Basil Joseph Mathews.

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
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UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA

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THE ARGONAUTS OF FAITH

THE ADVENTURES OF THE
"MAYFLOWER" PILGRIMS



BASIL MATHEWS



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ilt:i[ . . (HIDKHCI) II KH TO STOI'"'



THE ARGONAUTS
OF FAITH

THE ADVENTURES OF THE
"MAYFLOWER" PILGRIMS

BY

BASIL MATHEWS



WITH A FOREWORD BY
VISCOUNT BRYCE, O.M.

ILLUSTRATED BY
ERNEST PRATER




NEW XSJr YORK
GEORGE H. DORAN COMPANY



COPYRIGHT, I92O,
BY GEORGE H. DORAN COMPANY



PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



O .^



TO

MY MOTHER

IN WHOM

THE PILGRIMS' LOVE OF GOD

AND OF LIBERTY

LIVES AGAIN



HIS PILGRIMAGE

Give me my scallop-shell of quiet,
My staff of faith to walk upon,

My scrip of joy, immortal diet,
My bottle of salvation,

My gown of glory, hope's true gage;

And thus I'll take my pilgrimage.

SIR WALTER RALEIGH



FOREWORD

BY VISCOUNT BRYCE, O.M.

THREE centuries ago, in 1G20, a little band of English
people men, women, and children to the number of
about one hundred, sailed from Plymouth in a ship
called the Mai/flower to settle on the bleak and then
almost unknown coast of Xorth America.

There they landed at a spot where a huge stone, one
of those ice-borne boulders that strew the low shores of
Massachusetts Bay, is said to mark the place at which
they stepped ashore, now become a place of pilgrimage
to which many come from all over the United States,
visiting it with reverence. There this storm-tossed and
sea-weary company built their huts and a wooden block-
house for defence against the native Indians, and pre-
pared to cultivate the soil.

Xot long before an English settlement had been
planted in Virginia, and other English colonists camo
a few years later to another part of the Xew England
coast, where is now the town of Salem. But this Ply-
mouth Settlement (for that was the name they gave it)
was the most remarkable of the three, just because it
was the smallest and weakest, carried out with the least
official favour, least noticed by the world of its own day.

The Pilgrims were humble men, none of them persons
of any consequence or influence. But the historical
significance and moral dignity of an event are not To be



viii FOREWORD

measured by the power or honour, or rank, or wealth
of those who bear a part in it.

This was one of the great events in the annals of
the English race. It was the second migration of that
race. The first w 7 as made in war-ships coming from
the mouth of the Elbe, manned by fierce heathen war-
riors, who came as plunderers and conquerors, and took
nearly three centuries of fighting to complete their con-
quest of South Britain (except Wales). This second
migration from the Old England of Angles and Saxons,
across a far wider sea, to the New England in America
marked the beginning of a nation which was to increase
and multiply till it overspread a vast continent. It was
a peaceful migration. But the Plymouth Pilgrims had
the qualities which belong to the English race. They
had courage, constancy, loyalty to their convictions.
They stamped these qualities upon the infant colony.
They gave that distinctive quality to the men of those
northeastern American colonies which has told upon
and determined the character of the whole American
people.

It was by their faith in God's help and blessing and
by the courage with which they bore hardships and
faced dangers that the men who sailed in the Mayflower
won undying fame. Tbe memory of what they were
and what, they did is today one of the strongest links
that bind America and England together. They set a
noble example for the youth of England as well as for
the youth of America to remember and to imitate. It
is an example in which the present, generation, now
called upon, as it reaches manhood, to make good the
losses of the war, may find stimulus and cheer.

A time has now come a<rain, as it came three cen-



FOREWORD ix

turics ago, in which faith and courage and constancy,
and the hopefulness which trust in God and courage
give, must have their perfect work.




CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

FOREWORD, BY VISCOUNT BRYCE, O.M. . vii

PROLOGUE: THE ADVENTURES OF THE

GOLDEN FLEECE 17

I ON THE GREAT NORTH ROAD .... 25

II THE STORMY PASSAGE 39

III THE LAND OF THREATENING WATERS . . 55

IV THE HOUSE WITH THE GREEN DOOR . . 65
V THE SHIP OF ADVENTURE 83

VI THE ADVENTURES OF SCOUTING .... 99

VII A CLEARING IN THE WASTE .... 119

VIII BUILDERS IN THE WASTE 137

IX GREATHEART, MR. STANDFAST, AND VALIANT-

FOR-TRUTH 151

EPILOGUE: THE BUILDING OF THE NEW

"ARGO" 171

CHRONOLOGY 179

INDEX, COMPILED BY Miss EDITH IVERSON 181



Xl



ILLUSTRATIONS

"THE BOAT WAS PUTTING OFF AGAIN, WHEN SUD-
DENLY THE SHIPMASTER . . . ORDERED HER
TO STOP" Frontispiece

PAGE

"HE SNATCHED AT THIS CORDAGE . . . CAUGHT IT

AND HELD ON" . 88

"SooN THEY WERE ALL AT WORK WITH A WILL" 128

"WOULD THEY SCALP HIM? WOULD THEY TOR-
TURE HIM BY FIRE?" 144



MAPS

THE ENGLAND AND HOLLAND OF THE PILGRIMS

Sec End papers

CAPE COD : EARLY EXPLORATIONS BY THE PILGRIMS 93

THE PLYMOUTH SETTLEMENT 123

PLYMOUTH BAY . 131



PROLOGUE

THE ADVENTURE OF THE GOLDEN FLEECE



TO EOAAI ACROSS THE OCEAN

How sweet it is to ride upon the surge?, and to leap from
wave to wave, while the wind sings cheerful in the cordage,
and the oars flash fast among the foam! How sweet it is
to roam across the ocean, and to see new cities and wondrous
lands, and to come home laden with treasure, and to win
undying fame!

THE SONG OF ORPHEUS



THE ARGONAUTS
OF FAITH



PKOLOGUE



Irs r the old days of long ago, Greek sailor-boys of
Corinth and of the ports by the laughing /Egean Sea
used to sit in the sunshine on the harbour-side, leaning
against the posts to which the ships were warped, listen-
ing to the stories of the sailor-men who had voyaged
in strange waters. Of all these stories the favourite
W 7 as the tale of Jason, the son of ^Eson, who sailed
through perilous adventures in Quest of the Golden
Fleece. 1

The tale they heard was a very long one; but this
is the heart of it.

There was a boy named Jason whose father took him
to the cave on Mount Pelion where Cheiron the centaur
lived. He was half-man and half-horse, and the wisest
of all created beings. On the mountain-side he trained
Hercules, and many other mighty and skilled men.
Cheiroirs cave was a school of heroes.

1 The story is told in Charles Kin<rsley's The Heroes, and
Nathaniel Hawthorne's Tanglcicood Talcs.

17



18 THE ARGONAUTS OF FAITH

Jason grew up to be wonderfully strong a man with
a valiant spirit, powerful muscles and a clear, quick
brain. He learned that all the fair land away to the
South was really his ; but that he could not have it be-
cause Pelias the Terrible held it in his grip.

At last Jason decided that he would try to win back
the land for himself. As he went forth wise old Cheiron
said to him, "Jason, promise me two things before
you go."

"I will promise," said Jason.

"Speak harshly to no soul whom you may meet, and
stand by the word which you shall speak."

So Jason strode down the mountain-side into the
world of adventure. He soon learned at the court of
Pelias that he could only gain his kingdom if he brought
back from a far country the Fleece of the Golden Ram
that had carried off on its back Pelias' own children.

So Jason's heralds went far and wide, and cried
out:

"Who dare come on the adventure of the Golden
Fleece ?"

In answer to the challenge there came Hercules the
Mighty, with his linn's skin on his back and his knotted
club in his hand; wise Mopsus. who knew the speech
of birds; Argus, the most skillful of the builders of
ships; Tiphvs, the unrivalled steersman; Idmon, who
could foretell things to come; and other splendid heroes.
They were indeed, with Jason, a glorious company of
old school-fellows, who had been trained to great deeds
by the wise centaur, Cheiron.

The Fleece of the Golden Ram was nailed to a tree
far, far away across the Fuxine Sea l near the Caucasus
'The Black Sea.



PROLOGUE 19

Mountains. To secure it they must not only encounter
many and great dangers, but they must also sail farther
than men had ever dared to venture on the dark waters.

So the heroes with their axes felled the giant pines
on Mount Pelion and with the timber they built, to
the designs of the craftsman Argus, the first long ship
that ever dared the greater seas. Fifty oars she had
one for every hero. And they gave to the good ship the
name of Argo in honour of Argus, who designed her.
The crew were, therefore, called the Argo-sailors or,
as we say, the Argonauts.

When she was built, however, she was too heavy for
the heroes to launch. So Orpheus, the sweetest of all
singers, played upon his harp and sang a song of
magical power.

"How sweet it is," he sang, "to ride upon the surges,
and to leap from wave to wave, while the wind sings
cheerful in the cordage, and the oars flash fast among
the foam! How sweet it is to roam across the ocean,
and see new cities and wondrous lands, and to come
home laden with treasure, and to win undying fame!"

