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Life of the Ancient Greeks






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BD. Baumeister, Denkmaler des Klassischen Altertums. 3 vols.

BE. Biiclisenschutz, Besitz und Erwerb im griechischen Alterthume


CuRTius Curtius, Ernst. History of Greece. 5 vols.

GroTE Grote, George. A History of Greece. 12 vols.

GK. The Life of the Greeks and Romans (trans, from the third Ger-
man edition).

HB. Hermann, Lehrbuch der griechischen Privatalterthiimer, 3d
edit. (1882); edited by Bliimner.

IvS. Bliimner, Leben und Sitten der Griechen. 3 vols. (1887).

MHb, Handbuch der Klassischen Altertums-wissenschaft herausge-
geben von Dr. Iwan Miiller (1885-90).

PE. Boeckh, Public Economy of the Athenians (transl. from Die
Staatshaushaltung der Athener).

TT. Bliimner, Terminologie und Technologie der bildenden Kiinste.
4 vols. (1874-87).


Lecture I. The Physical Geography of Greece.

Tozer, Lectures on the Geography of Greece (1873) ; Tozer, Classi-
cal Geography (Appletons' Liter. Primers) (1877) ; Bursian, Geogra-
phic von Griechenland, 2 vols. (1862) ; Grote, History of Greece, Part
II chap, i ; Curtius, History of Greece, I chap, i ; Herman n-Bliim-
ner, Griech. Privatalterthiimer, pp. 8 fF. ; Abbott, History of Greece,
I chap, i ; Lolling, Miiller's Handb. der Altertumswissenscliaft, III
99 fF. ; Wordsworth, Greece, pictorial, descriptive and historical. On
climate : Baedeker's Greece, Introd. pp. 29 fF. ; Wachsmuth, Die Stadt
Athen im Altertum, I 100 ff. ; Partsch, Das Klima von Athen, Mete-
orol. Zeitschr, 1884, pp. 473 fF.

The location of Greece as a whole in relation to the sea and
to other lands The mountain ranges Elevation of moun-
tains Plains Rivers The coast-line The comparative
extent of the land Soil Climate.

Lecture II. The Physical Geography of Greece.


Beside the works already cited : Curtius, Alterthum und Gegenwart,
II 22 fF. ; Hehn, The Wanderings of Plants and Animals (Transl. of
Kulturpflanzen und Haustiere) ; Williams, Views in Greece, 2 vols.,
illustr. ; v. Falke, Greece and Rome, illustr.

The historical significance of location and climate Pro-
ducts of the soil Characteristics of Greek scenery.


Lecture III Characterization of the Greek People.

St. John, Hellenes, I 29 ff. ; Felton, Greece, ancient and modern,
I 271-309; MahafFy, Social Life in Greece, '228 fF. ; HB. pp. 31-37;
Schmidt, L., Die Ethik der alten Griechen, 2 vols. (1882).

Pliyic^l ,chaxa,Cteristics Standard of beauty among the
'jGF'reek,sV-5vr6ial.'and intellectual characteristics Modera-
te oti>,Suscei?tibility toward the beautiful Fineness of feel-
-iiig'-H-Setitinierit of friendship Humanity and inhumanity
Mental alertness Avarice Untruth.

Lecture IV. The Population.

Boeckh, Public Economy of the Athenians, Book I chap, vii ;
Clinton, Fasti Hellenici, II 468-484; Belocli, Bevolkerung der grie-
chisch-romischen Welt (1886). For the states: Gilbert, Handbuch
der griech. Staatsalterthiimer, 2 vols. (1881). For the colonies and
leagues : Gilbert, II 397 ff.

Estimates of the population of Greece, of Attica, of Athens

Methods of determination Division into tribes States

Colonies Early leagues Other unifying influences :
likeness of speech, community of religion, contrast with the
life and manners of the orientals.

Lecture V. The Modern State and People of Greece.

