Cambridge, where he maintained, in a public disputation,
that Christ, at his death, did not descend locally into hell.
He also observed, that for ministers to hold two or more
livings was unlawful ; by which he gave great offence to the
He had a prebend in the church of
Norwich, and was minister at Bedford; but, in 157o, was
deprived by the Bishop of Lincoln. Having received his
lordship's sentence, he made complaint to the court, which
occasioned the bishop some trouble.** In the year 1577,
Mr. Chapman, and several of his brethren, fell into the
hands of Bisbop Aylmer, who recommended, as a just
punishment for theuo nonconformity, that they should be
sent into the most barbarous, parts of the kingdom, where
* Strvpe's Parker, p. 412, 413. + Ibid. p. 466,
i MS. Regisfer, p. 3i0, 665. -. - fo-r ''~
^ Wood's AfhoDie Oxon. vol. i. p. 694, 722. . ir". 'i .yl..,it
H Stripe's Grindal, p. 197— 199. 1 Strype's AnnalSjTOl.it p, 58S.
** Stripe's Parker, p. 449.
tliey might be profitably employed in reclaiming the people
from ignorance and popery. This he recommended, not
becanse he liked them, but because he wished to get rid of
Ralph Lever, A. M. was educated in King's college,
Cambridge, and afterwards archdeacon of Northumberland,
but he resigned this preferment in 1573, when he was suc-
ceeded by Mr. Francis Bunney.t In 1577 he succeeded
his brother, the celebrated Mr. Thomas Lever, as master of
Sherborn hospital, near Durham. He was one of the canons
in the church of Durham, and deeply concerned in drawing
up the articles against Mr. Whittingham, whom he most
probably succeeded in the office of dean.J He is, notwith-
standing this, denominated a puritan. His assertions con-
cerning the canon law, the English papists, and the eccle-
siastical affairs of this realm, are still preserved.^ One of
the same name was rector of Snatterton in Norfolk, in 1588,
where his remains were interred, June 3, l605 ; but whether
this was the same person is perhaps doubtful. ||
William Drewet was committed to Newgate by the
bishops, in 1580, for not consenting, it is said, to the traditions
and filthy ceremonies of antichrist. He was of opinion, that
men could not worship God in spirit and in truth, so long as
they maintained human traditions, worldly ordinances, and
popish ceremonies. How long he remained in prison we
are not able to learn.if
John Nash, a zealous puritan minister, was committed
prisoner to the Marshalsea for nonconformity. From the
prison he wrote a bold letter, dated January, 1580, to the
bishops and clergy in convocation. In this letter, a copy of
which is still preserved, he styles himself The Lord's Pri-
soner, and boldly exposes the manifold errors and corruptions
of the established church.**
* Strype's Aylmer, p. 55, 56.
+ Wood's Athenae, vol. i. p. 356, 671.
i Slrype's Parker, p. 275.
^ Slrype's Annals, vol. i. p. 319. ii. 514.
II Blomefield's Hist, of Norfolk, vol. i, p. 285.
f MS. Register, p. 289. * * Ibid. p. 291— 29S.