As the ship Argo heard the words the story tells
us a great longing came upon her to breast the waves
and scatter the spray from her gleaming bows ; so she
surged forward from the sand to the rollers, and plunged
swiftly into the waiting sea.

For years upon years the Argonauts sailed the seas
and took what adventure came their way. Tempests
drove them into unknown oceans ; the sun scorched them
and tanned their faces; the Sirens sought to lure them
to death by their songs ; the icy blasts of the north froze
them; enemies plotted and fought against them; but



20 THE ARGONAUTS OF FAITH

nothing could turn them back or strike any fear into
their stout hearts.

At last -Jason and his fellow Argonauts fought and
ploughed their way through the perils that surrounded
the Golden Fleece. By the help of the witch-maiden
Medea and the golden-singer Orpheus, Jason overcame
all dangers and tore the Golden Fleece from its tree.

Sei/.ing the Fleece, he went ahoard the Aryo in
triumph, and. at length, after so many adventures that
a liiir hook might he iilled with the story of them, he
at last came hack and won his kingdom and reigned
there. Always in his course Jason had remembered
his promises to ('heiron that, he would not speak harshly
and that he would stand by his words. And because
of this kindness and loyalty, even more than by his
strength and skill, he had triumphed.



This tale of the Argonauts of ancient Greece speaks
of heroes long ago in the dim dawn of history. But
it is a story that we always like to hear, because some-
thing in us thrills (as the timbers of the Aryo herself
did i to the Orpheus song of adventure in quest of some
g'M d pn/e that is hard to gain.

All through the story of man we find brave Argonauts
launching into strange; seas: some are Vikings seeking
battle and booty; some, like Prince Henry tin; Naviga-
tor and Columbus, Cabot and Captain Cook, search
f'>r n w lands across uncharted oceans: others, like
Damirri and John Williams and Livingstone, sail
away and penetrate untrodden places, not to bring away
troa.-ure, but to carry the Treasure, of Life to other
men; they go, I say, for differing reasons, but they



PROLOGUE 21

all are ready to risk everything and to take what ad-
venture may befall them.

Three centuries ago a ship sailed out of England into
the unknown, with a company of Argonauts not men
only, but women also, with boys and girls. They went
out across the Atlantic Ocean in a little ship of only a
hundred and eighty tons, in the Quest not of a Golden
Fleece but of Liberty. What they sought in America,
they after adventures with Ked Indians and many
hard knocks found at last. And the freedom that
they found they afterwards fought for in America, the
land that had now become their own ; they have now
helped to win freedom for the world of our day, if that
world will only share their heroic spirit and risk all
else to keep that pearl of great price.

In these chapters that follow boys and girls are going
to listen to the story of those hero-Argonauts who lived
in England when Elizabeth was Queen, and, having
striven for freedom in their own. laud till after James I
was on the throne, voyaged across strange waters to the
lands of the Eed Men and made a IS : ew England in
the West.



CHAPTER I
ON THE GREAT XORTH ROAD



THE DANGEROUS WAY OF THE PILGRIMS

Valiant-for-Truth: The most dangerous way in the world,
said they, is that which the pilgrims go.

Greatheart: Did they show you wherein this way is so
dangerous?

Valiant: Yes, and that in many particulars.

Greatheart: Xame some of them.

Valiant: They told me of the Slough of Despond, where
Christian was well-nigh smothered. They told me that there
were arehors standing ready in Beelzebub Castle, to shoot
them who should kiioek at the Wicket-gate for entrance.
They told me also of the wood and dark mountains; of the
Hill Difficulty; of the lions; and also of the three giants,
oHioody-rnan, .Maul, and Slaygood. They said, moreover, that
there was a foul fiend haunted the Valley of Humiliation;
and that Christian was by him almost bereft of life. Besides,
said they, you must go over the Valley of the Shadow of
Death, where the hobgoblins are, where the light is dark-
ness, where the way is full of snare?, pits, traps, and gins.
They told me also of Giant Despair, of Doubting Castle,
and of the ruin that the pilgrims had met with here. Fur-
ther, they said I must go over the Enchanted Ground, which
was dangerous; and that after all this, I should find a river,
over which there was no bridge; and that that river did lie
betwixt me and the Celestial Country.

Greatheart : And did none of these things discourage you?
Valiant: Xo; they seemed but as so many nothings to
me.

BUNYAN, The Pilgrim's Progress.



CHAPTER I
ON THE GREAT NORTH ROAD



THE iron gate of a dungeon in London swung back on
its creaking hinges in the last night of March in 1593,
in the black hour before dawn. The flickering light of
a candle-lanthorn fell on two men, who lay chained on
the damp floor. Their names were Barrowe and
Greenwood.