Fallmerayer, Geschichte der Halbinsel Morea (1830) ; Welchen
Einfluss hatte die Besetzung Griechenlands durch die Slaven auf das
Schicksal der Stadt Athen ? (1835); Sanders, Volksleben der Neu-
griechen (1844) ; Leake, Travels in the Morea, 3 vols. (1830) ; Leake,
Travels in Northern Greece, 4 vols. (1835) ; Dodwell, Classical and
Topographical Tour through Greece, 2 vols. (1819) ; Ross, Grie-
chische Inselreisen, 4 vols. (1840) ; Curtius, E., Peloponnesos, 2 vols.
(1851) ; Felton, Greece, ancient and modern, II 249 ff. ; Schmidt, B.,
Das Volksleben der Neugriechen und das hellenische Alterthum

(^lOilo. . ^ CU4uMi f^ f^ f '

ZuaXLu.^ ^UJJj^ e/o<.ua^ ^^H^ J-flc^ .

(iSyi) ; Wachsmuth, C, Das alte Griechenland im neuen (1864) ;
MahaiFy, Rambles and Studies in Greece, 2d edit. (1878) ; Snider, A
Walk in Hellas (1883) ; Baedeker's Greece, by H. G. Lolling, Introd.
pp. 31 ff. (1889) ; Bent, The Cyclades (1885) ; Krumbacher, Grie-

chische Reise (1886); Wyse, Impressions of Greece (1871) ; On

the language ; Boltz, Die hellenische oder neugriechische Sprache
(1881) ; Vincent and Dickson, A Handbook to Modern Greek (1881).

The controversy concerning the race-connection of the
present population of Greece Various incursions and immi-
grations of alien populations Evidences of unbroken line of
connection with ancient Greece to be found in various m3^ths,
superstitions, and religious observances, in various popular
usages and customs, in the language Characteristics of the
people Financial and industrial interests Political affairs
The church The language.

Lecture VI. Attica.

Lolling, MHb., Ill 110-121 ; Curtius und Kaupert, Karten von
Attika ; Wordsworth, Greece, pp. 65 ff. ; Hertzberg, Athen historisch-
topographisch dargestellt (1885) chap, i; Baedeker, Greece, pp. 104 ff.;
Mahaffy, Rambles and Studies, chaps, vi, vii.

Mountains Plains Rivers Extent of Plains Coast
line Climate Vegetation The harbors of Phaleron and

Lecture VII. Athens.

Wachsmuth, Die Stadt Athen im Altertum, vol. I (1874) ; Lolling,
MHb. Ill 290-335 ; Milchhofer, BD. s. v. Athen ; Hertzberg, Athen ;
Curtius und Kaupert, Atlas von Athen ; Harrison and Verrall, Mythol-
ogy and Monuments of Ancient Athens (1890) ; Mahaffy, Rambles and
Studies, chaps, iii-v ; Gregorovius, Geschichte der Stadt Athen im
Mittelalter, 2 vols, (i^


Outline history of the city The walls The gates
The monuments of the lower city, following in general the
description of Pausanias, the market-place and buildings near
it, the southeastern quarter, the Ilissos district, the street of
tripods, the precinct of Dionysos and the theatre, the Askle-
pieion, the Odeion of Herodes Atticus, the Pnyx..

Lecture VIII. The Acropolis.

Lolling, MHb. Ill 335-352 ; Baedeker's Greece, 55 ff. ; Boetticher,
Die AkropoHs ; MichaeHs, Der Parthenon ; Bolm, Die Propylaen der
Akropolis zn Athen ; Kekule, Die Reliefs an der Balustrade der Athe-
na Nike ; Stuart and Revett, The Antiquities of Athens, 4 vols., smaller
edit, 1 vol.

Shape and extent History The Propylaea The tem-
ple of Athena Nike Objects between the Propylaea and
the Parthenon The Parthenon The Brechtheion.