508 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
Mr. Evans, a worthy and conscientious minister, was
presented by the Earl of Warwick to the vicarage of
Warwick ; but Dr. Whitgift, then bishop of Worcester, re-
fused his allowance. When the worthy earl sent him to his
grace, requesting that he might be admitted with a favourable
subscription, the bishop said, " O, I know you, Mr. Evans,
to be worthy of a better place than Warwick. I would very
gladly gratify my lord ; but there is a Lord in heaven whom
I fear ; and, therefore, I cannot admit you without subscrip-
tion." Though the good man offered to subscribe in all
points as far as the law required, the bishop would not admit
him, unless he would enter into bonds to observe all things in
the Book of Common Prayer. Upon this, Mr. Evans boldly
addressed him, saying, " Will the law then permit you thus
to play the tyrant, bishop ? I shall see a premunire upon you
one day for these pranks."*
Richard Prowd was a puritan minister of Burton-upon-
Dunmore. In the year 1580 he wrote a very affecting letter
to Lord Burleigh, giving a melancholy account of the state
of religion, produced by the suppression of the religious
exercises; and by forbidding ministers and others meeting
together, to pray for the preservation of the protestant reli-
gion in so dangerous a crisis as the present, when there was
a prospect of the queen's marriage with a papist. H«
expressed his doubts to his lordship whether he dealt so
plainly with her majesty as the importance and his know-
ledge of these things required, and warmly urged him to
interpose in the present aiarming crisis. But it does not
appear what effect this letter produced.t
John Hooke was minister at Wroxall in Warwickshire,
but was suspended in 1583 for nonconformity. This was
doubtless for refusing subscription to Whitgift's three articles.
He continued a long time under the ecclesiastical sentence,
and whether he was ever restored is rather doubtful. His
annual stipend was only 5l. Qs. Srf.f
• MS. Chronology, vol. i. p. 328. (8.)
t Strype's Annals, vol. ii, p. 600. Appen. p. 22.
t MS. Register, p. 744.
Joseph Nicholls was minister in Kent, a laborious and
faithful servant of Clirist, endowed with great piety and rich
ministerial accomplishments. In 1583 he was suspended for
refusing subscription to Whitgift's three articles, when he
united with his brethren, the ministers of Kent, in addressing
the archbishop for relief.* He is styled " the ringleader of
John Harrison was vicar of Histon in Cambridgeshire,
and a conscientious nonconformist. For refusing subscrip-
tion to Whitgift's articles he was twice warned, by virtue of his
canonical obedience, to subscribe, but he still refused. In
the end, when sentence should have been inflicted upon him,
the commission was called in ; and so he continued vicar of
Histon, without observing the order of the Book of Common
William Fleming was rector of Beccles in Suffolk, but
because he could not, with a good conscience, subscribe to
Whitgift's articles, he endured frequent molestation in the
ecclesiastical courts, and at length, July 23, 1584, was sus-
pended and deprived by Bishop Scambler. This is attested
by Richard Skinner, the bishop's register.^
James Goswell was a puritan minister of considerable
«minence, most probably at Bolton in Lancashire, who cor-
responded with the venerable Mr. Anthony Gilby, of Ashby-
de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire. Two of his letters we have
seen ; and though they are without date, they were evidently
written about the year 1584. In the latter, written from
Bolton, he says, " I have no news to write out of this county.
Here are great store of Jesuits, seminaries, masses, and
plenty of whoredom. The first sort our sheriff courseth
pretty well. Other good news is, that the Bishop of Can-
terbury has not yet, God be thanked, stung us with his
articles, which in the south parts have so great power, that,
by report, they have quenched the Lord's lights nearly to
the number of two hundred."^
* See Art. Dudley Fenner.
+ MS, Register, p. S89.— Strype's Whitgift, p. 140.
J Baker's MS. Collcc. vol. xii. p. 211. ^ MS. Regiittr, p. 585,586.
I Baker's MS. Collec. toI. nxii. p.tS6, 437.
