which reflected great honour upon them, and demonstrated
their tender affection, they relieved him from his scruples of
conscience ; and, though aware of their own loss, they
advised him to resign his office for his own safety. Having
sent in his resignation, instead of enjoying the peace and
quietness which he expected, he found himself more offici-
ously watched than ever, being continually hunted l)y
hungry pursuivants. Therefore, in the year 1633, he fled
from the storm and retired to Holland, where he was imme-
diately chosen co-pastor with Mr. John Paget to the English
church at Amsterdam.^
* Wilson's Hist, and Antiq. of Dissenters, vol. i. p. 404, 405,
+ Wharton's Troubles of Laud, vol. i. p. 526.
:f Huntley's Prelates' Usurpations, p. 164.
S Mather's Hia, of New Eiig. b. Hi. p. 51—53.
448 LIVES OF THE PUUITANS.
Mr. Davenjjort did not, however, enjoy much comfort in
this new situation. His objections against the promiscuous
admission otchildren to tlieordinanceof baptism excited con-
siderable opposition ; and he soon found that he must baptize
children avJicu there was no charitable evidence of their be-
longing to christian parents, or give up his pastoral relation
to the church. Therefore, in the year 1635, he resigned his
charge, and opened a catechetical exercise at his own
lodgings every Lord's day evening, after the public ser-
vices of the city were over. But the popularity of his
talents soon collecting great nnmi)crs, increased the jealousy
and opposition of the contiary party, lie then returned
to England, saying, " that he thought God had carried him
to Holland on purpose to bear witness against that promis-
cuous baptism, which bordered on a profanation of the
holy ordinance." He used to observe, that when the
reformation of the church had been effected in any age or
country, it was seldom advanced beyond the improvements
of tiie first reformers; and that it was as easy to remove
Noah's ark from Ararat, as to persuade j)eople to proceed
beyond the first remove of their leaders.* This coincides
with the just observation of the celebrated Mr. John
Jiobinson. " The Calvinists," said he, " stick just where
John Calvin left them."
Mr. Davenport had long been a warm friend to New
England. He took an active part with some others in
obtaining the patent of Massachusets colony. His purse
and his time had l^een emplojed to promote the advantage
of the new plantation, even before his departure to Holland.
^^!iis now seemed, to be the only field in which he could
carry his ideas of ecclesiastical reformation to their full
extent. About th^ same time Mr. Cotton, of Boston in New
England, wrote to him, saying, " that the order of the
churches and commoiiAvealth was now so settled in that coun-
try, that it reminded him of the new heaven and new earth,
wherein dwelleth righteousness," which led him to determine
to cross the Atlantic. Therefore, in the year 1637, Mr.
Davenport, with several eminent christians and their families,
went over to New England. Among these adventurers were
Mr. Eaton and Mr. Hopkins, two London merchants, men
of good estates, and higidy celebrated for wisdom and
piety. The Oxford historian, by mistake, therefore observes,
that Mr. Daveiiport did not return from Holland till after
* Mather's Hist, of New JEng. b. Hi. p. 51—53.
the commencement of the civil wars, when he came to
England, and obtained a benefice in Ihe church ; but after-
wards went to New England.*
When this learned divine fled to New England, with a
view to escape the storm of persecution in his own country,
Archbishop Laud said, "My arm shall reach him there;"
but whether the cruel oppressions of this arbitrary prelate
were, in this instance, equally extensive as his wishes,
appears extremely doubtful.t Upon ihe arrival of Mr.
Davenport and his friends, they foimd the colony deeply
agitated by the antinomian and familistic errors, which, by
the influence of a bold woman, liad shaken the pillars of
the government, and threatened the existence of the churches.
She held public assemblies in her own house, and expounded
the scriptures to all who came, Mr. Davenport arrived just
before the famous synod at Cam.bridge, appointed to con-
sider the errors that were then propagated. His assistance
and influence on this occasioji v/ere peculiarly seasonable.
In the conclusion, he was appointed to announce the result
of the synod, when he preached a sermon from Phil. iii. 15.,
in which, it is said, " he shewed the occasion of differences
among christians, and, with much wisdom and sound argu-
ment, persuaded the people to unity. "±
In the month of March, 16S8, Mr. Davenport, Mr.
