and what further work, whether doing or sufl'ering, he had for
me, his poor old servant. "§ He is said to have succeeded
Mr. Ainsworth as pastor of his church ; but shortly after his
election to that office, he was censured and deposed by part
of the people, who renounced communion with him and the
other part of the congregation. || This may be true ; but it
does not appear that he was deserving of such treatment.
The party rejecting him were most probably such as could
not endure his sound doctrine or his faithful discipline.
Mr. Canne was a person who rendered himself very
popular, particularly by his controversial writings. He
delivered his sentiments with great clearness and freedom,
especially upon the controverted poiut§ of church discipline*
* Neal's PurilaDP, vol. ii. p. 374,
f Crosby's Baptists, vol. i. p. 164, iti. 40,41. — Ainsworth's Life, p. 35. —
See Art. Lathorp.
J Paget's Defence, Pref.
^ Canne's Time of the End, p. 265. Edit. 1667.
g Paget's Defence, p. 33.
" None," says he,* " may join in spiritual communion with
that ministry which hath not a true calhng, election, and
approbation of the faithful people to which he is minister.
So necessary is a right election and calling to every eccle-
siastical office, that, without the same, it cannot possibly be
true or lawful. If the ministers scandalously sin, the con-
gregation that chose them freely, hath free power to depose
them, and put others in their places." He also adds : " And
it is sure that Christ hath not subjected any congregation of
his to any superior ecclesiastical jurisdiction than to that
which is within itself: so that if the whole congregation shall
err in a matter of faith or religion, no other church or church-
officer hath any warrant or power from the word of God to
censure, punish, or controul the same ; but only to advise
them ; and so to leave their souls to the immediate judgment
Mr. Canne, while in a state of banishment, published a
work entitled, " A Necessity of Separation from the Church
of England, proved from the Nonconformists' Principles,"
1634 ; in the preface to which he thus observes : — " I know
what I say, and have good experience of this thing ; for there
is not ten of a hundred which separate from the church of
England, but are first moved thereto by the doctrines of the
nonconformists, either in word or writing, taught to the
people. And, indeed, upon their grounds, how can any one
do less than separate, if his heart be tender against every sin,
seeing that they confidently aff.rm, that the ministry, worship,
and discipline are from antichrist, and that in the church are
swarms of atheists, papists, adulterers, liars, &c. These are
their own testimonies, and we know they are true ; and, there-
fore, in obedience to God, and care of our precious souls,
we have left our unsanctified standing in their assemblies,
and, through the Lord's mercy to us, do walk in the holy
order of his gospel, although daily sufferers for it."t
Soon after the meeting of the long parliament, Mr. Canne
returned to his native country. Writers are divided in their
opinions whether he espoused the peculiar sentiments of the
baptists. Crosby himself leaves the matter undetermined.^
There is no doubt, however, tiiat he belonged to this denomi-
nation. For it is observed, that, in the year 1640, the bap-
tist congregation in Broad-mead, Bristol, separated from the
established church ; soon after which, Mr. Canne was called
. * Bailie's Dissuasive, p. 40 — 42.
+ Grey's Exaaiinatioo, vol. i. p. 43, 44.
J Crosbj's Baptists, vol. iii, p, 41.
534i LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
to preach among them ; when he settled them in the order
of a christian church, and declared himself to be a baptist ;
but did not make adult baptism a necessary qualification to
church connnunion.* The particular circumstances of his
introduction to these people are preserved in the ancient
records of the church in Broad-mead, from which my worthy
and esteemed friend, Mr. Isaac James of Bristol, has gener-
ously communicated to me the following curious extract,
being the whole of what relates to Mr. Canne :
" Shortly after, on a time called Easter, because Mr.
Hazard could not in conscience give the sacrament to die
people of the parish, he went out of town to visit his kindred
at Lime.t At this juncture, the providence of God brought
to this city one Mr. Canne, a baptized man. It was that Mr.