The warders ordered the men to rise. They brought
them out of their dungeon. Then with hammer and
chisel they struck off the iron shackles that bound the
captives. The gate of the Fleet Prison swung open.
Barrowe and Greenwood were led out.

The uneasy waters of the Thames tide, running in
the narrow channels of the Fleet River between Fleet
Street and Ludgato Hill, lapped against the prison
walls. 1 The breeze of a chill spring morning caught
the men as they mounted a cart that stood in the nar-
row road that led up from the river to Holborn. As
the cart lurched up to Holboru the first grey light of
dawn showed against the eastern sky the soaring spire
of old St. Paul's Cathedral.

1 The water of tlie Fleet stream runs now in n. culvert under
Farrinr<lon Street, and enters the Thames under the first arch on
the north side of Blackfriars Hridire. The opening ean bo seen
at low tide. The Fleet Prison site is now covered by tho
Memorial Hall in Farringdon Street.

25



26 THE ARGONAUTS OF FAITH

Barrowe and Greenwood knew what was happening.
They were going out, not to freedom, but to die. They
had, only eight days earlier, been tried in the Old
Bailey; and they had been convicted and sentenced to
death.

Some strayed reveller, as he saw the well-known
prisoner's cart rolling along Holborn westward to the
place of execution might wonder what crime these
felons had committed to bring them to the scaffold.
Their crime was that they had written and published
books, arguing that a man ought to be free to worship
God in the way that seemed right to him. They held
that the Army of Jesus Christ (that is, His Church)
was made up of men and women who had enlisted freely
to serve Him ; and that the Church was not and could
not be an Army of Conscripts of all kinds of folk
ordered to go to worship. For such a Church included
thieves and murderers, and every sort of evil man and
woman. They said that Jesus Christ alone was the true
Head of the Church, and not Queen Elizabeth or any
governor, and that the people who really did worship
Jesus Christ and desired to live pure lives should
separate themselves into a Church. For thus "devising
seditious books," as the judge called it, and for actually
meeting for worship in private houses with other men
who believed the same things, they were solemnly tried
and condemned to death.

Barrowe and Greenwood, as they went to the gallows
and looked back at the spire of old St. Paul's, may well
have remembered for their comfort that St. Paul him-
self, in his day, had been thrown into prison and
chained and beaten, and had at last been executed at



ON THE GREAT NORTH ROAD 27

Rome, because ho preached that Jesus Christ was high
above all principalities and powers.

At last the lumbering cart brought them to the place
of execution called Tyburn. 1 The gallows on the
scaffold stood up gaunt and horrible. A crowd had
gathered about the foot of the scaffold some out of
curiosity; others because they sympathised with I>ar-
rowe and Greenwood. A noose of rope was placed
about the neck of each of -the prisoners. They spoke a
few words of cheer and farewell to their friends about
them. The order for execution was about to be given.

Suddenly came a shout and the sound of horses' hoofs
on the road. The crowd divided.

"A messenger from the Queen/' the cry went up.
Then "A reprieve! A reprieve!"

The crowd cheered and rejoiced as they saw Bar-
rowe and Greenwood brought from the scaffold. The
news spread like wildfire. As they were taken back
in the cart to the prison, people leaned out from the
windows of the houses and cheered, and the crowds
hurried from the roadway.

Queen Elizabeth's messenger, however, had only
brought a reprieve, and not a pardon. Barrowc and
Greenwood were not set free; they wore simply sent
back to prison in the dark cell. Within a week - they
were again taken out from the dungeon and put on the
cart and carried to Tyburn once more and for the last
time. Xo messenger came bringing reprieve to the
foot of the gallows. They died as true martyrs to win
freedom for all of us who have come after them.

1 Whore the Marble Arch now stands at the north-east corner of
Hyde Viirk.
' 3 April 6th, 1593.



28 THE ARGONAUTS OF FAITH



II

In those times Royal Messengers rode every day up
the Great North Road from London to Scotland, bear-
ing the King's orders in their saddle-bags, and carrying
on their lips the news of the doings in London town.

The Messengers rode on horseback from London
northward from one post-house to another. In the
summer they must travel at seven miles an hour; in
the winter they were not expected to do more than five
because of the snow and mud, Post-houses were fixed
at intervals of a number of miles apart all along four
great roads from London one by the Great Xorth
Road to Scotland, one to Ireland by Beaumaris, one to
Europe by Dover, and one to Plymouth, i.e. to the
Royal Dockyard.