Prudden, and Mr. Eaton, brother to the above person of
this name, removed, with many families, from Massachusets,
intending to form a new settlement at Quinipioke. Thej
had formed a high opinion of the situation, and expected
there to escape the power of a general governor, whom they
feared would soon be sent over. The good people of
Massachusets parted very reluctantly with these valuable
brethren. Charlestown made them large oflers to induce
tliem to settle there. Newbury generously offered them their
whole town, and the legislature kindly offered them any
place they should choose, which had not been already
granted. But Quinipioke, which they now called New
Haven, was the spot on which they resolved to fix their
station, and no allurements could divert their attention from
it. The first public service observed in this new plantation
was on Lord's day, April 18, 1638, under a large spreading: .
oak. Mr. Davenport preached from Matt. iii. 1. on the
temptations of the wilderness. Here he endeavoured to
* Wood's AthensE, vol, ii, p. 334.
+ Wharton's Troubles of Laud, vol, i. p. 348.
J Morse and Parish's Hist, p, 71.
VOL. HI. 2&
450 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
establish a civil and religious order more strictly according
to the word of God, than he had seen exhibited in any other
part of the world. He was an original genius, and the plan he
adopted was his own ; and, our author adds, " if success be
any evidence of merit, he certainly has high claims to the
veneration and gratitude of nations."* There the famous
church of New Haven, as also the neighbourhig towns,
enjoyed his ministry, his disciplhie, his government, and his
universal direction for many years. The holiness, the
watchfulness, and the usefulness of his ministry, are worthy
of the remembrance of all who would set before them an
example of ministerial excellence. His attention and in-
fluence extended to all the churches. He was a man of
much devotion ; and he used to say, " ejaculatory prayer
is like arrows in the hands of the mighty; and happy is the
man who hath his quiver full of them."
Mr. Davenport was scrupulously careful in the admission
of persons to the Lord's table. To promote church-purity
■was one important object of his lite. It was a fixed prin-
ciple with him, that no person should be admitted a
member of a church who does not make such a profession
of faith as the church may in discretion conclude he is in
a state of salvation. He Avas persuaded that there are
many rules in the word of God, by which it will appear
who are saints, and by which those who admit others to
gospel ordinances are to be guided; so as to separate
between the precious and tlie vile. This, indeed, is no
more than all sects and even individuals claim for them-
selves. The only dift'erence is, they do not all fix on the
same standard for the admission of members. Mr. Daven-
port had the same right to his terms of conmiunion that
other men have to theirs. He thought too much caution
could not be used, where some persons might think very
little to be necessary. His own words are these: " The
officers and brethren of churches are but men, who judge
by outward appearance ; therefore, their judgment is fal-
lible, and hath been deceived, as in the reception of Ananias,
Sapphira, and Simon Magus. Their duty is to proceed as
far as possible by rule, with due moderation and gentleness,
to try those v/lio offer themselves to church fellowship,
whether they be true believers. And when they have done
all, hypocrites will creep in."+
Mr. Davenport continued at New Haven till the year
* Morse and Parish's Hist. p. 69, 11.
i Mather's Hist. b. iii. p. 54, 55.
1667, when bis fame was so great in all the churches, that
he was invited to Boston, even in tlie sixty-ninth year of
his a2:e, to succeed a Cotton, a Norton, and a Wilson. He
remaaicd in this new situation only till March 15, 1670,
when, by a fit of apoplexy, he was called to his everlasting
rest. He was seventy-two years old, and his remains were
interred in the same tomb Avilh those of Mr. Cotton. He
was a great scholar, an admirable preacher, and a man of
exemplary piety. He was so remarkably diligent in his
studies, th;it the Indians used to call him. The bis; sludy
man.* And even Archbishop Laud denominates him " a
most religious man, who fled to New England for the sake
of a good conscience.t He was a millenarian in sentiment,
being fully persuaded of Christ's personal reign upon the
earth for a thousand years. He was, nevertheless, one of the
greatest men that New England ever enjoyed. J Mr.
Oxenbridge, ejected in 1662, succeeded him as pastor of
the church at Boston.^
His Works. — 1. A Letter to the Dutch Classis, containing a just
Complaint against an unjust Doer, 1634. — 2. Certain Instructions
delivered to the Elders of the English Church deputed, which are to
be propounded to the Pastors of the Dutch Church in Amsterdam,
1634. — 3. A Report of some Passages or Proceedings about his Calling
to the English Church in Amsterdam, against John Paget, 1634. —
4, Allegations of Scripture against the Baptizing of some kind of
Infants, 1634. — 5. Protestation about the Publishing of his Writings,
1634.— 6. An Apologetical Reply to the Answer of W. B., (William
Bradshaw,) 1636. — 7. The Profession of the Faith of the Reverend
and Worthy Divine Mr. John Davenport, sometimes Preacher at
Stephen's, Coleman-Street, London : made publicly before the Con-
gregation at his Admission into one of the Churches of God in New
England, 1642. — 8. A Catechism containing the chief Heads of the
Christian Religion, 1659. — 9. The Saints Anchor-hold in all Storms
and Tempests, 1661. — 10. The Power of Congregational Churches
asserted and vindicated, 1672. — 11. An Essay for Investigation of the
Truth. — 12. Several Sermons and some other articles.
