death of our pious divine, as lie was preaching at St. Gregory's
church, a rude fellow cried aloud to hini, " Lift up your
voice, for 1 cannot hear you :" to whom Mr. Vines replied,
" l^ift up your ears, for I can speak no louder."t
His Works. â 1. A Treatise on the Sacrament, 1657- â 2. Christ
the Chri^^tiau's onlv Gain, 1661. â ;i. God's Drawing and Man's
Coniins: to Ciuist, 1662. â 4. The Saint's Nearness to God, 1662. â
5. 1 viiipial 5>einion For the Earl of Essex. â 6. iuneral Sermon for
Mr. \\ iiiiani Stnin":. â 7. Caleb's Integrity in following the Ijord fully,
aSernioii ijefore ihe liononrahle House of Commons, at their latÂ©
solemn Fast, Nov. 30. 1642. â 8. The Posture of David's Sjfirit, when
he was in a Doubtful Condiiion, a Sermon before the Commons, 1644.
â9. The Happiness of l.srael, a Sermon before both Houses, 1645. â
He was author of some other Sermons.
Hugh Robinson, D.D. â This learned person was born
in St. Mary's parish, Anglesea, and educated first at Wick-
ham school, then at New College, Oxford, where he took
his degrees in arts, and was admitted perpetual fellow. After
finishing his studies at the university, he was chosen principal
master of Winchester school; and, taking his degrees in
divinity, he became archdeacon of W niton, canon of Wells,
and archdeacon of Gloucester. In the beginning of the
civil war he lost all his preferment, joined himself to the
puritans, espoused the cause of the parliament, took the
covenant, and afterwards became rector of Hinton, near
Winchester. He was an excellent linguist, an able divine,
and very well skilled in ancient history. t He died March 30,
1655 ; and his remains were interred in the chancel of
St. Giles's in the Fields, London.
His AVoRKS. â 1. Pieces, written for the Use of the Children of
Winchester School, in Latin and English, 1616. â 2. Grammaticalia
quaedam, in Latin and English, 1616. â 3. Antiquas Historiae Synopsis,
1616.â 4. The Latin Phrases of Winchester School, 1654.â
5. Aniialium Mundi Universalium, 1677. â He also wrote a piece in
Vindication of the Covenant.
Â» Biog. Britan. vol. iii. p. 628. Edit. 1778.
+ Fuller's Worthies, part ii. p. 135.
$ Wood's AthcBSB Oxon. vol. ii. p. 117.
236 LIVFS OF THE PURITANS.
John Angel, A. M. â This pious divine was born in
Gloucestershire, and educated in Magdalen-hall, Oxford.
Having taken his degrees, he left the university and entered
upon the ministerial work. Previous to the year 1629, Mr.
Higginson, being chosen by the mayor and aldermen of
Leicester to be the town preacher, but refusing the office, on
account of his growing nonconformity, he recommended !Mr.
Angel, then a learned and pious conformist, to their appro-
bation. They accordingly made choice of him ; when he
removed to Leicester, and continued in the office of public
lecturer, with some interruption, upwards of twenty years.*
Though at first he was conformable to the established church,
lie afterwards imbibed the principles of the puritans, and
became a sufferer in the common cause. Archbishop Laud,
giving an account of his province in the year 1634, observes,
â ' That in Leicester the dean of the arches suspended one
Angel, Mho hath continued a lecturer in that great town
for divers years, without any license at all to preach ; yet
took liberty enough." His grace adds, " I doubt his violence
hath cracked his brain, and do therefore use him the more
tenderly, because I see the hand of God hath overtaken
him,"t Mr. Angel most assuredly had the license of those
who employed him, and who paid him for his labours,,
though he might not have the formal allowance of his.
diocesan or the archbishop. What his lordship can mean by-
insinuating that " his violence had cracked his brain, and the
hand of God having overtaken him," is not very easy to
understand. If he laboured under some afflictive, mental, or
bodily disorder, as the words seem to intimate, he was surely
more deserving of sympathy and compassion thaw a heayy
ecclesiastical censure. But the fact most probably was, that
Mr. Angel was deeply involved in spiritual darkness about
his own state, and in painful uncertainty concerning his own
salvation. " For," says Mr. Clark, " there Mas a great light,
Mr. Angel, formerly of Leicester, afterwards of Grantham,
but now with God, who being under a sore and grievous
desertion, received much comfort from the conversation of
]Mr. Richard Vines. "| This undoubtedly refers to the same
Though it does not appear how long Mr. Angel continued
under suspension, he was afterwards restored to his ministry ;
and he continued his lecture till the year l6oO, when he was*
* Mather's Hist, of New Eng. b. iii. p. 73.
