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William Penn.



PENNSYLVANIA:
A PRIMER

By BARR FERREE

Secretary of The Pennsylvania Society




NEW YORK

Leonard Scott Publication Company
MCMIV






LIBRfiRY '^' CONGRIiSS
Two Oooies Secetved

JUN 29 1904
-v CoDyrljrht Entry

CLASS H- XXo.



No.



S' i J L

COPY B



Copyright, 1904.
By Barr Ferree.



PREFACE

The following pages have been prepared to present, in the most
concise form possible, the essential facts of Pennsylvania history.
Intended to serve as a summary of Pennsylvania affairs, available
for the busy man searching for facts only, the narrative form has
been abandoned, and the text arranged in paragraphs, which, in their
turn, are gathered together into related chapters.

In an elementary text book, such as this is designed to be, little
display of original research can be expected ; but the author believes
the plan and scope of the book to be new, and trusts it sufficiently
covers the subject to have genuine usefulness.

No history of the State can be intelligible which ignores its
geography, its geology, its political divisions, its government. His-
tory is best understood by comparing the past with the environment
of the present. Considerable space is, therefore, given to summar-
izing the present form of government in Pennsylvania and related
topics, subjects that ordinarily would be omited from a book of this
size and which give it a broader scope than a history alone, and being
presented in an eminently elementary manner, justify the title
"Primer" which has been chosen as descriptive of the book.

The Author's heartiest thanks are due to a number of gentlemen
who have kindly aided him in sundry special matters. And first of
all he must acknowlelge his heavy obligations to Dr. Julius F.
Sachse, whose keen advice and profound knowledge of Pennsylvania
history and bibliography have been most helpful. Dr. Sachse has
also aided in the illustrations and has loaned a number of cuts from
his remarkable monographs on the Pennsylvania-Germans. Mr.
David McNeely Stauffer has rendered much valuable aid and has
permitted free access to his great collection of illustrative material
and has contributed many of his own drawings to the adornment of
the Primer. Messrs. James M. Beck, Hampton L. Carson, William
U. Hensel, M. Hampton Todd and S. Raymond Roberts have kindly
furnished special suggestions to the author. His thanks are also due
Mr. Thomas Lynch Montgomery, State Librarian of Pennsylvania,
for the use of a number of cuts of seals and arms. Mr. Alva Burton
Konkle has permitted the reproduction of two interesting maps of



4 PREFACE

Pennsylvania counties compiled by himself, from his valuable Life
and Times of Thomas Smith. The Site and Relic Society of Ger-
mantown has also permitted the use of two cuts from The Guide
to Historic Germantozvn by Mr, Charles F. Jenkins. Dr. Gregory
B. Keen, Curator of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, has per-
mitted the reproduction of his interesting map of New Sweden, and
Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. have supplied an illustration from
Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America and from Fiske's
Critical Period of American History. Thanks are also due Henry
Wharton Shoemaker, Esq., for help in reading the proofs, and to
the Publication Committee of the Pennsylvania Society, Henry F.
Shoemaker, Esq., Chairman, for rendering possible the publication
of the book, which, having appeared in the Year Book of the Society
for 1904, is also issued in separate form by its permission.



CONTENTS

CHAPTER I.

PAGE

Chronology 17

1. Chronological Summary 17

CHAPTER n.

Description 30

2. Physical Features 30

3. Geology 31

4- Title 31

5. State Divisions 32

6. Cities and Towns 37

7. Capital of the State 44

8. Counties 44

CHAPTER ni.

Early History 53

9. First Grants 53

10. Discovery and First Settlements 53

11. The Swedes on the Delaware 56

12. The Dutch on the Delaware 59

13. Early English Settlements 60

CHAPTER IV.

Penn and the Province 62

14. William Penn 62

15. Penn's Family 69

16. The Holy Experiment of Pennsylvania 70

17. The Royal Charter 72

18. Frames of Government 74

19. The Great Law 78

20. The Proprietaryship and the Province 78

21. The Province and the Penn Family 80

22. Provincial and Home Government 82

23. Attempts to Abolish the Proprietaryship 83



6 CONTENTS

PAGE

24. Legislative Growth : Provincial Period 84

25. Religious Tests 87

26. The Lower Counties : Delaware 89

CHAPTER V.

