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certifies all the contents to be her husband's works. This may have been
a publisher's, as the affidavit may have been a creditor's, artifice. As
against this, Mr. Grosart, who believed in Mary Marvell, reminds us that
Mr. Robert Boulter, the publisher of the poems, was a most respectable
man, and a friend both of Milton's and Marvell's, and not at all likely
either to cheat the public with a falsely signed certificate, or to be
cheated by a London lodging-house keeper. Whatever "Mary Marvell" may
have been, "widow, wife, or maid," she is heard of no more.

Hull was not wholly unmindful of her late and (William Wilberforce
notwithstanding) her most famous member. "On Thursday the 26th of
September 1678, in consideration of the kindness the Town and Borough
had for Andrew Marvell, Esq., one of the Burgesses of Parliament for the
same Borough (lately deceased), and for his great merits from the
Corporation. It is this day ordered by the Court that Fifty pounds be
paid out of the Town's Chest towards the discharge of his funerals
(_sic_), and to perpetuate his memory by a gravestone" (_Bench Books of

The incumbent of Trinity Church is said to have objected to the erection
of any monument. At all events there is none. Marvell had many enemies
in the Church. Sharp, afterwards Archbishop of York, was a Yorkshire
man, and had been domestic chaplain to Sir Heneage Finch, a
lawyer-member, much lashed by Marvell's bitter pen. Sharp had also taken
part in the quarrel with the Dissenters, and is reported to have been
very much opposed to any Hull monument to Marvell. Captain Thompson says
"the Epitaph which the Town of Hull caused to be erected to Marvell's
memory was torn down by the Zealots of the King's party." There is no
record of this occurrence.

There are several portraits of Marvell in existence - one now being in
the National Portrait Gallery. A modern statue in marble adorns the Town
Hall of Hull.


[211:1] In reading the early volumes of the _Parliamentary History_ the
question has to be asked, What authority is there for the reports of
speeches? In Charles the Second's time some of the speakers, both in the
Lords and Commons, evidently communicated their orations to the press.

[215:1] Lord Mayor, 1667.

[220:1] See _Marvell's Ghost_, in _Poems on Affairs of State_.

[223:1] The cottage at Highgate, long called 'Marvell's Cottage,' has
now disappeared. Several of Marvell's letters were written from



Marvell's work as a man of letters easily divides itself into the
inevitable three parts. _First_, as a poet properly so called; _Second_,
as a political satirist using rhyme; and _Third_, as a writer of prose.

Upon Marvell's work as a poet properly so called that curious, floating,
ever-changing population to whom it is convenient to refer as "the
reading public," had no opportunity of forming any real opinion until
after the poet's death, namely, when the small folio of 1681 made its
appearance. This volume, although not containing the _Horatian Ode upon
Cromwell's Return from Ireland_ or the lines upon Cromwell's death, did
contain, saving these exceptions, all the best of Marvell's verse.

How this poetry was received, to whom and to how many it gave pleasure,
we have not the means of knowing. The book, like all other good books,
had to take its chance. Good poetry is never exactly unpopular - its
difficulty is to get a hearing, to secure a _vogue_. I feel certain that
from 1681 onwards many ingenuous souls read _Eyes and Tears_, _The
Bermudas_, _The Nymph complaining for the Death of her Fawn_, _To his
Coy Mistress_, _Young Love_, and _The Garden_ with pure delight. In 1699
the poet Pomfret, of whose _Choice_ Dr. Johnson said in 1780, "perhaps
no composition in our language has been oftener perused," and who
Southey in 1807 declared to be "the most popular of English poets"; in
1699, I say, this poet Pomfret says in a preface, sensibly enough, "to
please everyone would be a New Thing, and to write so as to please no
Body would be as New, for even Quarles and Wythers (_sic_) have their
Admirers." So liable is the public taste to fluctuations and reversals,
that to-day, though Quarles and Wither are not popular authors, they
certainly number many more readers than Pomfret, Southey's "most popular
of English poets," who has now, it is to be feared, finally disappeared
even from the Anthologies. But if Quarles and Wither had their admirers
even in 1699, the poet Marvell, we may be sure, had his also.