+ Wharton's Troubles of Laud, vol. i. p, 631.
X Clark's Lives, last vol. part i. p. 30.
ANGELâ R. ROBINSON. 23T
turned out for refusing the engagement. About the same
time the company of mercers in London made choice of him
as pubhc lecturer at Grantham in Lincohishire ; and not
long after he was appointed assistant to the commissioners of
that county, for ejecting ignorant and scandalous ministers
and schoolmasters, but did not long survive the appointment.
He died in the beginning of June, l6o5, when his remains
were interred in Grantham church. Having gained a dis-
tinguished reputation, and being so exceedingly beloved while
he lived, his funeral was attended by a great number of
ministers, when Mr. Lawrence Sarson delivered an oration at
his grave, in hioh commendation of his character. Wood
denominates him " a frequent and pamful preacher ; a man
mighty in word and doctrine among the puritans ;" and adds,
*' that as his name was Angel, so he was a man indeed of
angeUcal understanding and holiness, a burning and shining
light, and he continued to shine as a burning light, until God
translated him to shine as a star in the kingdom of heaven
for ever."* Mr. Henry Vaughan, ejected at the restoration,
was his successor at Grantham.t
His Works. â 1. The right ordering of the Conversation, 1659. â
2. rmieral Sermon at the Burial ot John Lord Darcey, 1669. â
3. Preparation for the. Communion, 16-59. â 4. The right Government
of the TIjoughts ; or, a Discovery of all vain, unprofitable, idle, and
wicked Tlioughts, 1659.
Ralph Robinson. â This holy minister was born at
Heswall in Cheshire, in the month of June, l6l4, and edu-
cated in Katherine-hall, Cambridge. Here, for several years,
he made good use of his time and academical advantages, and
came forrii well qualified for the ministry. Upon the com-
mencement of the national confusions, in l64G, he lett the
university and went to LoiKlon, where he gained consider-
able reputation. Being richly furnished with gifts and
graces, he was greatly beloved by the London ministers, and
his preaching rendered him exceedingly popular. He ac-
cepted an invitation to the pastoral charge at St. Mary's,
Woolnoth, and was ordained presbyter, by fasting and
prayer and the imposition of hands. In the year lG47 he
was chosen one of the scribes to the first provincial assembly
in Loudon. In 1648 he united with the Loadon ministers in
â¦ AthenjB Oxon. vol. ii, p. 118.
f Palmer's Noucoo. Mem. vol. ii. p. 417.
238 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
declaring against the king's death.* And in l651 he wai^
concerned in Love's plot; but, upon his petitioning for
pardon, and promising submission to the existing government
in future, he was released. +
Mr. Robinson died in the meridian of life. When he was
seized wiih his last sickness, havmg no great degree of pain,
he was unapprehensive of his approachnig change. When
he w as requested to make his w ill, he said, " 1 will do it
with all readiness, ihough 1 perceive not myself in any
danger of death :" adding, " I pray you flattc'r me not. If
my physician apprehend danger, let me know it ; for, I bless
God, the thoughts of death are not dreadful to me." To an
intimate friend he said, " 1 bless God, 1 have loved fasting
and prayer with all my heart." And being asked what was
the present state of his mind, he replied, " Though I
have not ravishing joys, I enjoy uninterrupted and satisfying
peace ; not in the least questioning my everlasting happiness,
through the grace of God in Christ Jesus." Being reminded
of the rest to be found in the bosom of Christ, he said, " Oh!
true rest can be found no where else ;" with which words he
breathed his last, June 15, 1655, aged forty-one years. He
was a person of exemplary piety ; and, in his judgment and
practice, a thorough presbyterian, and ever true and steady to
his principles. He was an indefatigable, orthodox, and useful
preacher ; a loving husband, a tender father, a vigilant pastor,
a cheerful companion, and a faithful friend.t Many poems
and elegies were published on his death. He was author
of the following works : " Self Conduct ; or, the Saint's
Guidance to Glory, opened in a Sermon atf the Funeral of
the virtuous and religious Gentlewoman, Mrs. Thomasin
Barnardiston," 1 654.â "The Christian completely Armed,"
1656.â" Christ All and in All," 1656.
Nathaniel Rogkrs. â This excellent minister was born
at Haveihil in Suffolk, about the year 1598 ; and at the age
of fourteen was sent to Emanuel college, Cambridge, where
he became a hard student, made great proficiency in all kinds
of useful learning, and was a great ornament to the college.
