appearing in the Building up of Zion, preached before the Right
Honourable the House of Peers, March 26, 1645â€” 1645.â€” 10. The
Strong Helper; or, the Interest and i'ower of the Prayers of tiie
Destitute, for the Building up of Zion, opened in a Sermon before the
Commons, upon the solemn Day of their monthly Fa.st, April 30,
1645 â€” 1645. â€” 11. A Sacred Record to be made of God's Mercies to
Zion: a i'hanksgiving Sermon preached to the two Houses of Par-
liament, the Lord Mayor, Court of Aldermen, and Common Council
of the City of London, at Christ's Church, June 19, 1645 â€” 1645. â€”
12. A Defence of Infant Baptism : In Answer to two 1'reatises, and
an Appendix, lately published by Mr. Jo. Tombes, 1646.
Timothy Armitage, in the year 1617, was chosen
paslor of the first independent church in the city of Nor-
wich. So early as the year 1643, many pious people in
Norwich joined Mr. Bridge's church at Yarmonth, who
afterwards wished to have the seat of the chnrch removed
to the former place; but the majority of members residing
at Yarmouth, the proposal was declined. Yet it was
mutually agreed that they should form themselves into a
separate church. This was done June 10, 1644, in the
presence of several of their brethren from Yarmouth, who
signified their approbation by expressions of the most tender
and endeared affection. Indeed, many of the metnbers of
both churches had been companions in the patience of our
Lord Jesus In a foreign land, when they enjoyed sweet
communion together in the ordinances of the gospel, but
returned home upon the commenceiuent of the civil wars.
The church at Norwich was no sooner formed than numer-
ous additions were made to it. Mr. Armitage, after labouring
several years with great usefulness, died much regretted in
December, 1655. He published a work entitled, " Enoch's
Walk with God." Mr. Thomas Allen, the silenced non-
conformist in 1662, succcctled him in the pastoral office.*
There v/erc at this early period no less than fifteen congre-
gational churches on the coast of Suffolk and Norfolk, under
Â» Meen's MS. CoUec. p. 116.
ARMITAGEâ€” G. WORKMANâ€” T. YOUNG. 255
the direction and encouragement of Mr. Armitage and
Giles Workman, A. M. â€” This worthy person was the
son of iMr. William W^orkman, born at Newton Bagpath in
Gloucestershire, in the year 1605, and educated at Magda-
len-hall, Oxford, where he took his degrees in arts. After
finishing his studies at the university, he became vicar of
Walford in Herefordshire, then master of the college school
in Gloucester, and at length, by the favour of Matthew
Hale, esq., afterwards lord chief justice, he became rector
of Alderley in Gloucestershire. Wood says, " he was a
quiet and peaceable puritan. "+ He was brother to Mr.
John Workman, another puritan divine, and a great
sufferer under the oppressions of Archbishop Laud. Mr.
Giles Workman died in 1655, aged fifty years ; when his
remains were interred in Alderley church. He published
" A modest Examination of Laymen's Preaching, discovered
to be neither warranted by the Word of God, nor allowed
by the Judgment or Practice of the Churches of Christ in
New England," 1646. He also published several sermons.
Thomas Young, D. D. â€” This pious and learned divine
was probably educated in the university of Cambridge.
He was afterwards preacher to the English merchants at
Hamburgh ; and, upon his return to his native country, he
became vicar of Stow-Market in Suffolk, in which situation
he continued almost thirty years. He was a person of great
learning, prudence, and piety, and discovered great fidelity
and ability in the work of the ministry.^ In the year 1643
he was chosen one of the assembly of divines, and proved
himself a distinguished member during the whole session.
Being called to the metropolis, he was chosen pastor at
Duke's-place in the city. In 1645 he was appointed one
of the committee of accommodation ;^ and about the same
time was chosen master of Jesus college, Cambridge, by
the Earl of Manchester. In this public situation he dis-
covered his great abilities and usefulness, till he was turned
* Palmers Nonoon. Mem. vol. iii. p. 11, 286.
+ Woods Adienae Oxon. vol. ii. p. 122.
J Clark's Lives annexed to Martvrologie, p. 194.
\ Papers of Accom. p. 13.
256 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
out, in 1650, for refusinar the enÂ£cagement.* Upon this he
most probably retired to Stow-Market, where he afterwards
died, in the year 1655, and his remains were interred in the
clmrch nnder a marble stone, with a monumental inscription.
