years we will give in the words
of Dr. C. W. Foss (The Alumnus, January, 1893) as follows:
"On account of failing health, Dr. Xorelius was compelled to re-
sign, after nine months, and Dr. Erland Carlsson was elected his
successor. He was assisted in his labors by Jonas Engberg, who had
lately been associated with Dr. Norelius in the publishing of Minne-
sota Posten. In October, 1864, Dr. A. E. Cervin, who had come to
America in 1856 and returned to Sweden the following year, arrived
in America the second time and at once assumed the editorship of
the two papers. At the meeting of the Synod in 1868, he was elected
professor at Augustana College and Theological Seminary, and in
July the same year, he laid down the editorship of the weekly paper,
while he still retained that of Ratta Hemlandet. The new editor of
Hemlandet, the Hon. P. A. Sundelius, does not appear to have en-
tered very fully into the spirit of the Synod, and, though the paper
ITS PUBLISHING INTERESTS 179
almost doubled its size during his editorship, yet his management
of it does not seem to have met with any general approbation. In
December, 1869, he very abruptly resigned. The vacancy thus
caused was filled by the temporary appointment of Dr. J. A. Enander.
In a few weeks he was duly elected editor of the paper, which position
he continued to hold until his election to the chair of the Swedish
language and literature at Augustana College, in 1890.
As Hemlandet was becoming more and more a purely political
paper, and Ratta Hemlandet was devoted wholly to religious literature,
the Synod, in 1868, authorized the Publication Society to begin the
issuing of a church paper that could serve as a synodical organ. The
first number of the new paper, a church monthly known as Augustana,
appeared in October, 1868. It was edited by Dr. T. N. Hasselquist,
and was published in magazine form, each number containing sixteen
pages of about the same size as Ratta Hemlandet. In December of
the following year, the two monthlies were united into one and known
as Ratta Hemlandet och Augustana, and as such continued to be
published until the end of 1873. It was edited the first two years
by Dr. T. N. Hasselquist and Dr. A. E. Cervin, and the last two
years by Dr. Hasselquist alone.
The need of a missionary paper was felt early in the Synod, and
in 1863 a separate missionary department was added to Ratta Hem-
landct, and from that time to its union with Augustana the paper
was known as Ratta Hemlandet och Missionsbladet. But this new
department involved additional expense, and, hence, when the two
papers were united, it was decided that the missionary department
should go out, and that those who desired a missionary paper in
Swedish could order one from Sweden. This plan, however, did not
meet with popular favor, and, hence, it was decided, early in 1870,
to issue a separate missionary paper. The first number bears the
date of January, 1870. The paper was known as Missionaren, and
was edited for the first two years by Dr. Xorelius and for the follow-
ing two years by Rev. J. P. Nyquist. In the meantime Dr. Norelius
had started a new church paper known as lAitliersk Kyrhotidning.
It was a semi-monthly, and was printed by A. C. F. de Bemee, in
Eed Wing, Minn. The first number appeared in January 1872.
Dr. 0. Olsson had also started a church paper, in 1873, known as
Nytt och Gammalt. Only six numbers \vere issued. In the fall of
180 THE AUGUST AN A SYNOD
1873, it was decided to unite all these papers, Rdtta Hemlandet och
Augustana, Missionaren, Luthersk Kyrkotidning , and Nytt och
Gammalt, into one paper to be known as Augustana. The new paper
was issued semi-monthly, and was edited by Drs. Hasselquist, Nore-
lius, and Olsson. Dr. A. E. Cervin was employed as office editor.
The first number appeared in January, 1874. It was printed by
A. C. F. de Eemee, in Moline, 111. Augustana is still published. It
is now a weekly of four times its original size." (So far C. W. Foss.)
In the great Chicago fire, October, 1871, the printing office and
book store of the Publication Society were completely destroyed.
Fortunately a large consignment of books ordered from Sweden had
not reached further than Xew York. The society at once set about
to procure a new place and equipment for printing office and book
store, and in six weeks it again carried on its business with renewed
hope and vigor.
