Auguste Louis Charles La Garde-Chambonas.

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ANEOiBbTAL RECOLLECTIONS



OF THE



CONGRESS OF VIENNA



COMTE A.DE lA GARDE-QIAMBONAS




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ANECDOTAL RECOLLECTIONS

OF THE

CONGRESS OF VIENNA




Francis I, Emperor of Austria,



.ANECDOTAL RECOLLECTIONS

OF THE

CONGRESS OF VIENNA

>2/ BY THE

COMTE a' DE la GARDE-CHAMBONAS

WITH
INTRODUgriON AND NOTES BY THE

cd.MTE FLEURY

BY THE AUTHOR OF
'AN ENGLISHMAN IN PARIS'



WITH PORTRAITS



LON DON

CHAPMAN & HALL, LLMITED

190'J



Edinburgh : T. and A. Constable, (late) Printers to Her Majesty



CONTENTS



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF THE COMTE AUGUSTE

DE LA GARDE-CHAMBONAS .... xiii



INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

Introduction — A Glance at the Congress — Arrival of the
Sovereigns — The First Night in Vienna,



CHAPTERS

The Prince de Ligne — His Wit and his Urbanity — Robinson
Crusoe — The Masked Ball and Rout — Sovereigns in Dominos
— The Emperor of Russia and Prince Eugone — Kings and
Princes — Zibin — General Tettenborn — A Glance at his
Military Career — Grand Military Fete in Honour of Peace —
The Footing of Intimacy of the Sovereigns at the Congress —
The Imperial Palace — Death of Queen Maria Carolina of
Naples — Emperor Alexander — Anecdotes — Sovereign Gifts
—Politics and Diplomacj^— The Grand Rout— The Waltz, . 11

CHAPTER II

The Drawing-Rooms of the Comtesse de Fuchs — The Prince Philip
of Hesse-Homburg — George Sinclair— The Announcement of
a Military Tournament — The Comtesse Edmond de Porigord
General Comte de Witt — Letters of Recommendation — The
Princcsse Pauline — The Poet-Functionary and Fouche, . 41

CHAPTER III

Rece])tion at M. de Talleyrand's — His Attitude at the (Congress
— The Due de Dalber^ — The Due de Richelieu— Mme.



vi RECOLLECTIONS OF THE VIENNA CONGRESS

PAGE

Edmond de Perigord— M. Pozzo di Borgo — Parallel between
the Prince de Ligne and M. de Talleyrand—A Monster
Concert, .....-• 55

CHAPTER IV

The Prince de Ligne's Study — A Swimming Exploit — Travelling
by Post — A Eeminiscence of Madame de Stael — Sclionbrunn
— The Son of Napoleon — His Portrait — Mme. de Montes-
quiou — Anecdotes — Isabey — The Manoeuvring - Ground —
The People's Fete at Augurten, . . . .70

CHAPTER V

The Prater — The Carriages— The Crowd and the Sovereigns —
The Sovereigns' Incognito — Alexander Ypsilanti — The
Vienna Drawing - Rooms — Princesse Bagration — The
Narischkine Family — A Lottery, . . .87

CHAPTER VI

The Castle of Laxemburg — Heron-Hawking — The Empress of
Austria — A Royal Hunt — Fete at the Ritterburg — A Recol-
lection of Christina of Sweden — Constance and Theodore, or
the Blind Husband — Poland — Scheme for her Independence
— The Comte Arthur Potocki — The Prince de Ligne and
Isabey- — The Prince de Ligne's House on the Kalemberg
— Confidential Chats and Recollections — The Empress
Catherine ii. — Queen Marie Antoinette — Mme. de Stael
— Casanova, ....... 105

CHAPTER VII

A Court Function— The Empress of Austria — The Troubadours
— Amateur Theatricals — The Empress of Russia— The
Prince Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg — Tableaux - Vivants —
Queen Hortense's Songs — The Moustaches of the Comte de
Wurbna— Songs in Action— The Orphan of the Prisons-
Diplomacy and Dancing — A Ball and a Supper at Court, . 137

CHAPTER VIII

Prince Eugene de Beauharnais — Recollections of the Prince de
Ligne— The Theatre of the ' Ermitage ' and of Trianon — The