Marvell had many poetical contemporaries - five-and-twenty at
least - poets of mark and interest, to most of whom, as well as to some
of his immediate predecessors, he stood, as I must suppose, in some
degree of poetical relationship. With Milton and Dryden no comparison
will suggest itself, but with Donne and Cowley, with Waller and Denham,
with Butler and the now wellnigh forgotten Cleveland, with Walker and
Charles Cotton, with Rochester and Dorset, some resemblances, certain
influences, may be found and traced. From the order of his mind and his
prose style, I should judge Marvell to have been both a reader and a
critic of his contemporaries in verse and prose - though of his
criticisms little remains. Of Butler he twice speaks with great respect,
and his sole reference to the dead Cleveland is kindly. Of Milton we
know what he thought, whilst Aubrey tells us that he once heard Marvell
say that the Earl of Rochester was the only man in England that had the
true vein of satire.

Be these influences what they may or must have been, to us Marvell
occupies, as a poet, a niche by himself. A finished master of his art he
never was. He could not write verses like his friend Lovelace, or like
Cowley's _Chronicle_ or Waller's lines "On a Girdle." He had not the
inexhaustible, astonishing (though tiresome) wit of Butler. He is often
clumsy and sometimes almost babyish. One has frequently occasion to
wonder how a man of business could allow himself to be tickled by such
obvious straws as are too many of the conceits which give him pleasure.
To attribute all the conceits of this period to the influence of Dr.
Donne is but a poor excuse after all. The worst thing that can be said
against poetry is that there is so much tedium in it. The glorious
moments are all too few. It is his honest recognition of this woeful
fact that makes Dr. Johnson, with all his faults lying thick about him,
the most consolatory of our critics to the ordinary reading man.
"Tediousness is the most fatal of all faults.... Unhappily this
pernicious failure is that which an author is least able to discover. We
are seldom tiresome to ourselves.... Perhaps no man ever thought a line
superfluous when he wrote it" (_Lives of the Poets_. Under _Prior_ - see
also under _Butler_).

That Marvell is never tiresome I will not assert. But he too has his
glorious moments, and they are all his own. In the whole compass of our
poetry there is nothing quite like Marvell's love of gardens and woods,
of meads and rivers and birds. It is a love not learnt from books, not
borrowed from brother-poets. It is not indulged in to prove anything. It
is all sheer enjoyment.

"Bind me, ye woodbines, in your twines,
Curb me about, ye gadding vines,
And oh, so close your circles lace,
That I may never leave this place!
But, lest your fetters prove too weak,
Ere I your silken bondage break,
Do you, O brambles, chain me too,
And, courteous briars, nail me through.
Here at the fountain's sliding foot,
Or at some fruit-tree's mossy root,
Casting the body's vest aside,
My soul into the boughs does glide;
There, like a bird, it sits and sings."

No poet is happier than Marvell in creating the impression that he made
his verses out of doors.

"He saw the partridge drum in the woods;
He heard the woodcock's evening hymn;
He found the tawny thrush's broods,
And the shy hawk did wait for him.
What others did at distance hear
And guessed within the thicket's gloom
Was shown to this philosopher,
And at his bidding seemed to come."

(From Emerson's _Wood Notes_.)

Marvell's immediate fame as a true poet was, I dare say, obscured for a
good while both by its original note (for originality is always
forbidding at first sight) and by its author's fame as a satirist, and
his reputation as a lover of "liberty's glorious feast." It was as one
of the poets encountered in the _Poems on Affairs of State_ (fifth
edition, 1703) that Marvell was best known during the greater part of
the eighteenth century. As Milton's friend Marvell had, as it were, a
side-chapel in the great Miltonic temple. The patriotic member of
Parliament, who refused in his poverty the Lord-Treasurer Danby's
proffered bribe, became a character in history before the exquisite
quality of his garden-poetry was recognised. There was a cult for
Liberty in the middle of the eighteenth century, and Marvell's name was
on the list of its professors. Wordsworth's sonnet has preserved this
tradition for us.

"Great men have been among us; hands that penn'd
And tongues that utter'd wisdom, better none:
The later Sydney, Marvell, Harrington."