At its annual meeting at Galesburg, 111., October 2, 1872, the
society decided to turn over all its affairs to the Board of Directors
of Augustana College and Theological Seminary, the business to be
conducted for the benefit of the salary fund of the institution. A
few weeks later the Board sold Hemlandet to Enander & Bohman of
Chicago, the new owners pledging themselves to continue the paper
in the same spirit as heretofore, and the Board on the other hand
pledged itself not to publish any political paper as long as Hemlandet
was continued as agreed. From that day Hemlandet, which is still
being published, has been a private enterprise, the pledges on both
sides having been and being fulfilled.
At its annual meeting in Rockford, June, 1874, the Synod author-
ized the Board of Directors of Augustana College and Theological
Seminary to dispose of the book store for a price, however, of not less
than $15,000.00. And a few months later the Board sold the book
store to Engberg, Holmberg, and Lindell of Chicago. This trans-
action, which, to say the least, must be considered injudicious, was
of such far-reaching consequences, and the bill of sale is such an
interesting historical document, especially in view of later develop-
ments, that we feel constrained to copy it in extenso :
''Instrument of Conveyance.
Know all men by these presents, that the Swedish Lutheran Publi-
cation Society, a Body Corporate and Politic, existing and doing
ITS PUBLISHING INTERESTS 181
business in the City of Chicago, under a special Charter from the
legislature of the State of Illinois, in consideration of the sum of
Seventeen Thousand ($17,000) dollars to us in hand paid by Jonas
Engberg, Charles P. Holmberg, and Charles 0. Lindell, partners
composing the firm of Engberg, Holmberg, and Lindell, doing busi-
ness in said Chicago, do sell and convey to them all the rights and
privileges of the said corporation, its present publications, copy
rights, plates, stock of books, store-fixtures, safe, printing-office and
appurtenances, its outstanding accounts and its rights to the column
of advertisements in the newspaper known as Hemlandet, with the
exception of the monthly paper Augustana. And in consideration
thereof said firm agrees to pay said sum of Seventeen Thousand
($17,000) dollars in manner following, viz.: Five Hundred ($500)
dollars every six (6) months for the five years ending August 1st,
A. D. 1879, and Six Hundred ($600) dollars every six months there-
after until the remaining Twelve Thousand ($12,000) dollars shall
be fully paid, all payments to be without interest.
And the said firm do also, as further consideration for their afore-
said purchase, agree to pay all debts of said corporation and to in-
demnify said corporation against the same, and do further agree to
keep constantly for sale the standard theological and religious works
of the Lutheran Confession, and that they will not keep on hand or
expose for sale any immoral books.
And it is mutually agreed that the members of said firm shall
execute and deliver to Eev. Erl. Carlsson, who in receiving the same
shall represent said corporation as Trustee, all securities necessary
to carry out the above stipulation.
In witness whereof, said corporation hath hereunto caused its Pres-
ident to affix his name and the Secretary his countersign in token of
the execution thereof, and the members of said firm have hereunto
sot their hands and seals this 29th day of September, A. D. 1874.
T. N". HASSELQUIST,
President Board of Directors of the Swedish Lutheran Publication Society.
Secretary Board of Directors of the Swedish Lutheran Publication Society.
CHAS. P. HOLMBERG,
CHAS. 0. LINDELL/'
182 THE AUGUST AN A SYNOD
"Thus the Publication Society ended its history after an existence
of fifteen years. Even from a financial point of view, the society
had been successful; but its noblest and greatest achievement cannot
be measured in money. Besides its own valuable publications
papers and books it also imported large quantities of the best pub-
lications of the old country, which soon found their way into thou-
sands of homes, and the knowledge and culture thus disseminated
among the scattered families and churches of the Synod will continue
to bear noble and blessed fruit for many years to come." (Dr. C. W.
The proceeds of the above mentioned sale were paid to Augustana
College and Theological Seminary.