Lecture IX. The Greek Family; Marriage and the


HB. pp. 251-278 ; GK. pp. 190-195 ; Becker's Charicles, Excursus to
Scene xii ; St. John, Hellenes, II i fF. ; Felton, Greece, I 343 ff. ;
Schreiber, Kulturshist. Bilderatlas, I, Taf. Ixxxi ; Miiller, MHb. IV, i,
pp. 446 fF. ; Bliimner, BD. s. v. Hochzeit ; Bliimner, LS. I 150 fF. ;
Smith's Diet, of Antiquities s. v. Matrimonium. On the Modern
Greek usages : Wachsmuth, Das alte Griechenland im neuen, pp. 8i-
105, and Sakellarios, Die Sitten und Gebraiiche der Hochzeit bei den
Neugriechen verglichen niit denen der alten Griechen (1880). On the
development of the monogamous family system : McLennan, Primi-
tive Marriage (1876) ; Morgan, Ancient Society (1878) ; McLennan,
The Patriarchal Theory (1885) ; Bachofen, Das Mutterrecht ; Lubbock,
The Origin of Civilization (1870) ; Schurman, The Ethical Import of
Darwinism, chap. vi.

Position of the family in human society Development of
the monogamous family system Importance of an under-


standing of the Greek family relations Character of the
marriage relation in Greece The marriage contract The
wedding The Modern Greek wedding.

Lecture X. The Life of the Women.

HB. pp. 64-75 ; GK. pp. 185 f. ; Mahaffy, Social Life in Greece,
"pp. 52 flf., 142 fF., 274 flf. ; Miilier, MHb. IV, i, pp. 448 ff. ; Donald-
son, Women in Ancient Greece, Contenip. Review, July, 1878 and
March, 1879 \ Bliimner, LS. I pp. 167 ff. ; Smith's Dictionary of An-
tiquities, s. V. Tela, Fusus ; St. John, Hellenes, I 369 ff., II 28 ff. ; GoU,
Kulturbilder "I 250 ff. ; Becker's Charicles, Bxc. to Sc. xii ; BE. pp.
292 f. ; Schreiber, Bilderatlas I, Taf. Ixxxii and Ixxxiii ; Haley, The
Social and Domestic Posiiion of Women in Aristophanes, Harvard
Stud, in Class. Philol. I, Art. xi (1890).

Contrasts between the position of women in the Homeric
age, in the classical period, and in the Hellenistic period
Restrictions upon the appearance of women outside the home
Life at home Occupations : spinning, weaving, etc.
(For dress and toilet, vid. Lectt. xv, xvi, xvii) Character
of Greek women The Hetairai.

Lecture XL The Children.

HB. pp. 75-80, 278-301 ; GK. pp. 195-197; Miilier, MHb. IV, i pp.
448 d. ff. ; Becker, Charicles, Exc. ii to Sc. i (ed. G611) ; Mahaffy, Old
Greek Education, pp. 9-23, 32-57 ; Grasberger, Erzichung und Un-
terricht II, i pp. 28 ff. ; Smith's Diet, of Antiq. 5. v. Amphidromia,
Nomen ; BD. s. v. Aussetzen, Ammen, Wickelkinder, Kinderspiele,
Schaukeln ; Mahaffy, Social lyife in Greece, pp. '^163 ff. ; Richter,
vSpiele der Gr. und Rom. (1887).

Relation to family authority Mutual responsibility of
parent and child Birth Naming Nursing Food
Games and toys Earliest education The ephebes.

Lecture XII. The Slaves.

Richter, Die Sklaverei im griecliischeii Altertlium (1886) ; Biicli-
senschiitz, Besitz und Erwerb im klassischen Alterthume, pp. 104-
208; Becker's Charicles, Exc. to Sc. vii ; Boeckh, PE., see index
s. V. Slaves ; HB. pp. 80 ff. ; Gilbert, Handbuch der griech. vStaatsalt-
erthiimer, I 31-36, 163-168, II 287-294; Busolt, MHb. IV, i pp. 10
fif. ; Smith's Diet, of Autiq. s. v. Servus ; Bliimner, LS. Ill 174 fF.

Numbers Legal status The philosophy of slavery
Differing condition at different periods The Spartan Helots
The Athenian slaves Their relation to masters Occu-
pations Punishments Emancipation Nationality
Prices of slaves.

Lecture XIII. The Greek House.