The Elements of Population 92

27. Elements of Population 92

28. Quakers 92

29. Welsh 98

30. Germans 98

31. Moravians 102

32. Scotch-Irish and Presbyterians 103

33. Episcopalians 104

CHAPTER VL

The Indians 105

34. Indians in Pennsylvania 105

35. Indian Purchases 1 16

36. The Friendly Association 117

CHAPTER VII.

Boundary Adjustments 118

37. The Maryland Boundary 118

38. Dispute with Connecticut 121

39. Dispute with Virginia 126

40. Northern Boundary 128

41. Delaware Boundary 129

42. Eastern Boundary 130

CHAPTER VIII.

The Governors of Pennsylvania 131

43. The Governors of Pennsylvania 131

A. Colonial Period, 1614-1618 131

B. Provincial Period, 1681-1776 133

C. Governors During the Revolution, 1 776-1 790 142

D. Governors of the Commonwealth, from 1790 146

44. Political Parties 162

45. Party Votes for Governor 166



CONTENTS 7
CHAPTER IX.

PAGE

The Revolution 170

46. Change from Proprietary to State Government 170

47. The Beginnings of the Revolutionary War 172

48. Pine Creek Declaration of Independence 174

49. The Revolutionary War 176

50. After the Revolution 188

51. The Pennsylvania Navy 189

CHAPTER X.

The Land, Money and Credit, Taxation, Industries, Ways

OF Communication 191

52. The Division of the Land 191

53. Depreciation Lands 194

54. Donation Lands 196

55. Westsylvania 198

56. Reservations in the Northwest 198

57. Manors 200

58. The Certified Townships 200

59. Money and Credit 201

60. Taxation 203

61. Industrial Development 204

62. W^ays of Communication : Indian Trails, Roads, Canals,

Railroads 208

CHAPTER XI.

War in Pennsylvania 213

63. Military Afifairs in the Provincial Period 213

64. Frontier Forts 214

65. The Civil War 216

CHAPTER XII.

Miscellaneous 221

66. The Judicial System 221

A. Provincial Period 221

B. Present System 223

67. Slavery 225

68. Education 228



8 CONTENTS

PAGE

. 69. Naturalization 232

70. Pennsylvania and the National Constitution 233

71. The Post 237

^2. The State Seal 237

73. The State Arms 237

74. The State Flag 239

CHAPTER XIII.

Government 241

75. State Constitutions 241

76. State Officers 243

yy. General Assembly 244

78. Local Government 247

A. Provincial Period 247

B. Present System 248

Index 249



ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Portrait of William Penn Frontispiece

From the original oil painting in the Historical Society of
Pennsylvania,
Portrait of Benjamin Franklin 17

From the rare engraving by L. C. de Carmontelle.
Pennsylvania Arms, 1823 29

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.
Pennsylvania Arms, 1778 32

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.
Map of Virginia, Nev^ Albion and Sv^eeds Plantation,

1651 32

Compiled by "Domina Virginia Farrer." Published in
London in 165 1.
Pennsylvania Arms, 1805 33

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.
Pennsylvania Arms, 1809 34

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902,
Pennsylvania Arms, 1820 35

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.
Seal of Philadelphia County, 1683 36

Adopted by resolution of March 23, 1683. Drawn by D.
McN. Stauffer,
Seal of City of Philadelphia, 1701 38

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.
Chew House, Germantown, 1760 39

From C. F. Jenkins : The Guide Book to Historic German-
town, Germantown, 1902.
Morris House, Germantown, 1772-1773 40

From C. F. Jenkins: The Guide Book to Historic German-
tozvn, Germantown, 1902.
Sketch Map of Fort Duquesne 41

From the Royal Magazine, London, 1759. From a print in
the collection of D. McN. Stauffer.
Seal of Germantown, 1691 42

From J. F. Sachse: The Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897.



10 ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Map of Counties and County Seats in Pennsylvania 45

Drawn by G. A. Skrzyneki.

Pennsylvania Counties in 1771 46

Compiled by Burton Alva Konkle ; from his Life and Times
of Thomas Smith, i/4j-i8op, Philadelphia, 1904. Copy-
right, 1903.