Upon the dissolution of the Publication Society followed a period
of fifteen years of comparative inactivity. And we cannot suppress
the thought that it was fortunate that at least the Augustana was
saved from the general wreck of the sy nodical -publishing work. The
Augustana, the official paper of the Synod, was continued semi-
monthly without interruption, being published by the Board of Direc-
tors of Augustana College and Theological Seminary, which now
constituted the Publication Board of the S'ynod. A separate semi-
monthly missionary paper known as Missionaren, which had been
started, was also published, this paper being considered the official
paper of the Synod. With the beginning of 1879 the two papers
were consolidated into one, bearing the name Augustana ocli Missio-
ndren. The financial profit of the papers, as a rule quite a sum from
year to year, was used for Augustana College and Theological Semi-
nary. Dr. T. 1ST. Hasselquist served, after the consolidation previously
mentioned, as editor-in-chief of Augustana och Missionaren until
1889, when owing to many other duties and failing strength he re-
signed. The editors of Missionaren while that was a separate paper
were Rev. Erland Carlsson and Eev. A. G. S'etterdahl until June,
1878, and Dr. A. R. Cervin and Rev. C. P. Rydholm until the end
of that year.
The associate editors with Dr. Hasselquist were :
18741875 Dr. E. Norelius.
18741882 (June) Dr. 0. Olsson.
1878 (July) 1880 Rev. C. P. Rydholm.
18761878 (June) ; 1882 8/31883 7/11 Rev. Erland Carlsson.
ITS PUBLISHING INTERESTS 183
18781883 Dr. A. E. Cervin.
18761878 Eev. A. G. Setterdahl.
1883 7/181885 9/7; 1889 1890 Prof. A. 0. Bersell.
1884 11/191886 5/5; 18891890 Prof. C. M. Esbjorn.
1885 7/151896 Dr. L. G. Abrahamson.
At the synodical convention 1889, held at Bock Island and Moline,
111., a new and very comprehensive plan for the publication of the
official paper was laid. The name was changed to read: "Augustana,
tidning for den svenska lutherska kyrkan i Amerika, grundlagd af
d:r T. N. Hasselquist, och utgifven af den Skandinaviska Ev. Luth.
Augustana Synoden," which title the paper to this day retains, the
only change being the change in the name of the Synod. A program
was arranged including not less than eleven different departments.
Dr. E. Norelius was elected editor-in-chief, with Dr. A. E. Cervin
as office editor, and an associate staff of not less than twenty-three,
besides reporters from the various Conferences.
The editor-in-chief also appointed Eev. C. 0. Lindell as office
editor, who served until 1892, when Eev. A. Eodell succeeded to the
position, which was held by him until his death August 23rd, 1897.
This plan was "tried and found wanting." In June the following
year Dr. Norelius resigned, owing to failing health. The paper, which
was now published by The Lutheran Augustana Book Concern, the
new publication house of the Synod, burdened the publishers with
a financial loss of $2,990.62, which the Synod at its convention 1890
voted to pay out of the synodical treasury, but which has not been
paid yet. The elaborate impractical plan laid in 1889 was abolished
at the synodical convention in 1890, the resignation of Dr. Korelius
was accepted, the office editor and all associate editors were sum-
marily dismissed, and it was resolved to elect an editor-in-chief and
grant him full control of the editorial work even to the extent of
appointing his assistant. Dr. S. P. A. Lindahl was elected editor-in-
chief, in which capacity he served until his death March 27, 1908.
With him served as office editors the following :
18901892 Eev. C. 0. Lindell.
18921897 8/23 Eev. Albert Eodell.
1897 8/231898 (first part) S'. M. Hill, A. 0. Bersell, A. P. Aimer.
1898 (Aug.) 1900 (Sept.) Grant Hultberg.
1900 12/11908 12/1 Eev. C. J. Bengston.
184 THE AUGUSTANA SYNOD
After the death of Dr. Lindahl, his assistant editor, Eev. C. J.