He was son of Mr. John Rogiers, famous for his ministry and
nonconformity at Dedham m Essex. Under the pioui
* Calamv's Contin. vol. ii p 744.
+ Wood's Athenae Oxon. vol. ii, p. 7T.
j Ashe's Fun. Ser. for Mr. Robinson, entitled, " The Good Man's Dcatb
Lamented."â Clark's Lives, last vol. part i. p. 5Tâ 60.
N. ROGERS. 239
instructions of his excellent parents, he feared the Lord from
his youth ; and, as he grew up to the age of man, he trod in
the footsteps of his honoured and worthy father. Though he
was indeed a person of most exemplary piety ; yet it is related,
that, through the hurry of business, he went one morning from
home without attending to his usual private devotions, when
his horse stumbled and fell, by which he lost much blood,
and was exceedingly bruised. This event, however, taught
him a valuable lesson. It awakened him to so deep a sense
of his omission of duty, that, from that time to the day of his
death, no engagements whatever would hinder him from
attending upon the exercises of the closet.
Mr. Rogers, having finished his studies at the university,
became domestic chaplain to a person of quality, when he
gave the first specimen of his ministerial abilities. After he
had continued in this situation about two years, he became
assistant to Dr. Barkam, at Bocking in Essex. The doctor
being a high churchman, and particularly intimate with
Bishop Laud, many people wondered that he employed for
his curate the son of one of the most noted puritans in the
kingdom. Mr. Rogers was much beloved by the people,
and they were remarkably kind to him. Though the doctor
' treated him with civility, he did not allow him one-tenth of his
benefice, amounting to many hundreds a year, when he did
above three-fourths of the work. Mr. Rogers now began to
examine the controversy about ecclesiastical matters, and, as
the result of his inquiries, he became thoroughly dissatisfied
with the ceremonies and discipline of the church. After-
wards, the doctor being present at a funeral, and observing
that Mr. Rogers did not use the surplice, he was so completely
disgusted, that he advised his curate to provide for himself,
and so dismissed him. What a sad crime was it to bury the
dead without a surplice !
After he had preached about five years at Bocking, he was
presented to the living of Assington in Suffolk, where the
Bishop of Norwich allowed him to go on in the Lord's work,
without molestation, for about five years. His preaching
was highly esteemed, and greatly blessed among persons of
all descriptions. He had commonly more hearers than could
crowd into the church. The ignorant were instructed, the
careless awakened, and the sorrowful comforted. He was a
" fisher of men," and, by the blessing of God upon his
endeavours, many were caught in the gospel-net. At length,
the ruling ecclesiastics were resolved to stop the mouths of
240 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
all ministers who refused to conform to their arbitrary
injunctions ; on which account great numbers of the most
laborious ar^d useful preachers in the Ivingdom were either
buried in silence, or forced to abscond, to avoid the fury of
the star-chamber and of the high commission. Mr. Rogers,
perceiving the approaching storm, chose to prevent rather
than receive the terrible sentence of those tribunals ; and
therefore he resigned his living into the hands of his patron.
Not being satisfied to lay down his ministry, he forsook the
neighbourhood of his father, with all his prospects of worldly
advantage; and, casting himself and his young family on the
providence of God, embarked for New England, where he
arrived November l6, 1636. Mr. Ralph Partridge, another
puritan nsinister, accompanied him in the same ship.*
Upon their arrival, Mr. Rogers was chosen co-pastor with
Mr. Norton over the church at Ipswich. These judicious
and holy men, whose hearts were cordially united in pro-
moting the fflorv of God and the salvation of souls, were
rendered a peculiar blessmg to this religious society. Mr.
Rogers was much afflicted, especially with the spitting of
blood. When the complaint was upon him, he used to
comfort himself by observing, " Though I should spit out
my own blood, by which my life is maintained, I shall never
cast out the blood of Christ, or lose the benefits of that
blood which cleanseth us from all sin." Linder one of these
afflictions, Mr. Cotton wrote him a consolatory letter, dated
March 9, 1631, in which he addressed him as follows: â " I
bless the Lord with you, who perfecteth the power of his
grace in your weakness, and supporteth your feeble body to
do him still more service. You know who said, ' Unmortitied
strength posteth hard to hell : but sanctitied weakness crecpeth
fast to heaven.' Let not your spirit faint, though your body
do. Your soul is precious in God's sight. ' Your hairs are
all numbered.' The number and measure of your fainting
fits, and wearisome nights, are all weighed and limited by
him who hath given you his son Jesus Christ to take upon
him your infirmities, and bear your sicknesses."! During the
last confflct, he was full of heavenly conversation, and closed
his life and labours saying, My times are in thy hands. He
died July 3, 1655, aged fifty-seven years. He was an emi-
nently holy man, an admirable preacher, and an incomparable
master of the Latin tongue. " And I shall do an injury
â¢ Mather's Hist, of New Eng. b. iii. p. 104â106. + Ibid. p. lOT.