Mr. Baker says, " he left behind him the character of a
learned, wise, and pious raan."+ Mr. Leigh styles him " a
learned divine, very well versed in tlic fathers, and author of
an excellent treatise, entitled " Dies Dominica." He was
also one of the authors of Sraectymnuus.^
John Pendarves, A. B.â€” This person was born in
Cornwall, in the year 1622, and educated at Exeter college,
Oxford. In the year 1642, when the nation was involved
in war, he left the university, took part with the parliament,
and, says the Oxford historian, " having a voluble tongue
for canting, went up and down preaching in houses, barns,
under trees, hedges, and elsewhere." Though this is
evidently designed to blacken his memory, his conduct
herein was surely as commendable as that of many of the
episcopal clergy, who stretched all their power to obtain
numerous rich livings, but did not preach at all. " But,"
says he, "at length he turned anabaptist; and having
obtained a great multitude of disciples, made himself head
of them, defied all authority, contradicted and opposed all
orthodox ministers, challenged them to prove their calling,
and spared not many times to interrupt them in their pulpils,
and to urge them to disputes. Alter several challenges,
Dr. Mayne, of Christ's Church, undertook to be his respon-
dent : and, according to appointment, they met September
11, 1652, in Watlington clmrch, Oxfordshire, when an
innumerable company of people assembled : bui Pendarves
being backed by a great parly of anabaptists, and the scum
of the people, who behaved themselves very rudely, the
disputation was interrupted, and so came to nothing."^ He
was lecturer at Wantage in Berkshire, and pastor to the
baptist church at Abingdon in the same county. Our
author adds, that " he accounted himself a true-born
Englishman ; but, because he endeavoured utterly to undo
the distressed and tottering church of England, he was
undeservina: of the name. And as he did these things for
â€¢ Walker's Attempt, part i. p. 115.
t Baker's MS. Collec. vol. vi. p. 58.
J Leigh on Religion and Learning, p. 369.
^ Wood's Atheae Oxoo. vol. ii. p. 127.
PENDARVESâ€” J. GIFFORD. Â§57
no other purpose than to obtain wealtli, and make liimself
famous to posleritj ; so it would be accounted worthy, if
by my onii >si"<n of him his name could have been buritd in
obiivion." This bitter writer, nevertheless, allows him to
â€¢have been a tolerable disputant.* Mr. Pendarves died in
Loj:don, in the beginning of September, 1656, aged thirty-
four yars. His remains are said to have been carried to
Abiuijdon, in a sugar-cask tilled up with sand ; w here they
"were interred, v/itli great funeral solemnity, in the baptists'
burying-ground. He was a iifth monarchy man:f and,
being famous among the p^irty, his interment drew together
so great a concourse of people, that the government took
notice of it, and sent Major-general Bridges, with a party
of soldiers, to attend at Abing-Jon on the occasion. The
num rous ass -mblage of people spent several days in the
reli*>!()us exercises of praying and preaching, which was
attended with some rude behaviour and confusion. t
His WiiRKS â€” 1. Arrows against Eabjlon ; or, Queries serving: to a
clear Discovery of tlie Mjslery of Iniqnity, lGo6. â€” 2. Endeavours
for Refurnialion of Saints' Apparel, 1656. â€” 3. Queries for the People
called Quakers, 1656. â€” 4- Prefatory Epistle to a Book entitled,
* 1 ho Prophets iMalachy and Isaiah prophesyin;^ to the Saints and
Professors of this Geiieration,' 1656. â€” 5. Several Sermons, 1657. â€”
And various other small articles.
John Gifford. â€” This person was born in the county of
Kent; afterwards he became a major in the king's army^
during the civil wars. He was concerned in the insurrection
raised in that county ; for which he was apprehended, and,
together with eleven others, received the sentence of death.
But, the night before he was to sutler, his sister coming to
visit him, and finding the centinels who kept the door of
the prison fast asleep, and his companions iu a state of
intoxication, she urged him to embrace the favourable
opportunity and escape for his life. Having made his
* Wood's Athenae, vol. ii. p. 127.
â– + The fifth monarchy men arose about the time of the death of Charles I,
and during the commonwealth. They expected the immediate appearance
of Christ to establish on earth a new monarchy or kingdom, and to com-
mence his glorious personal reign of a thousand years. As there are four
great empires mentioned in ancient history, which successively gained the
dominion of ihe world, so these men, believing that this new spiritual king-
dom of Christ was to be the fif thy received the appellation of fifth monarchif
% iMeeo's MS. Collec. p. 452.