In 1726 Thomas Cooke printed an edition of Marvell's works which
contains the poetry that was in the folio of 1681, and in 1772 Cooke's
edition was reprinted by T. Davies. It was probably Davies's edition
that Charles Lamb, writing to Godwin on Sunday, 14th December 1800, says
he "was just going to possess": a notable addition to Lamb's library,
and an event in the history of the progress of Marvell's poetical
reputation. Captain Thompson's edition, containing the _Horatian Ode_
and other pieces, followed in 1776. In the great Poetical Collection of
the Booksellers (1779-1781) which they improperly[229:1] called
"Johnson's _Poets_" (improperly, because the poets were, with four
exceptions, the choice not of the biographer but of the booksellers,
anxious to retain their imaginary copyright), Marvell has no place. Mr.
George Ellis, in his _Specimens_ of the early English poets first
published in 1803, printed from Marvell _Daphne and Chloe_ (in part) and
_Young Love_. When Mr. Bowles, that once famous sonneteer, edited Pope
in 1806, he, by way of belittling Pope, quoted two lines from Marvell,
now well known, but unfamiliar in 1806: -

"And through the hazels thick espy
The hatching throstle's shining eye."

He remarked upon them, "the last circumstance is new, highly poetical,
and could only have been described by one who was a real lover of
nature and a witness of her beauties in her most solitary retirement."
On this Mark Pattison makes the comment that the lines only prove that
Marvell when a boy went bird-nesting (_Essays_, vol. ii. p. 374), a
pursuit denied to Pope by his manifold infirmities. The poet Campbell,
in his _Specimens_ (1819), gave an excellent sketch of Marvell's life,
and selected _The Bermudas_, _The Nymph and Fawn_, and _Young Love_.
Then came, fresh from talk with Charles Lamb, Hazlitt, with his _Select
Poets_ (1825), which contains the _Horatian Ode_, _Bermudas_, _To his
Coy Mistress_, _The Nymph and Fawn_, _A Drop of Dew_, _The Garden_, _The
Gallery_, _Upon the Hill and Grove at Billborow_. In this choice we may
see the hand of Charles Lamb, as Tennyson's may be noticed in the
selection made in Palgrave's _Golden Treasury_ (1863). Dean Trench in
his _Household Book of English Poetry_ (1869) gives _Eyes and Tears_,
the _Horatian Ode_, and _A Drop of Dew_. In Mr. Ward's _English Poets_
(1880) Marvell is represented by _The Garden_, _A Drop of Dew_, _The
Bermudas_, _Young Love_, the _Horatian Ode_, and the _Lines on Paradise
Lost_. Thanks to these later Anthologies and to the quotations from _The
Garden_ and _Upon Appleton House_ in the _Essays of Elia_, Marvell's
fame as a true poet has of recent years become widespread, and is now,
whatever vicissitudes it may have endured, well established.

As a satirist in rhyme Marvell has shared the usual and not undeserved
fate of almost all satirists of their age and fellow-men. The authors of
lines written in heat to give expression to the anger of the hour may
well be content if their effusions give the pain or teach the lesson
they were intended to give or teach. If you lash the age, you do so
presumably for the benefit of the age. It is very hard to transmit even
a fierce and genuine indignation from one age to another. Marvell's
satires were too hastily composed, too roughly constructed, too redolent
of the occasion, to enter into the kingdom of poetry. To the careful and
character-loving reader of history, particularly if he chance to have a
feeling for the House of Commons, not merely as an institution, but as a
place of resort, Marvell's satirical poems must always be intensely
interesting. They strike me as honest in their main intention, and never
very wide of the mark. Hallam says, in his lofty way, "We read with
nothing but disgust the satirical poetry of Cleveland, Butler, Oldham,
Marvell," and he adds, "Marvell's satires are gross and stupid."[231:1]
Gross they certainly occasionally are, but stupid they never are.
Marvell was far too well-informed a politician and too shrewd a man ever
to be stupid.

As a satirist Marvell had, if he wanted them, many models of style, but
he really needed none, for he just wrote down in rough-and-ready rhyme
whatever his head or his spleen suggested to his fancy. Every now and
again there is a noble outburst of feeling, and a couplet of great
felicity. I confess to taking great pleasure in Marvell's satires.

As a prose writer Marvell has many merits and one great fault. He has
fire and fancy and was the owner and master of a precise vocabulary well
fitted to clothe and set forth a well-reasoned and lofty argument. He
knew how to be both terse and diffuse, and can compress himself into a
line or expand over a paragraph. He has touches of a grave irony as well
as of a boisterous humour. He can tell an anecdote and elaborate a
parable. Swift, we know, had not only Butler's _Hudibras_ by heart, but
was also (we may be sure) a close student of Marvell's prose. His great
fault is a very common one. He is too long. He forgets how quickly a
reader grows tired. He is so interested in the evolutions of his own
mind that he forgets his audience. His interest at times seems as if it
were going to prove endless. It is the first business of an author to
arrest and then to retain the attention of the reader. To do this
requires great artifice.