J. TURNERâ MARSHALL. 241
to his memory," says our author, " if I do not declare that
he was one of the greatest men and one of the best ministers
that ever set his foot on the American shore."*
Jerom Turner, A. B. â This worthy person was born
at Yeovil in Somersetshiie, in the year l6"15, and educated
at Edniund's-hall, Oxford. Having finished his studies at
the university, he became schoolmaster at Bear in Devonshire,
where he also preached as assistant to his friend and kins-
man, Mr. Hugh Gundry, for the space of two years. At the
expiration of this period, he removed to Exmouth in the
same county, where, for about two years, he was assistant to
Mr. William Hook, afterwards silenced at the restoration.t
He next removed to Compton, near the place of his nativity,
and afterwards became chaplain to Sir Thomas Trenchard.
But, upon the commencement of the civil war, he was forced
to tlee for safety, when he took refuge at Southampton.
There he abode during the national confusions, and preached
among the puritans with considerable approbation. Upon
the conclusion of the wars, in 1646, he became pastor at
Netherbury in Dorsetshire, where he continued a zealous
and useful preacher to the time of his death. In the year
1654 he was appointed one of the assistant commis-
sioners of Dorsetshire, for ejecting ignorant and scan-
dalous ministers. Wood says, " his love to learning was
very great, and his delight in the ministerial exercise was
greater than his weak body could bear. He had a strong
memory, was w ell skilled in Greek and Hebrew, and was a
constant, zealous, fluent, and useful preacher ; but," says he,
" too much addicted to Calvinism.'^ He died at ]N ether-
bury, November 27, 1655, aged forty years.
His Works. â 1. A. Breust-plate for the Keeping of the Heart,
1660.â 2. A Rich Tieasurie for the Promises, 1660.â 3. An Exposi-
tioii ou the first Chap, of the Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesiaus.
Stephen Marshall, B. D. â This celebrated person
was born at Godmanchester in Huntingdonshire, and educated
in Emanuel college, Cambridge. He was some time minister
at Wethersfield in Essex, then presented to the benefice of
Finchingfield in the same county ; but his memory has greatly
* Mather's Hist, of New Eug. b. iii. p. 106â108.
+ Palmer's Noncon. Mem. toI, i. p. 184.
$ Woofl's AlheiKe Oxon. yoI. ii. p. 12J, 122.
VOL. III. R
U2 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
suffered from men of opposite principles. In the former
situation, his people, from their warm attachment to him,
expended fifty pounds to purchase him a library, and
performed for him many friendly offices. It is further
observed, that " he was sensible of their kindness, and
engaged himself by a voluntary promise never to leave
them. He had not contiimed long in this situation before
Mr. Pickering, a reverend and learned divine, minister of
Finchingfieltl, died. The fatness of the benefit," it is said,
" helped the patron to suitors enow, but, amongst all, our
Marshall was the man whom his affection made choice of
to bestow his presentation upon; who having unluckily
married himself to Wethersfield, knows not what course
to take to sue out a bill of divorce. The great living, worth
.3^200 a year, is a strong temptation to the holy man's con-
' cupiscible appetite ; however, Wethersfield holds him to
his promise, never to leave them. A little assembly of
divines is called ; and it is tlierc debated how far Mr.
Marshall's promise is obligatory. The casuists, knowing
bis mind before, conclude, that it bound him not to leave
them for a lesser salary^ but left him at liberty to take a
hmsaer livins: when he could o-et it. Indeed, there is no
â¢ f 111
reason why any promise, tiiough ever so solemnly and
deliberately made, should stand a perpetual palisado to any
godly man's preferment. This decision satisfies his corvan.
P'or he leaves Wethersfield, and away he goes to Fincliing-
field. This," it is added, " is the first noted essay that he
gave of his fidelity in keeping his promise."*
In this partial and curious account of Mr. Marshall, it is
also thus observed : " He was as conformable as could be
desired, reading divine service, wearhig the surplice, re-
ceiving and administering the sacrament kneeling; approv-
ing, commending, and extolling episcopacy and the liturgy ;
observing ail the holidays with more tlian ordinary dili-
gence, preaching upon most of them. This he did so long
as he had any hopes of rising that way. His ambition
was such," says this writer, " I have great reason to believe
that he was once an earnest suitor for a deanery, which is the
next step to a bishopric ; the loss of which made him turn
schismatic. His son-in-law Nye was heard to say, ' that
if they had made his father a bishop, before he had been too
far engaged, it might have prevented all the war ; and since
he cannot rise so high as a bishop, he will pull the bishops
* Life of Marshall, p. b. Edit. 1680.
as low as himself: yea, if he can, lower than he was him-
self when he was at Godnmnchesler.' "*
This IS 'he representation oi a kiiown adversary, and is
evideiitl}^ desii>-nca to cast a slignia upon his character.