510 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
John Hopkins was the puritanical vicar of Nasing in
Essex, to which he was preferred in 1570, but was after-
wards persecuted for nonconformity. About the year 1584
he was deprived of his benefice, for refusing subscription to
Whitgift's three articles.*
Thomas Farrar, minister of Langham in Essex, was
charged with rebellion against the ecclesiastical laws, and
suspended by Bishop's Aylmer's chancellor for not wearing
the surplice. On receiving the ecclesiastical censure, he
procured a letter from certain respectable persons, addressed
to the bishop himself, soKciting his favour and the removal of
the sentence. This letter he carried to his lordship at
Fulham, November 14, 1586; when, after demanding his
reasons for not wearing the surplice, he said to Mr. Farrai ,
*' that except he and his companions would be confonnable,
he and his brethren the bishops, in good faith, would, in
one quarter of a year, turn them all out of the church ;"
and dismissed him without relieving him from his sus-
John Oxenbridge, B.D. was minister at Southam ia
AVarwickshire, and afterwards at Coventry, where he was
celebrated for his great learning, piety, and usefulness. In
1576 he was convened before the high conunission for non-
conformity ; but it does not appear what punishment was
inHicted upon him.t About the year 1583 he was again
called before his ecclesiastical judges, and suspended from
his ministry. He was one of the heads of the associations ;
he subscribed the " Book of Discipline ;" and ended hii
days among his friends at Coventry .§
Mr. Harsnet was a learned and pious divine of Pem-
broke-hall, Oxford, but was persecuted for nonconformity.
In the year 1586 he was convened before the Bishop of
Oxford, and cast into prison for refusing to wear the surplice.;
but how long he remained under confinenaent we cannot
* NewcDurt's Repert. Eccl. vol. ii. p. 432.
f MS. Register, p. 800, 805. t Strype's Grindal, p. 215.
(j Clark's Lives annexed to Martyrologie, p. 161. — Neal's Puritaiit,
vol. i. p. 423. II MS. Register, p. 801.
Nicholas Williamson was minister of Castle-Ashby
in Northamptonshire, but was suspended in the year 1586
for refusing subscription to Whitgift's three articles. He
continued a long time under the sentence ; and whether he
was ever restored is uncertain.*
Mr. Gibson was rector of Ridlhigton in Rutlandshire,
but often convened before the Bishop of Peterborough, and,
about the year 1586, deprived of his living for refusing sub-
scription to Whitgift's articles. Being driven from his flock
and his benefice, he went to London, and entered a suit
against the bishop ; but with what success we have not been
able to learn. Indeed, he had not much prospect of success
in contending with one of the persecuting prelates. Mr.
Wilkinson and Mr. \\' ilbloud, two other ministers in the same
county, were at the same time both suspended, when their
livings were sequestered, and they were threatened with
deprivation. But, laying their case before Sir Thomas
Cecil, their worthy patron, he went himself to the arch-
bishop, and procured an order to the bishop for their re-
Mr. Horrocks, a worthy divine of puritan principles,
was vicar of Kildwick in the West Riding of Yorkshire. In
the year 1587 he was convened before the high commission
of York, committed prisoner to the castle, and, having con-
tinued there for some time, was enjoined a public recantation,
for the singular crime of suffering Mr. John Wilson, another
puritan minister, to preach in his pulpit, though it was his
Sampson Sheffield, A.M. of Christ's college, Cam-
bridge, was one of the preachers to the university. Having
delivered a sermon, in the year 1587, containing certain
erroneous and scandalous positions, as they are called, he was
convened before his ecclesiastical judges, though it does not
appear what punishment was inflicted upon him. These
positions were the following : — " That it is unlawful for a
minister of the gospel to be a civil magistrate. — That in the
present troubles about confonnity, brethren conspire against
* MS. Register, p. gOS. t Ibid. p. 714. t Ibid. p. 7fi7.
512 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
brethren. — And he denounced a woe agahist him who had
lately put out some lights that were used to shine in
Richard Gardiner was a puritan divine of considerable
repute in the university of Cambridge; who, in 1583, united
with other learned divines in warmly requesting Mr. Cart-
wright to answer the Rhemist Translation of the New Tes-
tament. In 1587 he often met with the nonconformists at their
private assemblies in London, Cambridge, and other places. f
It does not appear whether he was any relation to Mr. John
Gardiner, another puritan divine.