Among the masters of English prose it would be rash to rank Marvell, who
was neither a Hooker nor a Taylor. None the less he was the owner of a
prose style which some people think the best prose style of all - that of
honest men who have something to say.


[229:1] "Indecently" is the doctor's own expression.

[231:1] See Hallam's _History of Literature_, vol. iv. pp. 433, 439.



"_Account of the Growth of Popery and Arbitrary Government in England_,"
180-1, 187;
quoted, 188.

Act of Uniformity, 143, 184.

Addison, 65.

Aitken, Mr., 47.

Amersham, 145.

Amsterdam, 59, 197.

Angier, Lord, 196.

_Appleton House_, 66.

Arlington, 185, 186.

_Ars Poetica_, 47.

Ashley, Lord, 120, 150, 185.

_Athenæ Oxonienses_, 10.

Aubrey, 222.

Austin, John, 159.

_Autobiography_ (Clarendon), 136.

_Autobiography of Matthew Robinson_, 11 _n._

Axtell, Lieut.-Colonel, 28, 29.


_Baker's Chronicle_, 80.

Baker, Thomas, 24.

Bampfield, Thomas, 80.

Banda Islands, 127.

Barbadoes, 58.

Barnard, Edward, 95.

Barron, Richard, 64.

Baxter, Richard, 52, 93, 179.

Bedford, 162.

Bench Books of Hull, 223.

Bennet, Sir John, 195.

Berkeley, Charles, 115.

Berkenhead, Sir John, 191.

_Bermudas, The_, 66, 225, 230.

Besant, Sir Walter, 118 _n._

Bill for "the Rebuilding of London," 123, 124, 125, 126 _n._;
amended, 148.

Bill of Conventicles, 142, 146, 147, 148.

Bill of Subsidy, 193.

Bill of Test, 205.

Bill of Uniformity, 101.

"_Bind me, ye woodbines_," 227.

Blackheath, 188.

Blake, Admiral, 59, 69, 71, 75.

Blaydes, James, 6.

- - Joseph, 6.

_Blenheim_ (Addison), 70.

Blood, Colonel, 196.

Bodleian Library, 31, 116.

Boulter, Robert, 223.

Bowles, 229.

Bowyer, 64.

Boyle, Richard, 115.

Bradshaw, John, Lord-President of the Council, 28, 48, 52, 94, 95.

Braganza, Catherine of, 33.

_Bramhall Preface_, 162.

Breda, 88;
Declaration, 102, 127, 136.

"_Britannia and Raleigh_," 216 _seq._

Brunswick, Duke of, 196.

Buckingham, Duke of, 150, 185, 196, 205, 206.

Bucknoll, Sir William, 195.

Bunyan, 162.

Burnet, Bishop, 3, 163.

Butler, 62 _n._, 154, 226.


"Cabal," 184.

Cadsand, 186.

Calamy, Edmund, 93, 94.

Cambridge, 48, 175.

Canary Islands, 70.

Canterbury, Prerogative Court of, 222.

Capel, 172.

Carey, Henry, 126 _n._

Carlisle, Lady, 113.

- - Lord, 101, 108, 113.

Carteret, Sir George (Treasurer of Navy), 120, 141, 143.

Castlemaine, Lady, 134.

_Character of Holland, The_, 60.

Charles I., 29, 167.

Charles II., 76, 80, 81, 90, 93, 95, 127, 182, 184, 185, 186, 188, 189,
195, 196, 203, 205, 206, 214, 222.

Chateaubriand, 24.

Chatham, 128.

Cherry Burton, 6.

_Choice_ (Pomfret), 225.

_Chronicle_ (Cowley), 227.

Chute, Chaloner, 80.

Civil War, 23, 219.

Clare, Lord, 193, 195.

Clarendon, Earl of, 28, 52, 77, 82;
_History_, 88, 114, 120;
_Life_, 129, 134, 135, 136, 138, 148 _n._

Cleveland, Duke of, 226.

- - Duchess of, 196.

Clifford, 154, 185, 186.

Clifford's Inn, 125.

Cole, William, 5.

_Collection of Poems on Affairs of State_, 35.