There were two horses kept at every post-house for
the Messengers. A man would ride a horse from one
post-house to another (say Doncaster to Scrooby ) and
then take a fresh horse from Scrooby towards London.
The next Messenger going northward would ride the
Doncaster horse back from Scrooby to his stable at
Doncaster. From his saddle 1 swung two leather saddle-
bags lined with baize to carry his letters dry and safe,
and over his shoulder hung a horn which he blew three
or four times a mile, and as often as he met any other
traveller on the road.

So the Messenger going north up the Great Xorth
Road early in April 151)3, would be full of the story
of how two brave men, Barrowe and Greenwood, had
been executed on the gallows at Tyburn that very morn-



ON THE GREAT NORTH ROAD 29

ing. As he rode out of London up the northern heights
he would tell his story at post-house after post-hoiiBO
as the ostlers changed the horses and ho took his flagon
of ale.

The road all the way was rough, as all roads were
in England in those days. They were covered with deep
mud in that early spring weather. No coaches or
wagons could go on the road without the wheels sink-
ing into the inire almost to the axle-trees. A man on
horseback had to pick his way carefully.

At last, however, after travelling for days, the Mes-
senger would be glad to see ahead of him one of the best,
post-houses in all England. Splashing through the ford
of the stream below the water-mill, with the clump of
fir-trees showing against the evening sky, and the fresh
yellow of the early gorse-blossoms reflecting the after-
glow, the messenger would trot his horse into the village
of Scrooby. lie would pass the Church among its
dark trees, the cottages with the blue smoke, of wood-
fires curling from the chimneys, the cows lurching along
the lanes to the milking, the plentiful rabbits scuttling
back to the warren as the messenger sounded his horn
and startled them at their evening feeding, the shout-
ing group of boys playing "touch" on the green.

All these ho would pass without, taking muck notice
of them. But his eyes would lighten with pleasure as
he saw the great comfortable roof and massive timbers
of the Manor House of Scrooby standing alono within
the circle of its dark moat filled with water; yet, with
its windows gleaming at him, and the heavy old door
thrown open on its sturdy hinges to welcome him as ho
crossed the drawbridge.



SO THE ARGONAUTS OF FAITH



III

In the doorway at the top of the stone steps of
Scrooby Manor x stood a young man of between twenty-
six and twenty-seven years of age. The Messenger
would know him well. For William Brewster was the
King's Master of the Post at Scrooby Manor, as his
father and grandfather had been before him. lie was
responsible for taking care of the horses that carried the
Post-Messengers on their backs.

The Messenger, as he went up the steps, would pull
from his bag the book in which were written down the
times when he had reached the post-houses all along
the road. William Brewster would then get his quill
and ink-horn and write down in the Post Book the time
at which the messenger had arrived.

William loved the old Manor House, for he had
grown up under its great timbered roof. lie had played
on its lawns and by its moat. lie had fished as a boy
in the river Idle near by. He had seen great knights
and fair ladies from the Court of the Queen ride over
the bridge to sleep in the Manor House; and anxious
Secretaries of State, battered soldiers and travel-
stained pedlars for people of all degrees stopped at
the post-house as they journeyed north or south on the
Great "North lload.

William Brewster, indeed, thirteen years earlier,

1 "Scrooby Manor TTouso," Raid Lola ml the Antiquary, who wag
there in ir>41, ''is huihh-d in two court*, whereof the first is very
ample and all hnilded of timber, saving the front- of the house
that is of brick, to the which ascenditur per rjrnrtus lap'ulcos.
The inner court, building . . . was of timber and was not ia
compass past the fourth part of the outer court."



ON THE GREAT NORTH ROAD 31

when he was a boy, had left the old Manor House, and
had gone south-eastward across the fen-land perhaps
by barge on the river, perhaps by pony on road and
path probably by both till his eyes saw the pinnacles
and towers of the wonderful University of Cambridge,
lie had lived there as a student in the oldest of all the
colleges at Cambridge Peterhouse. lie had matricu-
lated there as a student though he was only a fourteen-
year-old boy on December 3rd, 1580. The brave John
Greenwood (who was hanged at Tyburn with Barrowe)
was, when William Brewster entered Peterhouse, still
a student at Corpus Christi. And William Brewster at
Cambridge drank in those same ideas of liberty that
John Greenwood had. There was another young stu-
dent at Cambridge at the very same time named -John
Robinson, who, we may be sure, knew John Greenwood
and William Brewster. We shall hear more about John
Robinson later on.

Stranger things than this experience at Cambridge,
however, had happened to William. For when ho was
only about seventeen years old (probably when he was
home from Cambridge at the Manor House at Scrooby
for the vacation) a great Secretary of State, who was


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