Pennsylvania Counties in 1772-1773 48

Compiled by Burton Alva Konkle ; from his Life and Times
of Thomas Smith, i/4ยง-i8op, Philadelphia, 1904. Copy-
right, 1903.

Keen's Map of New Sweden between 1638 and 1655 48

From original drawing by Gregory B. Keen.

Seal of Chester County, 1683 49

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.

Seal of Philadelphia, 1683 51

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.

Visscher's Map of New Sweden, 1651 54

From Campanius: Nye Swerigo, Stockholm, 1702.
Fac-simile of Title Page of Campanius's Indian Cate-
chism 55

Translated in 1646 and published in Stockholm in 1696.
From J. F. Sachse: The Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897,
after the original in the Historical Society of Penn-
sylvania.

Autograph of William Usselinx 56

Lindstrom's Map of New Sweden, 1654-1655 57

From Campanius: Nye Swerigo, Stockholm, 1702.

Autograph of Peter Minuit 58

Autograph of Johan Printz 58

Campanius's Map of the Atlantic Colonies 61

From Campanius : Nye Szverigo, Stockholm, 1702.
Baptismal Record of William Penn, All Hallows

Church, Barking, London 62

From a photograph of the Parish Register.
Title Page of Penn's Manuscript Journal of his Journey

into Holland and Germany 63

From J. F. Sachse: The Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897.



ILLUSTRATIONS ii

PAGE

High (now Market) Street, Philadelphia 64

From The Stranger in America, London, 1807. From a
print in the collection of D. McN. Stauffer.
Fac-simile of Title Page of Penn's "Some Account of the

Province" 65

Published in London in 1681. From J. F. Sachse: The
Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897.

Map of Philadelphia by Thomas Holme, 1700 66

Published in London, 1700.

Map of Pennsylvania, 1698 67

From Gabriel Thomas : Account of Pennsylvania, London,
1698.
Tombstone of William Penn and Hannah Penn, Jordan's

Meeting House, England 69

Drawn by Horace Moran from a rubbing.

Armorial Bearings of the Penn Family 71

Drawn by D. McN. Stauffer.
Fac-simile of Title Page of Penn's Frame of Government,

1682 75

Published in London, 1682. From J, F. Sachse: The
Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897.

Fac-simile of Signatures to Frame of Government y6

Arms of Penn 79

Portrait of Thomas Penn 80

From the original oil painting in the Historical Society of
Pennsylvania.

Proprietary Seal of William Penn 81

Drawn by D. McN. Stauffer.

Map of Pennsylvania, 1730 85

From David Humphreys : An Historical Account of the In-
corporated Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in
Foreign Parts, London, 1730.

Proprietary Seal of Pennsylvania 87

Receipt and Seal of the Society of Free Traders, 1682. ... 88
Organized in London to develop a tract of 20,000 acres in
Pennsylvania to be known as the Manor of Frank.
Drawn by D. McN. Stauffer.

Arms of Lord de la Warr 90

Drawn bv D. McN. Stauffer.



12 ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Seal of the Lower Counties^ 1751 91

Drawn by D. McN. Stauffer.

Map of Colonial Pennsylvania 93

Drawn by G. A, Skrzyneki.
Fac-simile of Title Page of German Translation of
Penn's "Some Account of the Province."
Published in Amsterdam, 1681. From J. F. Sachse: The
Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897.

The Evans Map of Pennsylvania, 1755 96

Compiled by Lewis Evans.

Autograph of Francis Daniel Pastorius 99

From J. F. Sachse : The Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897.

Seal of Unitas Fratrum 103

From J. F. Sachse : The Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897.

Map of the Country of the Six Nations 107

Compiled by Guy Johnson, 1771. From E, B. O'Callag-
han: The Documentary History of New York, Albany,
1850.

French Map of Western Pennsylvania 109

From Pouchot : Mhnoires de la derniere Guerre, Yverdon,
1781.

Fac-simile of a Celoron Plate, 1749 no

From the Pennsylvania Archives.

Map of Braddock's Route, 1755 112

Drawn by Middleton, From Winthrop Sargent : The His-
tory of an Expedition against Fort Dn Quesne, in 1755,
Philadelphia, 1855.