CONTENTS vii

PAGE

Baron Ompteda — Some Portraits — The Imperial Carrousel
— The Four - and - Twenty Paladins — Reminiscences of
Mediaeval Tournaments — The Prowess of the Champion —
F^te and Supper at the Imperial Palace— The Table of the
Sovereigns, . ..... 152

CHAPTER IX

Recollections of the Military Tournament of Stockholm in 1800
— The Comte de Fersen— King Gustavus iv.— The Challenge
of the Unknown Knight — The Games on the Bridge at
Pisa, 174

CHAPTER X

The Prince de Ligne's Song of the Congress — Life on the Graben
—The Chronicle of the Congress — Echoes of the Congress
— A Companion Story to the Death of Vatel— Brie, the
King of Cheese— Fete at Arnstein the Banker's — The Prince
Royal of Wiirtemberg — Russian Dances — The Poet Carpani
and the Prince de Ligne, ..... 193

CHAPTER XI

The Last Love-Tryst of the Prince de Ligne— A Glance at the

Past — Z or the Consequences of Gaming — Gambling in

Poland and in Russia — The Biter Bit — Masked Ball — The
Prince de Ligne and a Domino — More Living Pictures — The
Pasha of Surene — Two Masked Ladies — A Recollection of
the Prince de Talleyrand, ..... 218

CHAPTER XII

Illness of the Prince de Ligne — Tlie Comte de Witt — Ambassador
Golowkin — Doctor Malfati— The Prince gels worse — Last
Sallies of the Moribund — General Grief — Portrait of the
Prince de Ligne — His Funeral, .... 244

CHAPTEli XIII

The Fire at the Razuniowski Palace — The Prince's Great Wealih
— The Vicissitudes of Court Favour in Russia — Prince
Koslowski — A Reminiscence of the Due d'Orluans — A Re-



viii RECOLLECTIONS OF THE VIENNA CONGRESS

PAGE

mark of Talleyrand — Fete at the Comtesse Zichy's — Emperor
Alexander and his Ardent Wishes for Peace — New Year's
Day, 1815 — Grand Ball and Eout — Sir Sidney Smith's
Dinner-Party at the Augarten — His Chequered Life, his
Missions and his Projects at the Congress — The King of
Bavaria without Money — Departure and Anger of the King
of Wiirtemberg — The Queen of Westphalia — The Announce-
ment of a Sleighing-Party — A Ball at Lord Castlereagh's, . 256

CHAPTER XIV

Some Original Types at the Congress — M. Aide — A Witticism
of the Prince de Ligne — Mme. Pratazoff — Mr. Foneron — The
Old Jew— His Noblesse and his Moral Code — ]\Ir. Eaily —
His Dinners and his Companions — The Two Dukes— The End
of a Gambler — -The Sovereigns' Incognito — Mr. O'Bearn —
Ball at the Apollo — Zibin and the King of Prussia — Charles
de Eechberg and the King of Bavaria — The Minuet — The
King of Denmark — Story of the Bombardment of Copen-
hagen — The German Lesson, , . , . . 282

CHAPTER XV

Religious Ceremony for the Anniversary of the Death of
Louis XVI. — Reception at Talleyrand's — Discussion on the
Subject of Saxony and Poland— The Order of the Day of
the Grand-Duke Constantine — A Factum of Pozzo di Borgo
— A Sleighing-Party— Entertainment and Fete at Schon-
brunn— Prince Eugene — Recollections of Queen Hortense —
The Empress ]Marie-Louise at the Valley of St. Helena-
Second Sleighing-Party — A Funeral, . . . 309

CHAPTER XVI

Reception at Madame de Fiichs's — Prince Philippe d'Hesse-
Hombourg — The Journalists and Newsmongers of Vienna
— The French Village in Germany — Prince Eugene — Recol-
lection of the Consulate— Tribulations of M. Denville —
Mme. Recamier — The Return of the Emigre — Childhood's
Friend, or the Magic of a Name — Ball at Lord Stewart's —
Alexander proclaimed King of Poland — The Prince Czar-
toryski — Confidence of the Poles — Count Arthur Potocki—
The Revolutions of Poland — Slavery — Vandar — Ivan, or the
Polish Serf, . . . " . . . .328