GK. pp. 73-76, 78-84 ; HB. pp. 143 ff. ; Becker's Charicles, Exc. to
Sc. iii ; Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 339 ff. ; Smith, Diet, of Aiitiq. s. v.
Domus ; Winckler, Die Wohnhaiiser der Hell enen ; Lange, Hausund
Halle; Bliimner, BD. s. v. Haus ; Goll, Kulturbilder ^IH i, ff.

The insignificance of private houses in the city during the
classical period Materials of these houses Size Gen-
eral plan Surroundings of house Entrance Porter
Court Various rooms Second floor Roof Stoves
Decoration of walls Development of house architecture in
the Hellenistic period The Homeric house.

Lecture XIV. The Furniture of the House.

GK. pp. 134-160; Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 376-395 ; Becker's Chari-
cles, Exc. ii to Sc. viii (Goll) ; St. John, Hellenes II 97 ff. ; Bliim-
ner, Das Kunstgewerbe im Alterthum, II 2-154 1 Weiss, Kostiim-
kunde I, i, 855 ff. ; BD. s. v. Tische, Sessel, Fussbank, Betten, Kissen,
Truhen, Lampen, Leuchter ; Smith's Diet, of Antiq. s. v. Mensa, Lec-
tus, Sella, Thronus, Amphora, Crater, Cyathus, Canthams, Patera,


Candelabrum ; Buchholz, Die homerischen Realieii II, 2, pp. 138 ff. ;
Miller, Die Beleuchtung im Altertum (1885) ; Schreiber, Bilderatlas I,
Taf, Ixxxvi.

Couches Pillows Mattresses Chairs Tables Jars
Vases Jugs Pots Drinking vessels Lamps The
furniture of the Homeric house.

Lecture XV. Clothing.

HB. pp. 172 fF. ; GK. pp. 160-170 ; Becker's Charicles, Exc. to Sc. xi ;
Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 395 fF. ; Bliimiier, LS. I 11-60; BD. s. v.
Kleidung, ChiLon, Chlamys, Himation, Giirtel ; Smith's Diet, of An-
tiq. s. V. Tunica, Pallium, Peplum, Fibula, Chlamys, Exomis ; Weiss,
Kostumkunde I, i. 700 ff. ; Bohlan, De re vestiaria (1885) ; Studniczka,
Beitrage zur Geschichte der altgriechischen Tracht (1886) ; Buchholz,
Homerische Realien II, 2, pp. 260-274 ; Helbig, Das homerische Epos
von den Denkmalern erlaiitert, pp. 115 ff. ; Smith, J. M., Ancient
GreeV Female Costume (2d edit. 1883) ; Hope, Costumes of the An-
cients (181 2) ; Schreiber, Bilderatlas I, Taf. Ixxxiv.

Costume and climate Costume and civilization The
clothing of the primitive Greeks Clothing in the Homeric
age The introduction of the tunic for men The period
from Homer to the Persian wars The classical period

Special garments : TreVA-O?, <f>apo<;-, ;(Aatva, ;)(tTaJv, IfxaTLov, i^MfXLS,

xA.a/xv?, ^oAta The girdle The color of garments Ten-
dencies of fashion in the Hellenistic period.

Lecture XVI. Dress for the Head and Feet.

GK. pp. 170-178; Blumner, LS. I 60-90 ; Muller, MHb. IV, i, pp.
426-433 ; Becker's Charicles, Exc. to Sc. xi ; Blumner, BD. s. v. Haar-
tracht, Barttracht, Kopfbedeckung, Fussbekleidung ; Smith's Diet.
Antiq. s. v. Coma, Barba, Pileus, Calceus, Sandalium, Cothurnus ;
Buchholz, Hom. Realien II, 2, pp. 274-279.


Treatment of hair among men in the heroic age The
elaborate frisure of the lonico- Asiatic |civilization (yth-sth
centur>0 The temperate style of the classical age The
Laconomania The beard at different periods The history
of shaving Barbers and barber-shops Hats Styles of
wearing the hair among women Head-dresses Sandals
and shoes.

Lecture XVII. The Toilet and the Bath.