Mr. Kendal was a learned and peaceable divine, of a
holy life and conversation, and one of the public readers in the
university of Oxford ; but he could not in conscience sub-
scribe and observe the ceremonies, yet he refrained from
speaking against them. He was, therefore, suspended by
Archbishop Whitgift. The lord treasurer interceded with
the archbishop for his restoration, in a letter dated April 21,
1590, in which he speaks of Mr. Kendal in terms of the
highest commeiidation, and earnestly prays his grace to
restore him to his ministerial exercise, at least till he was
found guilty of disturbing the peace of the church. " But,"
our author adds, " I do not find what success he had witii
the archbishop. "t
EzEKiEL CuLVERWELL, edycated in Emanuel college,
Cambridge, was some time rector of Stambridge in Essex,^
and afterwards vicar of Felsted in the same county. When
in the latter situation he was prosecuted for nonconformity.
In the year 1583 he was suspended by Bishop Aylmer, for,
not wearing the surplice. || He was a man of great piety
and excellent ministerial abilities, and instrumental in the
conversion of the celebrated Dr. William Gouge, when a boy
at school. His sister was the doctor's mother .S He is classed
♦ Strype's Annals, vol. iii. p. 489, 490.
+ MS. Chronology, vol. i. p. 419, (1 | 3.)
t Strype's Whitgift, p. 342.
' ^ Newcourfs Kepert. Eccl, vol. ii. p. 542. |j MS. Register, p. 694.
i Clark's Lives anaexed to Martyrologie, p. 334.
among the learned writers of Emanuel college;* and was
author of" A Treatise of Faith," 1633 ; also, " A ready Way
to Remember the Scriptures," l637-
Mr. Bernhere was fellow in the university of Cam-
bridge, where he received his education. He, like many of
his puritanical brethren, scrupled the episcopal ordination of
the national church, and went abroad, when he was ordained
in one of the foreign reformed churches. About the year
1590, his claim to his fellowship was disputed in the univer-
sity, because he was not a minister according to the church
of England; but it does not appear whether he suffered
deprivation. Upon his appearance before the governing
ecclesiastics, Mr. Alvey very zealously defended his cause,
and boldly maintained, that he was as good a minister as any
there present. +
George Newton was the puritan minister at Barnwell
in Northamptonshire. He never wore the surplice, nor
used the cross in baptism, nor allowed the use of the ring in
marriage, nor would he permit the oldest of his parishioners
to come to the Lord's supper till they had passed his examina-
tion. Mr. Newton having spoken in a public discourse on
the afflictions of the righteous, observed, that the proceedings
of the bishops in the suspension of worthy ministers were
tyrannical ; for which he was accused to those in authority.
\Vhen he appeared before his superiors, and was required to
explain his meaning, he said that he meant this of aiitichristian
John Allison was fellow in the university of Cambridge,
and afterwards minister at the place mentioned in the last
article, but was suspended in 13B3, for refusing subscription
to VVhitgift's articles. He afterwards served the cure of
Horningsheath in Suffolk, where he was again suspended by
Dr. Legg ; and it is added, that, although he was in neither
case absolved, he still continued to preach .§
* Fuller's Hist, of Cam. p. 147.
f Baker's MS. Collec. vol. xii. p. 210. t Ibid. p. 211. § lb>d'
VOL. HI. 2 L
514 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
William Bourne was fellow in the above university;
but, upon his entrance into the ministerial office, he scrupled
subscription to Whitgift's articles. He sought to be ordained
by the Bishop of Chester, but without success, because he
could not in conscience subscribe. He then waited upon
his lordship of Peterborough, and was in like manner repelled.
At last he made application to the Bishop of St. Asaph, when
it seems he gained admittance without subscribing to. what
he did not believe. The following persons, all fellows in the
university of Cambridge, were nonconformable to the orders
of the church : Mr. Thomas Bindes, Mr. James Crowther,
Mr. William Peachy, Mr. John Cupper, and Mr. Sparke.*
William Smythurst was beneficed at Sherrington in
Buckinghamshire ; but was convened before the high com-
mission, and deprived of his living on account of his noncon-
formity. This was about the year 1595, when the Earl of
Essex, his great iViend, repeatedly applied to the lord keeper
for his restoration, but apparently without the least success.