CONTENTS ix



CHAPTER XVII

PAGE

The Emperor Alexander, the King of Prussia, and the Naval
Officer — Surprise to the Empress of Russia — More Fetes —
A Ball at M. de Stackelberg's^Paul Kisselef — Brozin — Fete
offered by M. de Metternich — The Bali-Room catches Fire
— Fetes and Banquet at the Court— Ompteda — Chronicle
of the Congress — The Tell-tale Perfume — Recollection of
Empress Josephine and Madame Tallien — A Romantic
Court Story, ....... 346



CHAPTER XVIII

The Comte de Rechberg's Work on the Governments of the
Russian Empire — The King of Bavaria — Polish Poem of
Sophiowka — Madame Potocka, or the Handsome Fanariote
— Her Infancy — Particulars of Her Life — A Glance at the
Park of Sophiowka — Subscription of the Sovereigns — Actual
State of Sophiowka, ...... 364



CHAPTER XIX

A Luncheon at M. de Talleyrand's on his Birthday — M. de
Talleyrand and the sis. — The Princesse-Marechale Lubo
mirska — New Arrivals— Chaos of Claims — The Indemnities
of the King of Denmark — Rumours of the Congress
— Arrival of Wellington at Vienna — The Carnival —
Fete of the Emperor of Austria — A Masked Rout — The
Diadem, or Vanity Punished — A jNIillion — Gambling and
Slavery : a Russian Anecdote, .... 375



CHAPTER XX

I'sabey's Study — His Drawing of the Plenipotentiaries at the
(■ongress of Vienna — The Imperial Sepulchre at the
Capuchins — Recollections of the Tombs of Cracow —
Preacher Werner — St. Stephen's Cathedral — Children's
Ball at Princesse Marie-Esterhazy's — The Empress Elizabeth
of Russia — The Picture-Gallery of the Due de Saxe-Teschen
— Emperor Alexander and Prince Eugene — The Pictures of
the Belvedere — The King of Bavaria — Anecdotes, . . 394



RECOLLECTIONS OF THE VIENNA CONGRESS



CHAPTER XXI



PAGE



Ypsilanti — Promenade on the Prater — First Rumour of the
Escape of Napoleon — Projects for the Deliverance of Greece
— Comte Capo d'Istria — The Hetairites — Meeting with Ypsi-
lanti in 1820 — His Projects and Reverses, . . 406



CONCLUSION

Napoleon has left Elba — Aspect of Vienna — Theatricals at the
Court— Mme. Edmond de Perigord and the Rehearsal —
Napoleon's Landing at Cannes— The Interrupted Dance —
Able Conduct of M. de Talleyrand — Declaration of the 13th
March — Fauche Borel — The Congress is Dissolved, 410

Index, ........ 421



PORTRAITS

FRANCIS I., EMPEROR OF AUSTRIA, . . Frontispiece.

COUNT NESSELRODE, .... at page 36

MARIE-LOUISE, ARCHDUCHESS OF AUSTRIA, „ 76

ALEXANDER I., „ 142

MARIE, DOWAGER-EMPRESS OF RUSSIA, . „ 211

ROBERT, VISCOUNT CASTLEREAGH, MARQUESS

OF LONDONDERRY, . . . „ 281

PRINCE DE METTERNICH, . . . „ 353

M. MAURICE DE TALLEYRAND, . „ 376



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF THE COMTE
AUGUSTE DE LA GARDE-CHAMBONAS

Auguste- Louis -Charles de La Garde/ a man of
letters and a poet of some repute in his time, was
born in Paris in 1783. The following is a copy
of his certificate of baptism : —

The Old Parish of On Wednesday, the fifth day of

March of the year seventeen hundred

Saint-Eustache, ^^^ eighty-three, there was baptized

Anno 1783 Aiiguste-Louis-Charles, born on the

previous day but one, the son of

(Registry of Paris.) Messire le Comte Scipion - Auguste
de La Garde, chevalier, captain of
Dragoons, and of Dame Catherine-
Franc^oise Voudu, his Avife, domiciled
in the Rue de Richelieu. Godfather —
Messire Jean de la Croix, captain of
Dragoons ; Godmother— Dame Elisa-
beth Vingtrinien, wife of M. Etienne-
Antoine Barryals, Bourgeois of Paris. ''

The child's mother died in giving it birth. The
father only survived the beloved young wife for a
little while, and feeling his end to be near, confided
the orphan to the head of his family, the Marquis
de Chambonas (Scipion-Charles- Victor Auguste de
La Garde), camp-marshal (equivalent to the present

^ Throughout this translation I have left many of the nobiliary titles
and names of the Continental aristoci'acy in their French garb ; those
of the English personages mentioned I have reduced to their original
expression.