Notw it il^ta tiding his co3iformify, as here represented, after
Lis re.aoval to Finchingii* Id he was silenced for noncon-
formity ; and he reiiiain<d a long tune in a state of suspen-
sion. Upon liis restoration to his minisiry, in iC'dtO, he did
not return to his former charge, but was appointed lecturer
a< St Marg- .let's church, Westminster. Although he was
greatly desi.is d and reproachi.d by the opposite party, he
was a in 'u oi" high reputation, and was often cdled to
pr. ach betore the parliament, who consulted him in all aflairs
of importance relating to religion. " And without doubt,"
says Ciarendoi, " the Archbishop of Canterbury had never
so gnat an i-ifinence upon the councils at court, as Mr.
Marsliall and Dr. Burgess liad upon the houses of parlia-
ment."! Nov<mber 17, 1640, was observed as a day of
solemn fasting by ihe house of commons, aJ St. Margaiet's,
Westminster,- when these two divines were appointed to
con net the public service of the day ; on which occasion,
it is said, they pray( d and preached at least seven Incurs.
The S( rvjce being clos'd, the house voted thanks to both
the preachers, desiring them to print tlieir sermons ; and, to
afford them encouragement in future, a piece of plate was,
by order of tlie house, presented to each. J
Lord CIar> ndon, with other historians of a similar spirit,
brings against him a charge unwt-rthy of any honest man.
The accusation relates to the ministers' petition presented
to the parliament ; and, says he, " The paper which con-
tained the ministers' petition, was filled with very few
hands, but that many other sheets were annexed for the
reception of numbers who gave credit to the undertaking.
But when their names were subscribed, the petition itself
was cut off, and a new one, ot a very different nature,
annexed to the long list of names ; and when some of the
minis ers complained to Mr. Marshall, with whom the
petition was lodged, that they never saw the petition to
which their names were annexed, but had signed another
petition against the canons, Mr. Marshall is said to reply,
that it was thought fit by those who understood the business
better than they, that the latter petition should be preferred
Â« Life of Marshall, p. 10. + Clarendon's Hist. vol. i. p, 239.
X Nalson'g Collec vol, i. p. 530, 53.S.
B44 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
rather than the former."* This, indeed, is a charge of a
very high nature, and ought to liave been well substantiated.
Dr. Walker, notwithstanding his extreme bigotry and
enmity against the puritans, seems not to give full credit to
the noble historian. " It is probable,,''^ says he, " that
Mr. Marshall was deeply enough concerned in this affair ;"
but he appears unwilling to affirm it as a matter of facl.f
If, however, the above account had been true, why did not
the ministers complain to the committee appointed l)y the
house of commons to inquire into their regular methods of
procuring hands to petitions ? The learned historian an-
swers, that they were prevailed upon to sit still and pass it
by ; for the truth of which we have only his lordship's
"Word, as nothing of the kind appears in Rushworlh, Whit-
iocke, or any other impartial writer of those times. The
whole affair his, therefore, the appearance of a mere forgery,
designed to bhicken the memory of Mr. Marshall and the
rest of the puritans.
Few persons have censured our divine with greater seve-
rity than the anonymous author of " A Letter of Spiritual
Advice, written to Mr. Stephen Marshall in his Sickness,"
1643. " When I heard of your sickness," says this writer,
*' I assure you I found in myself such a different apprehen-
sion of your slate, from that of other ordinary sick men, that
I think you will not wonder if all the king's subjects, who
wish good success to his maj(sty in this war, cannot impute
your visitation to any thing but the just severity and revenge
of Almighty God, for having had so strong an influence
upon the ruin of this kingdom and church. For, sir, is it
not apparent that your eminent gifts of preaching have been
made use of for the kindling of those flames of rebellion and
civil Avar, and most unchristian bloodshed ? Have not you,
with all the earnestness and zeal imaginable, persuaded your
hearers to a liberal contribution for the maintaining of this
unnatural war? Have not you forsaken your oAvn charge, to
accompany and strengthen the general of your army in his
resolutions and attempts against the just power and life of
his and your anointed sovereign? Does not the whole