A Paxton Caricature 112

Published in 1 763-1 764. From the original in the Histori-
cal Society of Pennsylvania.
Map Showing the Various Purchases Made From the

Indians 116

From W. H. Egle : An Illustrated History of the Common-
wealth of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, 1876.

Map Illutrating Pennsylvania Boundary Disputes 118

Mason and Dixon Line Stone, near Oxford, Chester Co.,

Penn 121

Drawn by Horace Moran from a woodcut by W. T. Smed-
ley, after a photograph. From a reprint in the collection
of D. McN. StaufTer.



ILLUSTRATIONS 13

PAGE

Map of the Wyoming Forts 123

From Report of the Commission to Locate the State of the
Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, 1896.
Map of Virginia Claims in Southwestern Pennsylvania. . 127
Redrawn by G. A. Skrzyneki from Report of the Secretary
of Internal Affairs, Harrisburg, 1893.

View of the Wyoming Valley 128

From a drawing made for the Centennial observance of the
Battle of Wyoming in 1878. From John Fiske: The
Critical Period of American History, Boston, 1898. By
permission of Houghton, Mifflin & Co.

Seal of the Pennsylvania Society 130

Autographs of the Provincial and State Governors of

Pennsylvania 134-162

From original documents in the collection of D. McN.
Staufifer and in the State Library at Harrisburg.

A View of the State House in Philadelphia 144

From the Gentleman's Magazine, London, September, 1752.
From a print in the collection of D. McN. Staufifer.
Fac-simile of Title Page of Buckshot War Pamphlet. ... 153
Harrisburg, 1839. From the original in the Historical So-
ciety of Pennsylvania.

The Old Capitol at Harrisburg 160

Built, 1821 ; burned, February 2, 1897. From an engrav-
ing in the collection of D. McN. Stauffer.

Pennsylvania Arms, 1829 164

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.

Pennsylvania Arms, 1832 165

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.
Fac-simile of First Republican Electoral Ticket in

Pennsylvania, 1856 169

From original ballot in the collection of J. F. Sachse.
Seal of the Convention for the State of Pennsylvania,

1776 170

Drawn by D. McN. Stauffer.

Seal of the Committee of Safety, 1775 171

Drawn by D. McN. Stauffer.

Map of Battlefields near Philadelphia 175

Drawn by G. A. Skrzyneki.



14 ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

The Forge at Valley Forge 176

From an engraving by C. Tiebout after a drawing by Wil-
liam Strickland made about 181 3. From a print in the
collection of D. McN. Stauffer.

Map of the Campaign of 1777 177

From Joseph Galloway : Letters to a Nobleman, London,
1779.
Plan of the Works and Encampments of the British

Forces in Philadelphia, 1777-1778 179

From Scharf and Westcott : History of Philadelphia, Phila-
delphia, 1884.

Map of the Battle of Germantown, 1777 181

From the Pennsylvania ArcJiives.
Faden's Map of the Operations on the Delaware, 1778. . . . 182
Sketched from an adaptation of William Faden : Course of
the Delazvare, 1778, in Wallace: Col. Wm. Bradford.
From Winsor: Narrative and Critical History of Amer-
ica, Boston. By permission of Houghton, MifBin & Co.

Seal of the Supreme Executive Council, 1777 183

Drawn by D. McN. Stauffer.

Autograph of Anthony Wayne 185

Map of Valley Forge 186

Plan of camp occupied by Washington and the Continental
Army from December 9, 1777, to June 19, 1778. Pre-
pared by the Valley Forge National Park Association.
The heavy line shows the State property in 1900.

The Watchman 190

From a Watchman's New Year's Address, Philadelphia,
1835. From a print in the collection of D. McN. Stauf-
fer.

Map of the Certified Townships 192

From the original survey in the American Philosophical
Society,

Map of the Depreciation Lands 193

Redrawn by G. A. Skrzyneki, from Report of the Secretary
of Internal Affairs for i8g2, Harrisburg, 1893.

Map of the Donation Lands 195

Redrawn by G. A. Skrzyneki, from Report of the Secretary
of Internal Affairs for i8p^, Harrisburg, 1896.