VOL. J 1 1. I S
258 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
escape, he fled into the fields and crept into a ditch, where
he remained about three days, till search for him was over;
and then, by the help of iriends, he went in disguise to
London. After concealing himself for some time in the
city, and at various places in the country, he went to Bed-
ford, where, though an entire stranger, he commenced the
practice of physic; but s(i!l remained very debauched in
his life. He was greatly addicted to drunkenness, swear-
ing, gaming, and similar immoral practices, In his gaming
he usually found himself a loser, wiiich made him sometimes
discontented, and resolve to leave o(f the practice ; but his
resolutions were soon broken, and lie returned to his old
course. One night, having lost fifteen pounds, he became
almost outrageous, attended with most reproachful thoughts
of God ; but looking into one of Mr. Bolton's books, some-
thing laid fast hold upon his conscience, and brought him
for the first time to a deep sense of his sins. Under these
painful convictions he laboured for about a month, when
God by his word so discovered to him the forgiveness of
his sins, through faith in Jesus Christ, that, as he used to
say, he never lost sight of it aiterwards.
Mr. Giffbrd having thus tasted that the Lord was gracious,
presently sought an intimate acquaintance with the religious
people in Bedford, whom he had before grievously perse-
cuted, and had even resolved to murder the minister who
had occasionally preached to them. Indeed, he had been a
man of so profligate and base a character, that they were for
some time jealous of his profession ; but he, being naturally
of a bold spirit, still thrust himself among them, both in
their public meetings and private company. Having made
sufficient trial, they embraced him as a disciple and a
brother; and after some time he began to preach among
them. The very first sermon he preached was made
instrumental in the conversioh of a female, whose future life
became an ornament to her profession. He afterwards col-
lected the most pious persons in the congregation together ;
and, having repeatedly assembled and prayed to God for
his direction and blessing, they formed thtmiselves into a
christian church. They were twelve in all, including Mr.
Giffbrd, and all ancient and g'rave christians, and well
known to one another. Here was laid the foundatioii of
that religious society of which the celebrated Mr. John
Bunyan was afterwards pastor, and which exists and
flourishes at the present time. It was formed upon strict
cont^regalional principles, admittincj both pnedobapHsts ,ind
antipa^dubaptihts, and still continues oa the same broad
The members of this infiint society, after giving them-
selves to the Lord and to one another, unanimously chose
Mr. riifford to the office o/' pastor. He accepted tiie charge,
and sjave liimself up to the service of tiie Lord and his
people, to walk with them, watcii over (hem, :ind dispense
among them ihe mysteries of the kingdom. This was about
the year 1651. The principle on which they entered into
church fellowship, and on wliicli they added fresh jnembers,
was, " Faith in Christ and holiness of life," without respect
Jo any outward circumstuices vvliLitevi-r. 'â€¢ By this means,"
it is said, " grace and faith were encouraged, and love and
amity maintuned; disputing and occasion of jnnglings,
and unprofitable questions, avoided ; and many that were
weak in failh confirmed in the blessings of eternal life."
Mr. Gilford died September 21, 1656; who, on his death-
bed, wrote a most excellent letter to the congregition,
earnestly persuiding tiiem to continue in the faithful
maintenance of their principles, antl aifectionately exhorting-
them to promote peace, holiness, and brotiierly love.*
Richard C.apel, A. M. â€” This worthy divine was born
in the city of Gloucester, in 1586, and descended from the
ancient family of that name, being a ne ir relation to Lord
Capel. His father was an alderman of the city ; one who
greatly promoted the cause of Christ in the place; and was
a zealous friend to the snft'ering nonco dormists. His son
was educated in Magdalen college, Oxford, where lie
gained a considerable reputation, and was c'uosen fellow of
the house. He had many learned pupils, who became
famous in their day ; among whom were Dr. Frewen, after-
wards archbishop of York, and the celebrated Mr, William
Pemble. Mr. Capel, being desirous of greater usefulness to
souls, removed from the university and entered upon the
ministerial work, first at Estington, then at Piichcomb in
his own county. He did not enter into the sacred office for
a piece of bread, but for the advancement of the Redeemer's
kingdom and the salvation of men. Therefore he had no
sooner entered upon the work, than he gave himself wholly
to reading, to exhortation, to doctrine ; and his profiting
* Meen's MS, CoUec. p. 313â€”317, 325; as transcribed from thÂ«
â€¢riginal church-book at Bedford.
260 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
soon became so manifest to all, that lie was justly reputed a
man approved of God, rightly dividing the word of truth.