HB. pp. 200 fF. ; Bliiiimer, Kunstgewerbe im Altertum II 127 fif. ;
Becker's Charicles, Exc. iii to Sc. viii ; Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 444
fF. ; Bliimner, LS. I 178 ff. ; St. John, Hellenes II 65 fF. ; Smith, Diet.
Antiq. .y. v. Balneae ; BD. s. v. Baden, Spiegel, Schminken, Sonnen-
schirm, Facher. Cn Ornaments, etc.,cF. Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 433
fF.; GK. pp. 178 fF.

The bath in Homeric times In classical times Public
fountains and baths Oil Perfumes Rouge Jewelry
and ornaments.

Lecture XVIII. Food and Drink.

HB. pp. 214-235 ; Becker's Charicles, Exc. to Sc. vi ; Miiller, MHb.
IV, I, pp. 441 fif.; Bliimner, LS. II, 34 fif.; PE. chaps, xv, xvi, xvii ;
Bliimner, TT. I, pp. i fif.; St. John, Hellenes II 125 fif.

General characteristics of the Greek cuisine The prepa-
ration of meal Different sorts Varieties of bread lycav-
en Cakes Vegetables Oil Meat Fish Eggs
Cheese Wine Varieties Method of preparation and use.


Lecture XIX. Table Usages,

GK. pp. 264 fF.; HB. pp. 235 fF.; Becker's Charicles, Bxc. to Sc. vi ;
Smith's Diet. Antiq. s. v. Coena, Symposium ; Miiller, MHb. IV, i,
pp. 445 b and c ; Bliimner, L;S. II 29-34, 36-45 ; MahafFy, Social Life
in Greece, chap, ^xi ; BD. s. v. Mahlzeiten, Symposion, Kranze, Kot-
tabos, Gaukler ; Schreiber, Bilderatlas I, Taf. Ixxvi and Ixxvii ; Goll,
Die griech. und rom. Kiiche, Kulturbilder ^11 74 ff.

Arrangement of table and seats at different periods Ser-
vice The courses Table manners Dishes Drinking
customs The symposia.

LfCCture XX. The Cost of Living.

Boeckh, PE. chap, i-xxi ; BE. pp. 347 ff.

Inadequacy of all direct comparisons of ancient money val-
ues with our own Variations in the value of gold and sil-
ver Wages and incomes Profits of trade Price of houses

Price of grain Of bread Of wine Of oil Of meat
and other table supplies Of clothing Estimated mini-
mum cost of living compared with the known rate of wages

Cost of living among the wealthier.

Lecture XXI. The Daily Life.

HB. pp. 121 ff.; Bliimner, LS. II, i ff.

Conditions in Athens best known Difficulty of judging
to what extent they are peculiar Peculiar conditions in
Sparta Divisions of the day at Athens Clocks Morn-
ing hours : ablutions, toilet, first meal Visits Marketing
General appearance of street, houses, and shops Market-
place The assembly The courts Other public service


The festivals Noon The noon-day meal The public
baths Wine shops and gambling houses Dinner Sym-

Lecture XXII. Sickness, Physic, and Physicians.

Haser, Lehrbuch der Geschichte der Medicin, -I 62 fF. ; Encyclop.
Britaimica s. v. Medicine ; Smith's Diet. Aiitiq. s. v. Medicus, Medi-
cina ; Smith's Diet, of Biography and Mythology s. v. Hippoerates,
Galenus, Aesculapius ; HE. pp. 351 if.; Becker's Charicles, Exc. to Sc.
viii ; MahafFy, Social Life in Greece, ''290 fF.; St. John, Hellenes III
201 fF.; Bliimner, LS. II 62 fF.; Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 458 b and fF.;
BD. s V. Aerzte, Apothekeii. On the cult, of Asklepios : Milchhofer,
BD. I 194 ff. ; von Wilamowitz, Isyllos von Epidauros, Philol. Unter-
suchungen, IX (1886) ; Kohler, Mittheilungen des deutschen archeol.
Inst, zu Athen, II 171 fF., 229 fF.; Baunack, Studien I, i, pp. 109 (In-
scriptions of Epidauros) ; Curtius, E., Nord und Siid, April, 1877, pp.
95 ff.