In one of these applications, he affirms, that Mr. Smythurst
had by various methods been molested, and wrongfully pur-
sued, by the governing ecclesiastics.t
Mr. Aberster, the puritanical minister of Gosberton in
Lincolnshire, was tried in the year 1596, at the public assizes
before Judge Anderson, who treated him with great cruelty.
He had some years before been a great suffi^rer in the high
commission at Lambeth, by silencing, deprivation, and othe*-
ecclesiastical censures, but was afterwards pardoned and
restored. Being accused of the same things before Ander-
son, he was treated w'orse than a dog; and the good man
could not obtain his release without entering into bonds and
suffering other grievances. t
Mr. B. Bridger was a poor persecuted nonconformist
minister; who, March 31, l6o3, presented a petition to the
house of commons, complaining of the tyrannical proceed-
ings of the ruling ecclesiastics, and praying for a redress of
his grievances ; which was no sooner read than he was
immediately sent a prisoner to the Tower. Being pressed
» Baker's MS. Collec. vol. xii. p. 211. + Ibid. vol. xv. p. 179.
J Strype's Annals, vol. iv, p. 266, 267.
at his examination to confess whether any otiier persons
were concerned in this petition, he refused to answer ; lest,
as he said, he should bring others into trouble as well as
himself. His petition is entered in the commons' journal.*
Thomas Newhouse, B. D. was educated in Christ's
college, Cambridge, and chosen fellow of the house. He
afterwards became minister of St. Andrew's church, Nor-
wich, where he proved himself to be a learned and pious
divine. Being, it is supposed, in some trouble for noncon-
formity, he sent his '* Theses about Things Inditt'erent," to
Bishop Jegon, his diocesan, in I6O6. He was author of a
volume of Sermons, published in 16 14.+ One T. N. wrote
an " Account of Church Discipline," and an " Answer to the
Archbishop's tM'enty-one Articles," copies of which are still
preserved. This was probably the same person. |
Thomas Edmunds, B.D. was a puritan minister of dis-
tinguished eminence, and a person of great moderation. He
was a member of the presbytery erected at Wandsworth in
1573 ; § and about the same time he was cast into prison, it is
said, " for the testimony of the truth."|| Afterwards he sub-
scribed the " Book of Discipline." Being convened before
the high commission and the star-chamber, in 1590, he took
the oath ex officio, and discovered the associations.! In the
year 1585 he became rector of Alhallows, Bread-street,
London, which he kept to the end of his days. He died at
a very great age, towards the close of the year 16 10. Mr.
Richard Stock, another worthy puritan, was his assistant
while he lived, and his successor when he died.**
Stephen Goughe, A. B. of Magdalen college, Oxford,
but afterwards the puritanical rector of Stanmer in Essex.
According to Wood, " he was a good logician, and an
excellent disputant, but a very severe puritan." He was
eminent for training up several famous scholars, among
* MS. Remarks, p. 551. + MS. Chronology, vol. ii. p. 657. (10.)
X MS. Register, p 423, 417. § Fuller's Church Hist. b. ix. p. lO.S.
n Baker's MS. CoUec. vol. xxxii. p. 442.
11 Banrrofi's Dangcroub Pobitions, p. 77.
♦* Newcourt's Repcrt, Eccl. vol. i. p. 246. — Clark's Litei annexed to
Martyr, p. 62.
516 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.
whom was Dr. Robert Harris, another puritan divine, and
some time president of Trinity college, Oxford. Mr. Goughe
was living in I6IO.*
Robert Cleaver was minister at Drayton in Oxford-
shire, bat silenced by Archbishop Bancroft for nonconfor-
mity, in' the year 1571, Mr. Thomas Merburie of Christ's
college, Cambridge, left a legacy in his last will and testament
*' to that grave and learned man, Mr. Cleaver."+ He was a
most pious, excellent, and useful preacher. Mr. Clark styles
him ^' a godly minister, a bright shining star, and a ver\ able
teximan."t He died about tlie year l6l3.§ He was author
of " An Exposition on the last chapter of Proverbs." Mr.