Charles Chauncey, B. D. — This learned divine was
the fifth and youngest son of George Chauncey, esq. ; born
at Yardley-Bury in Hertfordshire, in the year 1589,|| and
* Mather's Hist. p. 56. f Laud's Ans. to Lord Say's Speech, p. 47.
X Neal's Hist, of New Eng. vol. ii. p. 370.
% Palmer's Noncon. Slem. vol. i. p. 299.
II He is said to have been born in the year 1592. He was great uncle to
Sir Henry Chauncey, author of " The Historical Antiquities of Hertford-
shire;" and descended from a family which came to England with William
the Conqueror. — Biographia Britannica, vol. iii, p. 482—484. Edit. 177*
452 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
educated at Westminster school, then in Trinity college^
Cambridge ; where he took his degrees, was chosen Greek
lecturer, and fellow of the college. In the year 1627 he
became vicar of Ware, in his native county, and afterwards
minister at Marston-Iiawrence in Northamptonshire.* At
each of these places his labours were made a blessing to
many souls ; " for the hand of the Lord was with him, and
a great number believed and turned unto the Lord." Upon
the publication of the Book of Sports, under the direction
of Laud, Mr. Chauncey was prohibited preaching on the
Lord's day afternoon, that the people might have the better
opportunity ibr their profnne sporls. He then catechized
all, both old and 3'oung, who would come to him. " This,"
said the bishop, " was as bad as preaching JT^i^
Most of the puritan divines were now treated witli the
utmost cruelty. Bishop Laud was determined to bring
them to an exact conformity, or stop their mouths, or cast
them into prison, or drive thein out of the land. Mr.
Chauncey did not escape the vengeance of this tyrannical
prelate. In January, 1629, he was questioned in the liigli
commission court tor having used the following expressions
in his sermon : — " That idolatry was admitted ijito the
church ; that not only the prophets of Baal, but Baal
himself, was received, and houses multiplied for their en-
tertainment; and that the preaching of the gospel would
be suppressed. That there wanted men of courage to
remind their superiors of their neglect, and that there was
a great increase of atheism, heresy, popery, and arminianisni
in the church." To the charges founded upon these ex-
Eressions, Mr. Chauncey gave his answer upon oath in the
igli commission, in the month of April following. The
next day, the cause, by order of tlie court, was referred
to the decision of Bishop Laud. This was on condition,
that, if Mr. Chauncey did not submit to observe what the
bishop should appoint, his lordship might, if he pleased,
refer him back to be censured in the high commission. But
lie is said to have made his submission to the bishop.:):
This, however, was not the end of his troubles. For in
1635 he was again prosecuted in the high commission for
opposing the railing in of the communion table at Ware ;
when he was suspended, cast into prison, condemned in costs,
and obliged to mak© the following degrading recantation :
* Newcourt's Repert. Eccl. % ol. i, p. 904. — Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 94.
f Mather's Hist, of N«w Eng. b. iii. p. 134, 135.
J Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 362.— Rushworth's Coll€C. vol. ii. p. 34-.
" Whereas I, Charles Chnuncey, clerk, late vicar of
*' Ware, in the county of Hertford, stand, by sentence of
" this honourable court, legally convicted for opposirig the
*' setting of a rail about the communion table in the chnncel
" of the parish church of Ware, with a bench thereunto
" affixed, for the communicants to resort unto, and to
" receive the blessed sacrament there, kneeling upon their
" knees, saying it was an innovation, a snare to men's con-
*' sciences and a breach of the second commandment, an
*' addition to the Lord's worship, and that which hath
" driven me out of the town. I, the said Charles Chauncey,
" do here, before this honourable court, acknowledge my
*' great offence in using the said invective wortls, and am
" heartily sorry for them, I protest, and am ready to
*' declare by virtue of mine oath, that I now hold, and am
" persuaded in my conscience, that kneeling at the receiving
*' of the holy communion is a lawful and commendable
*' gesture; and that a rail set up in the chancel of any
*' cliurch by the authority of the ordinary, with a bench
*' thereunto affixed for the communicants to repair unto, to.