■^ Bourgeoi.s was tlien, as now, the appellation commonly bestov I'd upon
the members of the middle classes. — Transl.



xiv RECOLLECTIONS OF THE VIENNA CONGRESS

grade of general of brigade), and subsequently a
minister of Louis xvi/

M. de Chambonas took charge of the infant, looking
upon it as a second son, and treating it with the most
constant affection. Consequently in all his works,
and in his Unpublished Notes, Auguste de La
Garde always refers by the name of ' father ' to the
relative who had replaced his dead parents.^

During his early childhood, he was often entrusted
to his godmother, Mme. de Villers.^ She was the
friend of Mme. Bernard, the wife of the Lyons banker,
whose daughter was to attain such great celebrity
under the name of Mme. Kecamier. Brought up
together, as it were, these two children conceived for
each other a sincere affection, which neither time nor
distance ever cooled. When, on his return from
foreign parts, Auguste de La Garde came to Paris

^ The marquisate was created in 1663, and was registered in tlie
Parliament of Languedoc. It was bestowed upon Louis-Francois de La
Garde, chevalier seigneur de Chambonas, son of Antoine de La Garde,
married to Charlotte de la Beaume de Suze. The title passed to his
nephew, Scipion- Louis- Joseph, who was brigadier in the king's armies
in 1744, and who died 27th February 1765. He married : First, Claire-
Marie, Princesse de Ligne ; second, Louise-Victoire-Marie de Grimoard
de Beauvoir du Roure, daughter of the Comte du Roure, lieutenant-
general in the king's armies, and of Marie -Antoinette -Victoire de
Gontaut Biron. The issue of the second marriage was two boys, one
of whom was Scipion-Charles-Victor-Auguste, Marquis de Chambonas,
Baron de Saint-Felix and d'Auberque, Comte de Saint- Julien, who
married on the 2nd April 1774, Mile, de Lcspinasse de Langeac. (Adminis-
trative Archives of the Depot (Ministry of War and La Chesnaye des Bois),
3rd edition, Article ' La Garde.')

^ In the few passages of the Recollections of the Congress of Vienna,
where the author refers to his childhood and his family, he deliberately
throws a veil over both subjects. Without the Unpublished Notes, the
pages of which bearing upon the present publication were kindly com-
municated to us by the present head of the family, M. le Marquis de
Chambonas, we should have failed to pierce the darkness in which certain
parts of our writer's life are wrapped.

^ I can only follow the original. This is not the name of the god-
mother mentioned in tlie certificate of baptism ; but Mme. Barryals had
probably contracted a second marriage. — Transl.



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF LA GARDE xr

in 1801, he at once took up his abode at Mme.
Recamier's, who, moreover, gave him the support so
necessary to the youthful wanderer who possessed no
resources of his own. Hence, it will cause no sur-
prise to meet in the Recollections of the Congress
of Vienna with pages breathing a profound sense of
gratitude to Mme. R(5camier.

Young La Garde began his studies under the

guidance of the Abbe B , after which he was

sent to the College of Sens. (His ' father ' had been
governor of the town in 1789, and its mayor in
1791.) M. de Chambonas, after having commanded
the l7th division of the army of Paris for a very
short time, was called to the ministry of Foreign
Affairs, the 17th June 1792, to replace Dumouriez,
who had resigned. His stay there was also very
short. Having been denounced publicly in the
Legislative Assembly for having withheld information
with regard to the movements of the Prussian troops,
and becoming more and more suspect every day, he
quickly abandoned the post.