ILLUSTRATIONS 15

PAGE

Map of Westsylvania 197

From the original in the Historical Society of Pennsyl-
vania.
Map of the Purchase of 1784 and Reservations in the

Northwest 199

Redrawn by G. A. Skrzyneki, from Report of the Secretary
of Internal Affairs for i8p6, Harrisburg, 1897.
Vane ON Pusey's Mill, 1699, William Penn, Samuel Car-
penter, Caleb Pusey 205

Drawn by D. McN. Stauffer.
Battlefield of Gettysburg from the Summit of Little

Round Top 208

From a photograph by W. H. Rau, Philadelphia.

CoNESTOGA Wagon 210

From J. F. Sachse: The Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897.
Fac-simile of President's Medal, The Pennsylvania So-
ciety 1899 212

Map of the Frontier Forts in Pennsylvania 215

Redrawn from Report of the Commission to locate the Site
of the Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, 1896.

Autograph of Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds 219

Autograph of Maj. Gen. George G. Meade 219

Autograph of Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock 219

Seal of Germantown, 1691 220

Pennsylvania Arms, 1873 224

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.
Plan of the Battlefield of Gettysburg; Positions and

Charges of the Pennsylvania Reserves 224

From Pennsylvania at Gettysburg, Harrisburg, 1893.
Fac-simile of Anti-Slavery Clause in Benjamin Furly's

Suggestions to William Penn 226

From J. F. Sachse : The Fatherland, Philadelphia, 1897.

Slavery Advertisement 227

From The Pennsylvania Journal, August 15, 1765.

The Academy, 4th Street, Philadelphia 229

Drawn by D. McN. Stauflfer.

Fac-simile of Oath of Allegiance, 1777 233

From Scharf and Westcott : History of Philadelphia, Phila-
delphia, 1884.



1 6 ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE

Great Seal of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 238

First Engraved Arms of Pennsylvania, 1777 238

From Report of the State Librarian, Harrisburg, 1902.

Pennsylvania Arms, 1875 239

Map of Pennsylvania Congressional Districts, Act of

1901 240

Redrawn by G. A. Skrzyneki from Smull's Legislative
Hand Book, Harrisburg, 1903.

Centre Square Water Works, Philadelphia 240

Built, 1820; removed, 1828. On Penn Square, now occu-
pied by the City Hall. From a print in the collection of
D. McN. Stauflfer.

Seal of the Assembly, 1776 244

Drawn by D. McN. Stauffer.
State Senatorial Districts, Act of 1874. Census of 1900. . .245
Redrawn by G. A. Skrzyneki from Smull's Legislative
Hand Book, Harrisburg, 1903.
Apportionment of Representatives in State Legislature,

Act of 1887 246

Redrawn by G. A. Skrzyneki from Smull's Legislative
Hand Book, Harrisburg, 1903.
Pennsylvania Arms 248




Benjamin Franklin.



PENNSYLVANIA: A PRIMER. \^



CHAPTER I.

Chronology.

1. Chronological Summary.

1584 Queen Elizabeth's patent to Sir Walter Raleigh.

1606 April 10, King James's patent to the London Company.

1609 August 28, Henry Hudson discovers the Delaware [South]

River.

1610 Thomas West, Lord de la Warr, said to have visited the bay,

which is named after him.

1616 Cornells Hendrickson explores the Delaware River to the
mouth of the Schuylkill.

1618 Dutch West India Company organized: chartered, 1621 ; Cor-
nells Jacobsen Mey names the Cape at the extreme end of
New Jersey.

1621 Dutch Government purchases the rights of Hudson's dis-
coveries.

1623 Dutch take possession of the Delaware, call it Zuydt [South]

River, and build Fort Nassau, near the mouth of Timber
Creek, at Gloucester, nearly opposite Philadelphia. Wil-
liam van Hulst, Governor.

1624 Swedish Australian Company ; more complete charter in 1626.

1625 Charles I., King of England.

1626 Trading Station built on Biles Island within the bounds of

Bucks County.

1627 Swedes and Finns settle at Point Paradise.

1631 Dutch colonists settle on the Hoarkill [Lewistown].

1632 June 20, Charter granted by King Charles I. to Cecilius, sec-

ond Lord Baltimore.