** receive the holy communion kneeling, is a decent and
" convenient ornament for tliat purpose, and this court
*' conceivethy that the rail set up lately in the parish church
" of Ware, with the bench affixed, is such a one. And I
" do further confess, that I was much to blame for opposing
" the same, and do promise, from henceforth, never, by
" word or deed, to oppose either that or any other the
" laudable rites and ceremonies prescribed and commanded
" Xo be used in the church of England.
" Charles Chauncey."*
This submission is said to have been forced from Mr.
Chauncey, and designed only to deter others from opposing
the archbishop's innovations. After he had made this dis-
graceful recantation in the open court, the archbishop
judicially admonished him " to carry himself peaceably
and conformably to the doctrine, the discipline, and rites
and ceremonies of the church of England ; and that, in case
he should be brought before them again for any similar
* This prosecution was procured chiefly by the tyrannical power and
influence of Laud; and when Dr, Merrick, counsel to Mr. Chauncey,
endeavoured to vindicate his client, because the setting up of the rail was
done by a few parishioners, and without any warrant from those in autho>
rity, the archbishop, in a rage, threatened to suspend the doctor from his
practice, for pleading thus in his favour. — Pnjnnc'i Cunt. Doome, p. 93,
S3, 06.— RushKortfi's Collect, vol. ii. p. 316.
454 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
offence, the court intended to proceed against him with all
severity ;" and so dismissed him.*
Though Mr. Cliauncey was overcome in the hour of
temptation ; and enforced, by the terrors and censures of
his cruel oppressors, to make the above recantation, he after-
wards felt the bitterness of it, and deeply bewailed his
sinful compliance. Though he obtained forgiveness of
God, he never forgave himself as long as he lived. He
often expressed a holy indignation against himself, as well as
the superstitious innovations in the church. He was a most
exemplary man, and lived a most holy life ; yet, at the time
of his death, nearly forty -years after, he made the follow-
ing humiliating declaration in his last will and testament : —
*' I do acknowledge myself to be a child of wrath, and sold
under sin, and one who hath been polluted with innumerable
transgressions and mighty sins ; which, as far as I know and
can call to remembrance, I keep still fresh before me, and
desire, with mourning and self-abhorrence, still to do, as
long as life shall last ; and especially my so many sinful
compliances with, and conformity unto, vile human inven-
tions, and will-worship, and hell-bred superstitions, and
other evil things patched to the service of God, with
"which the Er?f^iish mass-book, I mean the Book of Common
Prayer, is so fully fraught. "f Our author further observes,
that there were very few who suffered more for noncon-
formity, by fines, by jails, by necessities to abscond, and at
last by an exile from his native country.
At length he withdrew from these perils and tribulations
and went to New England, whc;re he arrived January 1,
1638. There he preached for some time, and with great
applause, at Plymouth ; and would have been chosen pastor
of the church, had not his peculiar sentiments hindered his
settlement. He was of opinion, " that the Lord's supper
ought to be administered in .the evening, and every Lord's
day; and that baptism ought only to be by dipping or
plunging the whole body imder water, whether in the case
of children or adults. "j Afterwards, he became pastor of
the church at Scituate, where he continued twelve years a
zealous and faithful labourer in the vineyard of the Lord.
At the time of his settlement, in his discourse to the con-
gregation, reflecting upon his sinful compliance with the
arbitrary and superstitious demands of the high commission,
* Prynne's Cant. Doome, p. 96, 494.
+ Mather's Hist, of New Kng. b. iii. p. 135.
J Backus's Hist, of New Eng. Bap. vol. i.p. 115, 145.
he said, with tears in his eyes, " Ahis ! my soul hath been
defiled with false worship ; and how wonderful is the free
grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, that I am still employed to
labour in his vineyard."*
When the episcopal power was destroyed in England,
a?id his friends at Ware invited him to return, he came as
far as Boston with a view of returning to England. There
he was interrupted by the overseers of Harvard college,
who, being very unwilling that the country should lose so
valuable a person, pressed him to accept the office of presi-
dent of the college, in the room of Mr. Henry Dunster,
removed for his antiptedobaptist sentiments. Mr. Chauncey
yielded to their earnest and repeated importunities, and
spent the rest of his days in the education of the youth of ,
the country. He contirmed his labours to the veiy last,
oven when his years and infirmities required a recess.