Cleaver and Mr. Dod were joint authors of " An Exposition
on the ten Commandments," for which they were usually
called deculogisis. They iilso published " The Patrimony of
Christian Children," containing a defence of infant-baptism^
with some strictures on the sentiments of the baptists.^
Robert Mandevill, A. M. was'born in Cumberland, iu
the year 1578, and educated first in Queen's college, then at
Edmund's-hall, Oxford. In the year IG07, he was elected
vicar of Abby Holm in his native county. Although ho
met with great opposition in this place, yet, by his zealous
and frequent preaching, his exemplary and pious life, he was
successful in propagating the gospel. He shewed himself a
zealous enciiiy .'o popery and all profaneness. He dissuaded
his parishioners irom keeping markets on the Lord's day, and
from the observation of profane sports. According to Wood,
*' he was accounted a great man, a hard student, a laborious
preacher, a zealous and religious puritan." He died at
Abby Holm in 1,6 18, aged forty years. He was author of
" Timothy's Task, being two Sermons preached in two
synodical Assemblies at Carlisle," 1G19; and "Theological
John Wilkinson, denominated an ancient and stout
separatist,^! was a great sutferer for nonconformity. He was
* Wood's Athenae Oxon. vol. i. p. 888. ii. 171.
+ Baker's MS. Collec. vol. iii. p. 314.
J Clark's Lives annexed to Martyr, p. 318, 319.
§ Wood's Athenas, vol. i. p. 457.
|] Ibid. p. 375. 5 Jessop's Errors of Anabaptisni, p. 77. Edit, 1623,
author of a work entitled, " An Exposition of the xiii. chap,
of the Revelations of Jesus Christ," l6l9- This canie out
after his death, in which the publisher observes, that it was
the author's desire and purpose to have published a work
upon the wiiole of Revelation, but was prevented through
the malice of the prelates, who several times spoiled him of
his goods, and kept him many years in prison. A minister
of the same name was A. M. and rector of Babcary in
Somersetshire, in the year 1387 ; but whether he was the
same person it is difficult to say.*
John Morton was one of Mr. John Smyth's disciples
at Amsterdam, from whom he received baptism by immersion.
He afterwards came to England, was a zealous preacher of
the sentiments of the general baptists, and a sufferer in the
cause of nonconformity. He was contemporary with Mr.
Helwisse, and a popular preacher in the city of London. f
He is supposed to have been the author of a book entitled,
" Truth's Champion," a work in high repute among those
of his own persuasion. t
Mr. Hubbard was a learned divine, and episcopally
ordained, but afterwards he separated from the church of
England. A congregation of separatists having been formed
in Southwark, London, in the year 1621, he was chosen to
the office of pastor. The pastor and members of this
church resolving afterwards upon a removal, most probably
on account of the oppressions of persecution, accom-
panied him to Ireland, where he died. Having lost their
pastor, they returned to their native country, and settled in
the vicinity of London, choosing the famous Mr. John
Canne for their pastor .§
JoiiN Yates, B. D. was fellow of Emanuel college,
Cambridge, and afterwards minister of St. Andrew's in the
city of ISlorwich.il About the year l625, Dr. Montague
having published his Appello ad Cces(trem, declaring himself
in favour of arminiamsm, and making dangerous advances
towards popery, Mr. Yates answered it in a work entitled,
* Wood's Atbenje, vol. i. p. 816. + Bailie's Anabaptism, p. 93.
X Crosby's Baptists, vol. i. p. 276—278. ^ Ibid. p. 163, 164.
(] Wood's Athenas Oxen. vol. i. p. 442.
518 LIVES OF THE PURITANS.