Canne that made notes and references upon the Bible. He
was a man very eminent in his day for godliness, and for
reformation in religion, having great understanding in the
way of the Lord. When Mrs. Hazard heard that he was
come to town, she went to the Dolphin inn and fetched him
to her house, and entertained him all the time he stayed in the
city ; who helped them much in the Lord. He being skilful
in gospel order, like Aquila, taught them the way of the
Lord more perfectly, and shewed them the difference between
the church of Christ and antichrist, and left with them a
printed book treating of the same, and divers printed papers
to that purpose. So that by Mr. Canne the Lord did con -
firm and settle them, shewing them how they should join
together and take in members. He exhorted them to wait
upon God together, and expect the presence of God with
those gifts they had ; and to depart from those ministers who
did not come out of antichristian worship. When he had
stayed some time in the city, he departed, and, on a Lord's
day following, preached at a place called Westerleigh, about
seven miles from this city ; and many of the professors from
hence went thither to hear him, with Mrs. Hazard, willing to
enjoy such- a light as long as they could : w here he had liberty
to preach in the pubhc place (called a church) m the morning ;
but in the afternoon could not have entrance. The obstruc-
tion was by a very godly great woman that dwelt in that
place, who was somewhat severe in the profession of what
she knew : hearing that he was a baptized man, by them
* Thompson's MS. Collections.
+ This Mr. Hazard was minister of Ratcliff parish and St. Ewen's,
Bristol, whence he was ejected at the restoration.— Palmer's Noncon.Mtm,
vol. ii. p. 177.
■called an anabaptist, which was to some sufficient cause of
" This godly honourable woman, perceiving that Mr.
Canne was a baptist, caused the public place to be made fast.
Then he drew forth with abundance of people into a green
thereby, and sent for Mr. Fowler, the minister that lived there,
to speak with him, who was a holy, good man, of great worth
for his moderation, zeal, sincerity, and a sound preacher of the
gospel, as he approved himself since.* Who accordingly
came to Mr. Canne on the green, where they debated the
business of reformation, and the duty of separation from the
worship of antichrist, cleaving close to the doctrine of our
Lord Jesus and his instituted worship. Mr. Fowler agreed
there was great corruption in worship, and that it was the
duty of people to reform ; but at that season, as things stood,
it was not a proper time, because they should not be suffered,
and should be cast out of all public places. Mr. Canne
answered, * That mattered not, they should have a barn to
meet in, keeping the worship and commands of the Lord as
they were delivered us.' Thus Mr. Canne continued near
two hours on the green, asserting and proving the duty of
people in such a day ; after which they took leave of each
other and departed. But the business of preaching in a barn
could hardly be received. The thing of relative holiness, and
tincture of consecrated places, was not off the people, having
been so long nursed up in ignorance and outward form."
These curious records also add : — " Mr. Hazard being come
home, and Mr. Fowler meeting with him, told him his wife
was quite gone, and would hear him no more. But she, with
those few that had joined themselves together to worship the
Lord more purely, afu r Mr. Canne had tlius instructed them,
and shewed them the order of God's house, stept further in
separation, and would not so much as hear any minister that
did read common prayer. Thus the Lord led them by
degrees, and brought them out of popih darkness into his
marvellous light of the gospel."
After the above transactions we find no further account of
Mr. Canne for many years. In the niean time, however, he
embraced the sentiments of the lifth monarchy-men, and is
classed among the distinguished leaders of this new sect.t
He afterwards published his opinions to the world in a work
entitled, " The Time of the End: shewing, first, until the
* Mr. Fowler was afterwards ejected from tbis.place at the restoration.
Palmer's Noncon. Mem. vol. ii. p. 264.
t Paget'* Hereiiography, p. 28^. Edit. 1662.
335 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
three years and an half are come, the Prophecies of Scripture
will not be understood concerning the duration and period of
the Fourth Monarchy and kingdom of the Beast. 'I'hen,
secondly, when that Time shall come, before the expiration,
the Knowledge of the End will be revealed," 1657- To this
work are prefixed two prefaces, one by Mr. Christopher
Feake, the other by Mr. John Rogers, both zealous fifth
monarchy-men. The latter styles him, an " aged brother
and companion in tribulation," and "this old sufferer and
standaid agamst the prelates and tyrants, old and new." Also,
in this book, Mr. Canne gives some account of himself, which
it will be proper to notice in this place. After stating his
deliverance from his seventeen years banishment, he makes
the following observations : — " Being brought thus at the feet
of God, and there waiting and hearkening what the Lord
would speak, I had the former things, for the substance of
them, given unto me. And I can sjieak it in truth, I under-
stood them not till now ; but thought The Time of the End
was to be found out and known some othei- way. Upon
many considerations my soul was sore distressed, and I be-
sought the Lord with tears, day and night, that he would take
pity on nie, and not leave me to a deceived heart.