In the exercises of the pulpit he was sometimes a Boanergcsj
the son of thunder ; but more commonly a Barnabas, the
son of consolation. Under the intolerance and oppressions
of Bishop Laud, when the ceremonies were enforced Avith
the utmost rigour, and the most grievous penalties were
inflicted on the nonconformists, he became a sufferer with
the rest of his brethren. And, upon the publication of the
Book of Sports, in 1633, he could not read it with a safe
conscience ; therefore, to avoid deprivation, he peaceably
resigned his living and turned physician ; in which pro-
fession he was much esteemed, and very successful.*
The excellent Dr. Sibbs, who died in tlie year 1635,
bequeathed legacies, in his last will and testament, to his
numerous relations and friends ; among whom was Mr.
Capel, who received a small legacy. f In the year 1641 he
espoused the cause of the parliament, and renewed his
ministerial exercises at Pitchcomb, where he had obtained a
distinguished reputation. He still continued in the practice
of physic, but preached to the people gratuitously all the
rest of his days. In 1643 he was nominated one of the
assembly of divines, but never attended, choosing rather to
continue his uninterrupted labours among the people of his
Towards the close of life, this worthy servant of Clirist
was exercised with many trials, which, b}^ the help of God,
he bore with patience and unshaken confidence. He
cheerfully resigned himself to his heavenly Father's will.
Being particularly desirous not to die a lingering death, the
Lord was pleased to grant him his desire. For, having
preached twice on the Lord's day, and performed the usual
duties of the family and the closet, he went to bed and died
immediately, being September 21, 1656, aged seventy years.
Mr. Clark denominates him " a man of a quick apprehen-
sion, a strong memory, and great piety ;" and says, " he
was a living library, a full storehouse of all good literature,
a judicious preacher, and a sound ortliodox divine.":}: In
the opinion of Wood, " he was a man of great eminence,
and much followed by men of note, especially of the
Cahinian party. At Estinglon he was eminent, among the
puritans, for his painful and practical preaching, his
* Clark'8 Lives annexed to Martyrologie, p. 303, 309.
i Baker's MS. Collec. vol. xxxviii. p. 445. % Lives, p. 304,311.
NO YES, SGI
exemplary life and conversation, and for doing- many good
offices lor his brctlireu in the ministry. He was csieenied
an excellent preacher, and a true lollower of Messrs, Dod,
Claver, Hildcrslmm, and Dr. Kainolds."* Mr. Daniel
Capel, ejected at the restoration, was his son.t
Kis Works.â€” 1. God's Valuation of Man's Soul, 1632.â€” 2. A
Treatise ot 'reraplatious, WoO. â€” 3. A brief Dispute tuuciiiug Kesti-
tution in Cases of Usury, 1650. â€” 4. Remains, 1658. â€” 5. An Apology
iu Delcnce of some Exceptions in tlie Book of 'I'emptations, 1659.
James Noyes. â€” This excellent minister was born at
Chaldrington in Wiltshire, in the year 1608, and educated
in Brazen-nose college, Oxford. His father was a learned
minister and schoolmaster ; and his mother was sister to
Mr. IJobert Parker, the famous puritan. Mr. Noyes, after
finishing his studies at the university, became assistant to
Mr. Thomas Parker, in his school at Newbury in Berksiiire.
Here he was converted under the united ministry of Mr.
Parker and the celebrated Dr. Twisse, when he became
admired for his great piety. He afterwards entered upon
the ministerial work; but because he could not, with a safe
conscience, observe the ecclesiastical impositions in the
established church, he fled to New England. He sailed in
the same ship with Mr. Parker, and safely arrived in the
year 1634. These two worthy ministers preached, or ex-
pounded, one in the morning, the other in the afternoon,
every day during the whole voyage. The sweetest affection
subsisted betwixt them all their lives. They were true
brethren, and never separated one from the other, till con-
strained by death. Upon their arrival in the new colony,
Mr. Noyes preached about a year at Medford ; at the ex-
piration of which period he removed, with Mr. Parker and
otlier friends, to Newbury, where they gathered a church,
of which Mr. Noyes was chosen teacher, and Mr. Parker
pastor. In this office Mr. Noyes continued above twenty
years. Though his views of church discipline were
different from some of his brethren, both parties exercised
so much forbearance, tliat peace and good order continued
uninterrupted. And though he was very averse to the
English ceremonies, accounting them needless, in many
respects offensive and hurtful, and the imposition of them
* Wood's Athenas Oxon. vol. ii. p. 129.