On the 10th August he was among those who
endeavoured to defend the Tuileries, and was even
left for dead on the spot. It was only towards the
end of 1792 that M. de Chambonas made up his
mind to quit Paris. He did not cross the frontier, but
managed to reach Sens ; where, in safe hiding, he
succeeded in spending unmolested the years of the
Reign of Terror. He had taken with him his son,
who subsequently married Mile, de la Vernade, at
Sens (and who was the grandfather of the present
Marquis de Chambonas), and also his adopted son.

How did the erewhile minister of Louis xvi.
succeed in passing unmolested through the Terror?
It seems almost incredible. This was one of the

h



xvi RECOLLECTIONS OF THE VIENNA CONGRESS

exceptions the particulars of which have been traced
by memoirs that have recently come to light/

During the Directory, in fact, M. de Chambonas
floated absolutely to the top, and at one time there
was talk of sending him to Spain as ambassador.
The plan fell through, and after the cou'p d'etat on
the 18th Fructidor (4th September 1797), M. de
Chambonas, considering himself no longer safe,
hurriedly left Paris to avoid arrest.

Behold our wanderers at Hamburg, and afterwards
in Sweden and Denmark. Auguste de La Garde in
his somcAvhat florid style will tell us many amusing
anecdotes ; on the other hand, the bombardment of
Copenhagen by the English fleet in 1801 aff"ected him
sadly.

A few months later, the lad of eighteen is sent to
France by M. de Chambonas in order to obtain the
removal of the sender's name from the list of emigres
— he had been considered as such while he was in
hiding at Sens — and to claim the estates the nation
had confiscated. Auguste de La Garde is hospitably
received by Mme. Recamier, who, while bestirring
herself in behalf of the ' father,' takes the son in hand
with regard to his education. Through her influence,
La Harpe assists him with his counsels, and the best
professors direct his further studies. As for the
property the restitution of which is claimed by his
'father,' by that time established in England, all idea
of it had to be abandoned ; and young La Garde
himself, his mind precociously ripened by his exile,



^ I am preparing for publication the Memoires du General le Marquis
d' Hautpoul, who, as a child, spent the whole of the Terror in the neigh-
bourhood of Versailles with his relatives, including his father, a former
colonel. It should be said, though, that a member of the Convention liad
made them adopt the disguise of gardeners.



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF LA GARDE xvii

was compelled to look to his own independent
future.^

His personal charm, his natural gifts, and, in short,
the useful connections he rapidly made for himself,
soon procured him employment and a start in life.
At the outset, he obtained through the goodwill of
Prince Eugene missions to Italy, to Marmont in
Dalmatia, to the Court of King Joseph at Naples,
and finally to Rome, where he was cordially received
by Lucien Bonaparte and his family. The pages,
whether in his Recollections of the Congress of Vienna
or in his Unpublished Notes, referring to his primary
benefactors, go far to exonerate him from the charge
of ingratitude, for he lavishes upon those benefactors
all the ornaments of his rhetoric ; at any rate, nearly
all, for the greater part of the acknowledgment of
his indebtedness goes mainly to Field-Marshal Prince
de Ligne, who was his protector, his beneficent and
. . . very useful relative, a member of the Chambonas
family, having, as we already stated, married a
Princesse de Lignc.

La Garde first met with the Prince de Lio^ne in the

O

Eternal City. He soon became a familiar visitor to
the octogenarian prince, who, like the generous Maecenas
that he was, gave him a pressing invitation to come
and settle near him in Vienna. The young fellow



1 From that moment, M. de La ( Garde's information about the Marquis
(le Chambonas becomes very scant. In his UnjnLblished Notes there are
a couple of grateful references to his 'father,' but that is all. We are
left in ignorance about the disparities of character which appear to have
parted them for ever. All that is known aljout M. de Chambonas is due
to the documents {dossier) relating to him, preserved in the Archives of
the Ministry of War. He seems to have settled definitely in England.
Wrecked in health, and even paralysed, it is from there that he peti-
tions in ISIG. Finally, he obtained a modest pension with the superior
grade of lieutenant-general. He du\d in Paris, not in 1807, as is statt d
by one biographer, but in February IS.SO.