" As often as I set my face unto the Lord by prayer and
supplication, I found myself more encouraged, and had more
of the prophecies opened unto me. Yea, and the Lord
knows I lie not, whensoever mv heart hath been most melted
and broken before him, and my soul swallowed up with the
greatest love and longing after his glory ; at such times I have
been most confirmed, and strengthened to believe, that it was
the spirit of truth which revealed these things to me, a worm.
Nevertheless, being yet unsatisfied in myself, and fearful lest
I should go aside from the teachings of God, 1 acquainted
some of my christian friends witii the thing, and how the case
stood with me, and desired that the same might be spread
before the Lord, which was done several tunes. Very ear-
nestly was the Lord sought for counsel and direction, that
tlicre might be no miscarriage on eith<;r hand ; and 1 found
the fruit of their prayers a greater confirmation.
" 1 have not published this treatise," says he, " as I have
done things heretofore. For in humility and an awful fear of
my God, here I can say, and that truly, This is a work of faith
and prayer : not of my own labour and study, comparatively,
as former things have been ; for jiere I have been more out
of the bodif, and with the Lord on the mount. But, oh,
1 would be humble in such expressions, that the Lord alone
CANNE. - 337
might be exalted ; and I remain still a worm in my hole, and
numbered among the dead. Neither have I rested in the
experience of God's inward workings upon my soul ; but the
holy scriptmes have been the man of my counsel. Insomuch
that I have not hearkened any further to the persuasions and
operations of the Holy Spirit than what I might do, yea and
ought, by faith grounded upon the blessed word. The scrip-
tures, through the free grace of a divine blessing, by a humble
application of them, have sweetly supported me."*
In this work Mr. Canne gives his opinion of the times,
which will undoubtedly afford the reader some amusement.
He considered the state policy during the commonwealth as
the second apostacy. " Are not the tryers," says he, " z;ealous
men against the idolatry of the Jirst apostacy ? They will tell
you, there must be no mventions in God's worship ; but every
thing must be according to the pattern, as in the ministry,
worship, and goverum.ent. But what say ye of the character
of the later apostacy ? Are they not lovers of themselves,
covetous, proud ? I wish for their own sakes it be not so.
The tryers are the great crackers, and they think they deserve
to be named mend-all, as having done a great piece of ser-
vice about church reformation. This, I think, I may safely
say, and that truly by experience : That the present national
clergy is more corrupt, and far worse, than it was in the
bishops' tim.e. For, first, there were then no professors but
could have found, within a few miles of their dwellings, some
honest puritan, or nonconformist, to go to, whereby to be
refreshed and built up in faith, knowledge, and holiness:
whereas now, men may travel twenty, thirty, forty miles, and
not hud a parish priest that hath any gospel savour in his
ministry : no power, sweetness, or life • but old, fonnal, fruit-
less stuff, said over a hundred times. Secondly, though it be
true, the bishops took little caie to reform the clergy, but
rather how to suspend and silence, as some do know, such as
witnessed against their unsanctified callings and places;
nevertheless, if the times be compared, the enormities of the
national clergy are less looked into and reformed. I say less
now than in the prelates' times. I remember the old non-
conformists were wont to call the bishops making of priests,
tlieir licenses, and visitations, the picking of tnen's pockets.
I wish it may not appear so in the day of Christ, that some of
these men have done little better." t
In speaking of the three horns plucked up by the roots, he
« Canne's Time of the End, p. 266—270. t Ibid, p. 49, 57, 58.