When he was desired to spare himself, he replied, " It
behoveth a general to die on the field ; and I should be glad
to die in the pulpit." However, finding himself at last
almost worn out, he delivered a farewell oration in the
college, in which he took his solemn leave of his friends,
and died February 19, 1671, aged seventy-two years, hav-
ing been president seventeen years. In his last sickness he
■was speechless ; but as the hour of his departure approached,
Mr. Urian Oakes, who had been praying with him, desired
him to give some sign of his assurance of future glory ;
wheji the speechless old man lifted up both his hands as high
as he could towards heaven, and then expired. He was a man
of most exemplary piety, an admirable preacher, an ex-
cellent scholar, and an indefatigable student, even in old
age. He rose at four o'clock in the morning, winter and
summer ; and after spending about an hour in his closet, he
visited the college, prayed with the students, expounded a
chapter out of the original Hebrew, and, in the evening,
prayed and expounded a chapter out of the Greek. His
natural temper was rather hasty and passionate, but, by
watchfulness and prayer, he was enabled to bring it into the
obedience of Christ. He had six sons, Isaac, Ichabod,
Barnabas, Nathaniel, Elnathan, and Israel, all ministers.t
His son Isaac was ejected by the Act of Uniformity, in 1662.$
Mr. Chauncey was author of " Sermons on Justification ;"
and " Antisynodalia Americana."
* Mather's Hist. p. 136. + Ibid. p. 136—140,
:}: Palmer's Noncon. Mem. Tol. iii. p. 380. ^
456 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
John Allen. — This very pious divine was born in the
year 1596, and educated, probably, in the university of
Cambridge. He was a hard student, a good scholar, an
excellent prcaciier, a •y'rave and pious diviiie, and a man ot
a most humble, heavenly, and couvieous behaviour, lull of
sweet christian love to ail ; eariiesJly, and with much meek-
ness of spirit, contending- for the faith and peace of Christ.
All these excellencies, however, were insufficient to screen
him from the persecutions of the times. Though it does
not with certainty appear at what place he was settled,
after his removal from the university, he bore his share of
sufferings with the holy and ze.ilous puritans of those times.
A divine of his name, and probably the same person, was
minister at Ipswich, who, during the oppressions of Bishop
Wren, voluntarily departed from his cure, and went to
London.* Having no pros])ect of better days, or of enjoy-
ing rest from persecution, he went, with many others, to
New England, Avhere he arrived about the year 1637.
Soon after his arrival he was chosen pastor of the church
of Ded ham, where he continued, much beloved and very
useful, all the rest of his days. He died greatly lamented,
August 2G, 167 J, aged seventy-five years. His flock pub-
lished his last two sermons ; the one from Cant. viii. 5.,
Who is this that cometh up from the wilderness^ leaning on
her beloved: and the other from John xiv. 22., Peace
J leave with you. In their preface to these sermons, written
with tears of grief, they denominate him " a constant, faith-
ful, diligent steward in the house of God, a man of peace
and truth, and a burning and shining light." He published
<' A Defence of the Nine Positions;" and " A Discourse in
Defence of the Synod held at Boston in the year 1662."
He, with the assistance of Mr. Thomas Shepard, wrote upon
" Church-reformation. "+
Thomas Grantham was a faithful and laborious minis-
ter of Christ, born in the year 1634. He feared the Lord
from his youth, and, about the age of nineteen, he joined
the baptist church at Boston in Lincolnshire. Having
obtained favour of the Lord, he had a good reputation in
the church of God, and soon discovered his abilities for
making known the gospel to others. In the prosecution of
« Wren's Parentalia, p. 96.
+ HiRt. of New EDg. p. 115, 125.— Mather's Hist, of New Eng. b, iii.
p. 132, 133.
J. ALLEN—GRANTIIAM. 457
his work he had the honour to be classed among the ^
sufferers for Christ and his cause ; for he soon became tiiq
object of cruel persecution, and was cast into Lincoln jail,
where he continued some time, during which period he
wrote his fir^t piece, entitled, " The Prisoner against the
Prelate." This book contains the reasons of his separation
from the, church of England; and, though it is written ia
verse, the argument is said to be close and nervous.
Crosby says, there is extant a manuscript of Mr. Gran-
tham's, entitled, " Christianitas restaurata, or Christianity
restored ;" from which it appears, that, about the year 1644,