xviii RECOLLECTIONS OF THE VIENNA CONGRESS

was too sensible to make light of an offer insuring
material welfare and a regular existence after years
of uncertainty. He, therefore, settled in Vienna near
to his benefactor, yielding for the matter of that to
the spell exercised over every one by that very
superior specimen of manhood, and requiting his
kindness with an affectionate veneration increasing as
time went on. The whole of the first part of the
Recollections attests a boundless gratitude ; and if
on the one hand that work constitutes the brightest
ornament of our author's literary crown, it constitutes
on the other the most complete panegyric of the
prince who had become 'his idol'

From Vienna, the Comte de La Garde passed into
Kussia, where he met with a cordial welcome from
the elegant society of St. Petersburg. In 1810 he
published there a volume of poems, which obtained
a most signal success. Subsequently invited to
Poland by the Comte Felix Potocki, and treated
with the most generous hospitality, he was enabled
to devote himself to numerous literary works; and
as a mark of gratitude to his hosts, he translated
into French Trembecki's poem dedicated to the
cherished wife of Comte Felix, the celebrated Sophie
Potocka.

The Recollections of the Congress of Vienna con-
tains frequent references to the ' superb Sophie,' who
was born in the Fanariote quarter in Constantinople,
and whose singular career was solely owing to her
beauty. She married in the first place the Comte de
Witt (of the family of the Dutch Great State -
Councillor, whose descendants had entered the service
of Russia). The Comte de Witt enticed her away
from a secretary of the French Embassy in Con-
stantinople ; Comte Felix Potocki, in his turn, eloped



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF LA GARDE xix

with her while she was Comtesse de Witt, and
married her, thanks to an amicable arrangement nulli-
fying the first marriage. Comtesse Sophie, celebrated
throughout Europe — her loveliness had even compelled
admiration from the Court circle at Versailles — lived
on a regal footing on her estate of Tulczim, and dis-
pensed her hospitality to the French emigres in a
manner calculated to dazzle many of them. The
Memoires of General Comte de Kochechouart and
the present Recollections are specially interesting on
the subject. The success of the poem, ' Sophiowka,'
was such as to gain for its adapter the honorary
membership respectively of the Academies of Warsaw,
Cracow, Munich, London, and Naples.

The Comte de La Garde was to receive another
flattering testimonial in Poland, many years later, on
the occasion of the appearance of his poem on the
' Funerailles de Kosciusko ' (Treuttel & Wurtz : Paris,
1830). Its several editions by no means exhausted
its success ; the senate of the republic of Cracow
conferred upon him the Polish citizenship, while the
kings of Bavaria, Prussia, and Saxony complimented
him by autograph letters.

La Garde was the author of a great number of
songs ; and the most renowned composers of the
period competed for the honour of setting them to
music. Many of these romances were dedicated to
Queen Hortense, whose acquaintance he made at
Augsburg in 1819. This led to his collaboration in
' Loi d'Exil,' and ' Partant pour la Syrie ' — the latter
of which became the national hymn during the
Second Empire. In 1853, there appeared L' Album
artistique de la Reine Hortense, a much prized
collection of the then unpublished songs of the
Comte de La Garde, with their music by the queen,



XX RECOLLECTIONS OF THE VIENNA CONGRESS

and charming reproductions of tiny paintings, which
were also her work.^

This was the last time the name of the Comte de
La Garde appeared in print. A short time after-
wards his wandering life came to an end in Paris,
which during the latter years of his life he inhabited
alternately with Angers. He had adopted as his
motto : ' My life is a battle ' ; he could have added,
'and a never-ending journey' ; for his constitutional
restlessness prevented him from settling permanently,
no matter where. He never married. The few docu-
ments he left behind, including some momentoes,
represented the whole of his property, and went to
his cousin, M. de La Garde, Marquis de Chambonas.

In addition to the afore -mentioned works and the
present one, Recollections of the Congress of Vienna,
which originally appeared in Paris in 1820 (?), M.de la
Garde was the author of the following: : Une traduction
de Dmitry Donshoy (Moscow, 1811) ; Coup d'ceil sur
le Royaume de Pologne (Yarsovie, 1818) ; Coup d'oeil
sur Alexander-Bad (Baviere, 1819) ; Laure Bourg :
roman dedie au Roi de Baviere (Munich, 1820) ;
Les Monume7its grecs de la Sicile (Munich, 1820) ;
Traduction des Melodies de Thomas Moore (Londres,



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