VOL. III. Z
338 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
says, « I shall propound lliis to the reader, to be considered
and weighed by him, whether England, Scotland, and Ire-
land are not three kingdoms ; and these three at one time,
as to their privileges, laws, rights, freedoms, broken ? And
whether this be not done by men who have the characters
of the last apostacy upon them, and such as call themselves
a state and government, but never could formally put theni-
selves either into a kingdom or commonwealth ? I think this
certainly may be asserted, that if the present state apostacy
be not the littie horn, it hath not yet risen. This horn
takes two sorts of people for its greatest enemies, the fifth
monarchy-men, and the commonwealth men."*
We make no comment on these opinions, but leave the
reader to exercise his own judgment. Mr. Canne afterwards
published a piece entitled, " A Query to William Prynne,"
1659, printed with " An Indictment against Tythes," by
John Osborne. The curious reader will doubtless be gra-
tified with the following extracts from this work, which we
give in the author's own words : — " A few months before
the sitting of this present parliament," says Mr. Canne,
" I declared my opinion concerning the late government by
a single person, or the second state apostacy, how it should
be pluckt up, root and branch, by the representatives of
the people. These representatives of the people, whoever
they should be, (for I positively pitched upon none,) I took
to be the earthquake in Rev. xi. 13. Noav so it is, and
blessed be tiic Lord for it, we see the same is come to pass,
to the great joy and comfort of all upright ones every
" This blessed work of the Lord, which is marvellous in
our eyes, not only strengthens me in my former opinion,
that the earthquake is begun ; but likewise what I have
there spoken concerning the effects of that earthquake, as to
tithes, the carnal cimrch, ministry, worship, and govern-
ment, with all the corrupt laws of the nation, will, in some
short time, be utterly overthrown. The sun may shine, yet
not be seen, because it is under a cloud. I am persuaded
the great works of the last day are upon us, and the spirit
is moving on the face of the waters, howbeit darkness
covereth the earth. That I may not be mistaken when
I speak of the earthquake, I would not be understood as
fixing either persons or time. For, as I said before, the
earthquake, I think, is begun among us ; yet, for the instru-
* Canne's Time of the End, p. 141, 145, 166.
ttients whom llie Lord will make use of to carry on this
work, it is known only to himself. So the time, though
I hurably conceive it shall gradually go forward, and Jiave
no more such a death upon it as it had before ; notwith-
standing, like the hand of a watch, the motion may not
easily be discovered."
Mr. Canne next considers some of the glaring evils which
arise from paying tithes, which he expected would soon be
abolished, and which he thought would be the first effect of
the earthquake. " There hath been of late discovered,"
says he, '-' such horrid oppression and cruelty in tithe-
takers, as, I think, the like was never heard of in any
former generation. It is almost incredible what inhuman
and most unchristian cruelty hath been lately exercised
upon many poor people, for refusing, ot conscience, to pay
tithes. There seems to be a great desire among the godly,
on all sides, to have all ignorant and scandalous ministers
rejected. I think, by this time, it doth appear to every one
who understands the present state of the nation, how im-
possible it is, that such unsavoury salt should be cast out
upon the dunghill, while tithes do stand. Those who get
rid of rooks, as an annoyance to them, destroy their nests.
If England be ever freed from such unclean birds, viz.
ignorant and scandalous priests, tithes must be taken away.
This is that which keeps them in their places, as the nests
do the rooks. So long as such a way of maintenance
stands, the most unworthy wretches will creep into public
places, whatever care be taken to prevent them.
" By wishing to have tithes put down, we are so far,"
says he, " from seeking to stop the progress of the gospel,
that one main end why we desire the removal of them, is to
have the gospel thereby advanced, and ignorant and carnal
people the sooner turned from the error of their ways.
Doubtless, whensoever this shall come to pass, the truth of
God, and the power of it, will more increase and spread
abroad than ever it hath done since the rise of the beast.
Though we are against tithes, we are not against a godly
gospel ministry ; but would have it in all places encou-
raged, and care taken that the people every wherethrough
the nation may be instructed in a way agreeable to the
Mr. Canne dates the above piece from his own house
without Bishopsgafe, London, the 13th of the 5(h n)onth,
1659. Kennet confounds him with one John Camm, a
quaker, and says, he was sent to prison, in 1658, from the
S40 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
famous fifth monarcliy meeting in Colenian-strect.* Wood
observes that when Needham, the furious satirist, was
turned out of his place of writing the weekly news, in the
time of Richard Cromwell, one John Can was appointed to
succeed him in the same office; but it is very difficult to
ascertain whether this was the same i3erson.+ Mr. Canne
was certainly a man of considerable learning and piety, and
of unshaken"^ constancy and zeal in the cause he espoused;
though for want of more light, he appears to have been too
riffid and enthusiastic. We have not been able to learn
when he died.