_Complete Works in Verse and Prose of Andrew Marvell, M.P., The_, 8.

Conventicle Act, 144.

Convention Parliament, 87, 91, 95.

Cooke, Thomas, 229.

Cooper, 219.

Copenhagen, 113.

Cosin, Dr., Bishop of Durham, 94, 148.

Cotton, Charles, 226.

Council of Trent, 178.

Court of Chancery, 125.

Coventry, Sir John, 191.

Cowley, 226.

Crew, Bishop of Durham, 202.

_Critic_ (Sheridan), 154.

Cromwell, Oliver, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 59, 60, 63, 64, 68, 73, 75, 77,
89, 92, 93, 94, 95, 127, 137, 140, 145, 215, 219.

- - Lord Richard, 77, 79, 80, 81.

- - the Lady Mary, 71.


Danby, Lord-Treasurer, 209, 228.

_Daphne and Chloe_, 229.

Dartmouth, Lord (Colonel Legge), 141 _n._

Davies, T., 229.

"_Debate on Mr. Andrew Marvell's striking Sir Philip Harcourt,
March 29_," etc., 212.

Declaration of Indulgence, 187, 188.

Declaration of War, The, 187.

_Defence and Continuation of Ecclesiastical Politie, A_ (Parker), 153.

_Defensio Secunda pro populo Anglicano_ (Milton), 48.

Denham, Sir John, 27, 129, 226.

De Ruyter, 115, 128, 136.

"_Description of Holland, A_" (Butler), 62.

De Witt, John, 63, 187, 197.

_Dialogue between two horses, Charles I. at Charing Cross, and
Charles II. at Wool Church_, 218, 219.

_Dictionary of National Biography_, 9, 210 _n._

_Directions to a Painter_ (Denham), 129.

Directory of Public Worship, 90, 103.

_Discourse by Way of Vision concerning the Government of Oliver
Cromwell_ (quoted), 73, 92.

_Discourse concerning Government_ (Sidney), 64.

"_Discourse of Ecclesiastical Politie wherein the Authority of the
Civil Magistrate over the Consciences of Subjects in matters of
external Religion is asserted_," etc., 153.

Donne, Dr., 226, 227.

_Don Quixote_ (Shelton's translation), 78.

Dorset, 226.

Dort, 187.

Dover, 90.

_Drama Commonplaces_, 154.

_Drop of Dew, A_, 230.

Dryden, John, 20, 24, 27, 69, 130.

Dublin Castle, 196.

_Dunciad_, 21.

Dunkirk, 127, 137, 193, 215.

Dutch War, 126.

Dutton, Mr. (Cromwell's ward), 54.


East India Company, 127.

_Ecclesiastical Politie_ (quoted), 157-8, 159-60.

Edgar, Prince, 196.

Elizabeth (Queen), 143.

"Employment of my Solitude, The" (Fairfax), 32.

"England's Way to Win Wealth," 56;
quoted, 56, 57, 58.

Erith, 139.

_Essays of Elia_, 230.

Eton College, 51.

Evelyn, John, 19, 121, 138, 139 _n._

_Eyes and Tears_, 225, 230.


Fagg, Sir John, 205.

Fairfax, Lady Mary, 27, 28, 32, 63.

- - Lord, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 48, 50, 63.

- - Sir William, 33, 36.

Fanshaw, Sir Richard, 49 _n._

Fauconberg, Lady, 95.

- - Viscount (afterwards Earl), 71.

Finch, Sir Heneage, 91, 224.

_First Anniversary of the Government under His Highness the
Lord-Protector, The_, 60.

Five Mile Act, 117, 162, 203.

_Flagellum Parliamentum_, 97.

Flanders, 196.

Flecknoe, Richard, 20, 21.

France, 183, 184, 197, 204.

"_Free Impartial Censure of the Platonick Philosophy, A_"
(Parker), 152 _n._, 174.

French Alliance, 188.


_Gallery, The_, 230.

"Garden Poetry," 75.

_Garden, The_, 66, 225.

Gee, Dr., 220.

Gilbey. Colonel, 95, 98, 101.

Gillingham, 127.

Gladstone, 23, 104 _n._

_Golden Remains_ (Hales), 51.

_Golden Treasury_ (1863), (Palgrave), 230.

Gombroon, 194.

_Government of the People of England_, etc. (Parker), 172.

Green, Mr., 222.