1634 King Charles I. grants to Sir Edmund Plowden as "Earl Pala-
tine" of New Albion.

1638 April 28, Swedish settlements on the Delaware, Peter Minuit,
Governor.

1641 Settlement on the Schuylkill by the English or New Haven
Colony, Thomas Lamberton, Director.



i8 PENNSYLVANIA: A PRIMER.

1643 February 15, Governor Johan Printz [Edler von Buchen] es-

tablishes his seat of government on Tinicum Island; first
mill in Pennsylvania built on Cobb's Creek.

1644 October 14, William Penn born, Tower Hill, London.

1646 First Church in Pennsylvania built at Tinicum ; Indian mis-
sions started and Luther's Smaller Catechism translated
into the Indian tongue; first mention of Upland [Chester].

1649 Commonwealth of England; New Haven Colony applies for
aid to commissioners at Boston.

1 65 1 Dutch erect a trading house on present site of New Castle.

1653 Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector; English or New Haven
Colony expelled by the Dutch and Swedes.

1655 Dutch under Peter Stuyvesant conquer the Swedes on the

Delaware.

1656 Amsterdam takes possession of part of the Delaware lands.

1659 Dutch colony in Minisink Valley founded.

1660 Charles II., King of England ; George Fox thinks of a Quaker

colony in America.

1662 Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy of Zierik Zee founds a communal
colony at Schwanendael on the Hoarkill.

1664 King Charles II. grants patent to his brother, the Duke of
York ; Sir Robert Carr takes possession of the Dutch set-
tlements.

1668 William Penn joins the Quakers.

1672 Delaware River recaptured by the Dutch.

1674 Restored to England by treaty ; Sir Edmund Andros, Governor.

1675 First meetings of Friends in Pennsylvania at the house of

Robert Wade at LTpland.

1676 The Duke of York's laws formulated.

1680 William Penn petitions King Charles II. for a grant of land.

1 68 1 February, Penn and others buy Carteret's interest in New Jer-

sey : confirmed by Duke of York in March ; March 4, grant
of the Province to Penn under the great seal ; Penn in May
sends Markham to take possession.

1682 October 27, William Penn lands at New Castle; October 28,

reaches Upland and changes name to Chester; November
2, attends court at New Castle ; Philadelphia laid out ; first
Assembly meets at Chester, December 4, passes Penn's
"Great Law" and adopts his first "Frame of Government."



PENNSYLVANIA: A PRIMER. 19

1683 April 2, Penn's second "Frame" known as the "Great Charter

of the Province" ; August 20, Francis Daniel Pastorius ar-
rives ; October 6, arrival of the Crefeld Colony from Ger-
many; October 10, Governor and Council consider the
necessity for an English school ; October 24, Germantown
laid out.

1684 August 17, Penn sails for England.

1685 James II., King of England ; first book printed in the middle

colonies, "The Excellent Privilege of Liberty & Property"
by William Bradford at Philadelphia.

1688 William and Mary, King and Queen of England; April 18,

first anti-slavery protest in America by the German Quakers
of Germantown.

1689 Friends originate a public school in Philadelphia, George Keith,

first master [now William Penn Charter School].

1690 First paper mill in America erected on the Wissahickon by

William Rittenhouse.

1 69 1 Germantown incorporated as a borough ; Schism among the

Quakers, known as the Keithian Schism.

1692 October 20, Penn deprived of his proprietary rights.

1694 June 24, arrival of German Pietists and Mystics at German-

town under Magister Johannes Kelpius ; August 20, Penn
reinvested with his proprietary rights.

1695 First Protestant Episcopal congregation [Christ Church] or-

ganized in Pennsylvania.

1696 Markham's "Frame" ; first book in high German printed in

America by Bradford for Heinrich Bernhard Koster.

1697 Three Swedish Lutheran pastors arrive; provision made for

establishing a Post Office.

1698 Shawanese Indians from Carolina settle on the Susquehanna.

1699 November 28, William Penn arrives at Chester with his wife,

daughter Letitia and James Logan as his secretary ; yellow
fever in Philadelphia during summer.

1700 January 29, Penn's son John, "the American" born in the slate

roof house ; Swedish Lutheran Church in Wicaco, "Gloria
Dei," dedicated.

1701 October 28, Charter of Privileges; Philadelphia constituted a


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