That which made this learned person most known to thf
world, and for which his name will be transmitted to pos-
terity, was the publication of his marginal references in the
Bible. He was author of three sets of notes, which accom-
panied three difF;'rent editions of the Bible. One of these
was printed at Amsterdam in 1647 ; the title of which
refers to a former one. " Here are added," observes the
title, " to ihe forme7' notes in the margin, many Hebraisms,
diversity of readings, with consonancy of parallel scriptures,
taken out of the last annotations, and all set in due order and
place." This is followed by a dedication " To the Right
Honourable Lords and Commons assembled in the High
Court of Parliament." Another is commonly known and
has been often reprnited. There was an edition of it pub-
lished at Amsterdam, in the year 1664. To the title of this
edition is added, " With marginal notes, shewing scripture
to be the best interpreter of scripture." In the preface he
i^akes mention of another edition, with larger annotations,
which he designed to publish: "A work," says he, " in
which he liad spent many years; and which would still
require time and care." We have not, however, been able
to learn whether this was ever published. And it is greatly
to be regretted that the later editions of that in 1664, though
printed "in the name of Canne, have the margin so numer-
ously crowded with references, in addition to those originally
done by Mr. Canne, that the reader is perplexed instead of
being instructed. Ilis references are exceedingly apposite
and judicious. A new edition of the Bible of 1664, is cer-
tainly a desideratum; the printing of which, says my
author, Avould, I am persuaded, reward any correct and
elegant workman. J
Dr. Grey, endeavouring to depreciate the character of
* Kennet> Chronirle, p. 73, 363.
+ AtbciifB Oxen. vol. ii. p. 469. f Life of Ainsworth, p. 35, 36.
our divine, relates the following anecdote of him : — " This
Caniie," says he, '• because no human inventions were to be
allowed about the worship of God, cut out of his Bible the
contents of the chapters, and t!ie title s of the leaves, and so
left the bare text without binding or covers."* Admitting
this to be the f ict, surely it was not in the power of bigotry
itself to account what he did a very great crime. It was no
violation of any existing canons, constitutions, or act of
parliament ; nor could it be followed by any very evil
consequences, so long as he preserved the whole of the
sacred text unadulterated.
His Works, iii addition to those already noticed. —1. Tlie Way
of Peace, or ajood Counsel tor it : Preached upon the 5tli day of the
second month, 1632, at the Reconciliation of certain Brethren,
between whom there had been former Differences, 1632. — 2. Syon's
Prerogative Kojal; or, a Treatise tending to prove, that every parti-
cular Conn-regation hath, from CInist, absolute and entire Power to
exercise in and of herself every Ordinance of God, 1641. — 3. A Stay
ag-ainst Straying : wherein, in opposition to Mr. John Robinson, he
undertakes to prove the unlawfulness of hearing tho Ministers of the
Church of England, 1642,-4. Trutb with Time, 1659.— 5. A twofold
SJhaking of the Earth. — 6. The Churclies Plea.
EzEKiEL Rogers, A. M.— This pious minister of Christ
was born at Wethersfield in Essex, in the year 1.590 ; at the
age of thirteen he was sent to the university, and, at twenty,
took his degrees in arts. He was son to the venerable Mr.
Richard Rogers, and brother to Mr. Daniel Rogers, botii
famous for their ministry and noncontbrmity at the abovo'f
place. Having finished his academical pursuits, he became
domestic chaplain to Sir Francis Barrington, whose family
was celebrated for religion and hospitality. Here he Avas
conversant with persons of the first rank, and was greatly
admired for his devout prayers, his judicious sermons, and
his excellent strains of oratory. After he had remained about
six years in this worthy family, Sir Francis presented him to
the benefice of Rowley in Yorkshire. This he did, in
hopes that his evangelical and zealous preaching would
awaken the people in that part of the country to a serious
concern for their souls. His churcii was situated in the
cefitre of many villages, whence a numerous assembly
attended on his ministry.
Though great numbers at this place were enlightened and
comforted by his preaching, he enjoyed but little comfort
* Examination of Ncal, vol. i. p. 231.
349 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
himself. He laboured under many fears and great distress,
lest he did not exjserieiice the influence of those truths
on his own lieart which he zealously enforced upon others.
He trembled to think of his own heart remaining unim-