Grosart, Mr., 7, 65, 84, 85, 106, 165-9 _n._, 176 _n._, 178 _n._,
181 _n._, 187 _n._, 204-6 _n._, 209 _n._, 223.

Grosvenor, Colonel, 219.

_Growth of Popery_ (quoted), 203, 206.


Hague, The, 197.

Hale, Sir Matthew, 92, 125.

Hales, John, 51.

Hallam, 231.

Hamilton, 172.

Harding, Dean, 118.

Harrington, James, 76, 222.

Harrison, 29, 30.

Harwich, 115.

Hastings, Lord Henry, 27.

Hazlitt, 61, 239.

Herrick, 27.

_His Majesty's most Gracious Speech to Both Houses of Parliament_, 200.

_Historical Dictionary_ (Jeremy Collier), 24 _n._

_History of England_ (Ranke), 59, 183, 185 _n._

_History of His Own Time_ (Burnet), 129, 136, 152 _n._, 189 _n._

_History of His Own Time_ (Parker), 96 _n._, 170 _n._

_History of Literature_ (Hallam), 231 _n._

_History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, The_, 136.

Hobbes, 11, 12, 156, 157.

Holland, 120, 135, 182-4, 186, 197.

- - Lord, 172.

Hollis, Thomas, 64, 219.

_Holy Dying_, 151.

_Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland_, 63, 66, 225, 229, 230.

_Hortus_ (quoted), 45-6.

_Household Book of English Poetry_ (1809) (Dean Trench), 230.

Houses of Convocation, 101.

Howard, Sir Robert, 195.

_Hudibras_ (Butler), 231.

Hull, 2, 5, 8, 17, 18, 50, 59, 84, 95, 98, 99, 101, 209, 223, 224;
Town Hall, 224.

_Hull, History of_ (Gent), 17.

Humber, The, 99.

Hyde, Mrs., 202.

- - Sir Edward (Earl of Clarendon), 49 _n._


Imposition upon wines, 196.

Indies, East and West, 93.

Inigo Jones, 221-2.

_Insolence and Impudence Triumphant_, 153.

Ireland, 122, 196, 209.

Irish Cattle Bill, 122.


Jessopp, Mr., 120.

Johnson, Dr., 225, 227.

"Johnson's _Poets_," 229.


Kremlin, 108.


Lamb, William, 20, 61.

Lambert, General, 29, 31, 82.

Lambeth, 175.

_Last Instructions to a Painter about the Dutch Wars, The_, 129;
quoted, 130 _seq._, 135.

Laud, Archbishop, 91, 167, 221.

Lauderdale, Lord, 150, 185, 201, 202.

Lawson, Admiral, 115.

Lenthall, Speaker, 81, 83.

"Letter from a Parliament Man to his Friend" (Shaftesbury), 97.

_Leviathan_ (Hobbes), 156.

_Life of the Great Lord Fairfax_ (Markham) (quoted), 31.

_Lines on Paradise Lost_, 230.

Locke, John, 6, 179.

London, 90;
Great Fire of, 17, 119, 209;
Great Plague of, 115, 116, 119.

Lort, Dr. (Master of Trinity), 10.

Louis XIV., 183, 185, 186, 188, 189, 193, 196, 215.

Lovelace, Richard, 25, 26, 227.

_Lucasta_, 25, 26.


Macaulay, 70, 92.

"MacFlecknoe" (quoted), 21.

Manton, Dr., 162.

_Mariæ Marvell relictæ et Johni Greni Creditori_, 222.

Marlborough, Earl of, 115.

Martin Marprelate, 24.

Marvell, Andrew, born 1621, 4;
ancestry, 4-5;
Hull Grammar School, 8;
school days, 8-9;
goes to Trinity College, Cambridge, 10;
life at Cambridge, 11-12;
becomes a Roman Catholic, 12;
recantation and return to Trinity, 14;
life at Cambridge ends, 17;
death of mother, 17;
abroad in France, Spain, Holland, and Italy, 19;
acquainted with French, Dutch, and Spanish languages, 19;
poet, parliamentarian, and controversialist, 20;
in Rome (1645), 20;
invites Flecknoe to dinner, 22;
neither a Republican nor a Puritan, 23;
a Protestant and a member of the Reformed Church of England, 23;
stood for both King and Parliament, 23;
considered by Collier a dissenter, 24 _n._;

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