Bengston, was appointed by the president of the Synod to serve as
editor-in-chief until next synodical meeting. At the convention of
the Synod in Chicago June, 1908, Dr. L. G. Abrahamson was elected
editor-in-chief, and he assumed the duties of the editorship partly in
July and wholly in October, 1908. He chose as his assistant Dr. M.
J. Englund, and these two, Dr. Abrahamson and Dr. Englund, con-
stitute the editorial staff of Augustana at the present time.
Naturally, the Synod worked under special difficulties during this
period, between 1874 and 1889, not having any printing office of its
own, but always being obliged to turn to private parties and firms
for all mechanical work connected with its publications. Conse-
quently the publications during this period were not many. In
addition to Augustana, whose history has already been given, con-
stitutions for churches and Synod, catalogues of Augustana College
and Theological Seminary, tracts and circulars of various kinds, we
would mention the following:
During the years 1878 1880 a little paper known as Skolvannen
was published in the financial interests of Augustana College and
Theological Seminary and was edited by Dr. 0. Olsson, assisted by
A. H. Randahl and C. A. Swensson. This paper aroused a great
deal of enthusiasm and brought in large sums of money. When its
mission had been fulfilled it died a natural death. Its first number
was dated May 1st, 1878, and its last May, 1880. In 1883 when
funds were solicited for the new college building, Skolvannen was
again published during a period of Aug. 15th Dec. 19th, edited by
Dr. 0. Olsson.
In October, 1879, Luther's Small Catechism with explanations, a
volume of 139 pages 16mo to be used as a text-book in Sunday-
schools, Parochial schools, and Confirmation classes, was published.
This book was the result of many synodical resolutions and much
work in committee during several years, and a "trial edition." It
was the official text-book in the systematic Christian instruction of
the children within the Synod until 1902 when a similar revised
Catechism took its place.
In 1887 a Bible History, a volume of 199 pages Ifimo, containing
52 stories from the Old Testament, together with a short history of
the Jewish people during the four centuries immediately preceding
ITS PUBLISHING INTERESTS 185
the birth of Christ, and 60 stories from the New Testament, was
published to be used as text-book in Sunday-schools, Parochial schools,
and Confirmation classes. This book is still the official Bible History
of the Synod.
The revised Catechism mentioned above was translated into English
and published in 1902. And the English translation of the Bible
History was published in 1898.
Augustana College and Theological Seminary still retains the
ownership of the Catechism and the Bible History in Swedish while
Augustana Book Concern owns the English translation of the Cate-
chism and the Bible History.
"Concordia Pia," containing all the Confessional writings of the
Lutheran Church and the Declaration of Faith and Doctrine at
Uppsala, Sweden, 1593, was published in 1878. It was edited by a
committee consisting of Drs. 0. Olsson, T. 1ST. Hasselquist, Erl.
Carlsson, and P. Sjoblom. This publication is now the property of
Augustana Book Concern.
In 1887 a work entitled "Becords of Ministerial Acts" (blank
book for said purpose) was published to be used by the pastors of the
Synod. The plan for such records laid down in the original edition
is still being followed.
A small annual calendar, known as "Korsbaneret," containing
religious and historical articles, poems, etc., was begun in 1880 by
Drs. 0. Olsson and C. A. Swensson. The next three years the
calendar was published by the society "Ungdomens Vanner," 1884
by Augustana Tract Society, 1885 1889 by Augustana Book Concern,
and from that time to the present day by the Synod. The original
plan has ever been followed and the original size, small 16mo, has
been maintained uniformly, though the number of pages has varied
from year to year. Drs. Olsson and Swensson edited the first three
volumes, but from that time on a number of different men have, from
year to year, been employed in the editorial work.
"Korsets Predikan", a collection of sermons, following our third
series of texts for morning'services, written by a number of the pastors
of the Synod, was published in 1885 under the auspices of the Illinois
Conference, the financial profit, however, being donated to Augustana