+ Palmer's Noncon. Mem, vol. ii. p. ?54, ';
262 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
intolerable and abominable; yet he could have been hUt isfied
with moderate episcopacy. lie held a profession of faitii
and repentance, and a subjection to the ordinances of Christ,
to be the rule of admission to church fellowship ; but ad-
mitted to baptism the children of those who had been
baptized, without requiring the parents to own any covenant
or being in church iellowship. He, as well as his colleague,
considered the sabbath as beginning on the Saturday
Mr. Noyes, at the close of life, endured a long and tedious
affliction, which he bore with christian pati' nee and holy
cheerfulness. He died triumphing in the Lord, October
22, 1656, aged forty-eight years. He possessed a quick
invention, a sound judgment, a strong memory, and was a
good linguist, an able disputant, an excellent counsellor, and
one of I he greatest men of the age.* He was much beloved
by his people, and his memory is there respected at the
present day. He published a piece entitletl, 'â€¢' Moses and
Aaron, ^ir tlie Rights of Church and State;" and " A Cate-
chism," for the use of Jiis flock, which, to the honour of his
memory, has lately been reprinted.f
Edward Bright, A. M. â€” This worthy minister of Christ
was born at Greenwich, near iiondon, and educated in the
university of Can)bridge, where he was chosen fellow of his
college.^ Afterwards he became vicar of Goudhurst in
Kent, where he fell under tlie displeasure of Archbishop
Laud. In the year 1640 he Avas cited, with other puritan
ministers in Kent, to appear before his lordship's visitors at
Feversham, to asiswer for not reading the prayer against the
Scots. According to summons, they appeared before Sir
INathaniel Brent, the archbishop's vicar-general, and other
officers; when Mr. Bright was first called, and being asked
whether he had read the prayer, he answered in the negative.
Upon which the archdeacon immediately suspended him
from his office and benefice, without the least admonition,
or even giving him a moment of time for consideration.
This rash act was deemed, even by the favourites of Laud,
to be neither prudential nor canonical, Â§ It does not appear
Low long the good man continued under this cruel sentence;
* Mather's Hist, of New Eng. b. iii. p. 145â€”148.
+ Morse and Parish's Hist. p. 43, 46, 47.
t Baker's WS. Collec. v..l. vi. p. 81.
Â§ Life of Mr. Wilson, p. 15. Edit. 1672.
BRIGHTâ€” PECK. S6S
but he was most probably released upon the meeting of the
loiii^ parliament, towards, the close ot this year.
Mr. Bright was afKTwards chosen fellow of Emanuel
college, Cambridge; but he still continued in his beloved
work ot preaching. He was next choseh minister of Christ-
church, London ; but he did not long survive his removal.
During his last sickness, he often said, " I thank God I came
not to Jjondon for money. I brought a good conscience
from Cambridge, and I tiiank God I have not lived to spoil
it." He died in the month ol December, l(i56 ; when his
funeral sermon was preached by Mr. Samuel Jacomb, and
afterwards published. He was zealous, courageous, atid
conscientious in the support of divine truth ; yet of great
candour, affection, and moderation. He was a man of great
piety, good learning, excellent ministerial abilities, and
admirable industry. Many elegies were published upon
liis death.* He had the character of a very good man, and
was endowed witii a considerable share of patience, which
indeed he very much needed, having the affliction of a very
froward and clamorous wife. On this account, many
thought it a happiness to him to be dull of hearing. This
worthy servant of Christ is, by mistake, included among the
ejected ministers after the restoration.f
Robert Peck. â€” This zealous puritan was rector of
Higham in Norfolk, to which he was preferred in the year
1605. He was a zealous nonconformist to the ceremonies
and corruptions of the church, for which he was severely
persecuted by Bishop Harsnet. Having catechized his
family and sung a psalm in his own house, on a Lord's day
evening, when some of his neighbours attended, his lordship
enjoined him, and all who were present, to do penance, re-
quiring them to say, / confess mi/ errors. Those who
refused were immediately excommunicated, and required
to pay heavy costs. All this appeared under the bishop's
own hand. For this, and similar instances of his oppression
and cruelty, the citizens of Norwich, in the year 1623,
presented a complaint against his lordship in the house of
In the bishop's answer to this complaint, he had nothing
to say against Mr. Perk's doctrine and life, only his non-
conformity. He pleaded, in his own defence, " That
* Jacomb's Funeral Sermon for Mr. Brigtit.
+ jPalnjer's NoncoD. Mem. vol. ii, p. 328.
264 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
Mr. Peck had been seiitfo liim by the justices of the peace,
for keeping a conventicle at night, and in his own house;
that his catechizijig was only an excuse to draw <he peoi>Je
together; and that he had infect. d the parish with strange
opinions : as, ' that the people are not to kneel as they
enier tbe church ; that it is suprrstition to bow ai the mime
of Jesus ; and that the church is no luore sacred than any
other building.'" His grace further affirmed, that Mr.