Three-fold connection of modern medical science with the
Greek Surgery and physicians in Homer The cult of
Asklepios Its relation to later medical tradition Relics
of the Asklepieia of Athens and at Epidauros The inscrip-
tions of Epidauros Hippocrates Medical ethics Writ-
ings Hippocrates to Galen Medicine venders at Athens
Doctors Remedies.

Lecture XXIII. Death and Burial.

GK. pp. 287-293; HB. pp. 361-387 ; Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 261 c
and fF. ; Bliimner, LS. II 73 fF. ; St. John, Hellenes III 414-440 ; Beck-
er's Charicles, Exc. to Sc. ix ; Schreiber, Bilderatlas I, Taf. xciv f. ;
Stackelberg, Die Graoer der Hellenen, illustr. (1883) ; Smith, Diet.
Antiq. s. v. Funus ; BD. s. v. Ausstellen, Bestattung, Aschengefasse,
Graber, Totenkultus ; Century Magazine, April, 1882, pp. 836 fF.;
Wachsmuth, Das alte Griechenl. im neuen, 105 fF.

T^***-'*-*' . ~


Death Care for body The -n-poOea-L^ Lament Fu-
neral procession Service at grave Funeral Feast Meth-
ods of burial Coffins Tombs and monuments.

Lecture XXIV. Society and Social Entertainment.

HB. pp. 500 ff.; St. John, Hellenes II 204 ff., 170 ff.; Mahaffy, So-
cial lyife in Greece, ^46 f., 102 fF., 312 fF. ; Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 478
^andfF. ; Bliimner, IvS. II 37-61; Ohlert, Ratsel und Gesellschafts-
spiele der alten Griechen (1886).

Social opportunities Social companies Conventional
manners Responsibility of host Music Conversation
Riddles Stories Games Jugglers Dancers

Lecture XXV. The Greek Religion.

Reseller's Lexikon der griech. und rom. Mythologie ; Welcker,
Griech. Gotterlelire, 3 vols. (1862) ; Preller, Griech. Mythologie, 2 vols.,
3d edit. (1875) ; Nagelsbach, Homerische Theologie (1840) ; Coulan-
ges, The Ancient City, introd. and first six chapters ; MahafFy, Social
Life in Greece, chap, xii ; Grote, Part I, chap, xvi ; Hermann-Stark,
Lehrbuch der gottesdienstlichen Alterthiimer ; Bliimner, LS. II p. 155
ff.; St. John, Hellenes I 349 ff.; Abbott, E., The Theology and Ethics
of Sophocles, Hellenica, pp. 33 ff.; Curtius, E., Die Idee der Unster-
blichkeit bei den Alten, Alterthum und Gegenwart, I 121 ff. ; Smith,
R., The Religion of the Semites, Lect. I and II (1890) ; G611, Toler-
anz, Sektirerei und Proselytenmacherei, Kulturbilder ^I 278 ff. ; Pack-
ard, Studies in Greek thought, pp. i ff.

Peculiarities in the relation of the individual Greek to his
religion Nature worship Its conception of deity De-
velopment of attributes The theogony Development of
the personality of Apollo Dionysos Athene Hermes
Ancestor worship Family religion Influence of the
rise of philosophy The religious spirit of the fifth and
fourth centuries at Athens.

Lecture XXVI. The Greek Worship.

Beside the works cited under preceding : Seeniann, Die gottesdien-
stlichen Gebraiiclie der Gr. und Rom.; Stengel, MHb. V, 3, pp. i ff. ;
Schreiber, Bilderatlas I, Taf. xi-xvi.

Altars Temples Priests : selection, training, appear-
ance, life, duties Diviners and magicians Oracles Sac-
rifice ; its idea, its forms Prayer The mysteries Fes-

Lecture XXVII. The Greek Theory of Education.

Grasberger, Brzichung und Unterricht ini griech. Altertuni, 2 vols.
(1864-1881) ; Schmidt, Geschichte der Padagogik, vol. I (1873) ; Mahaf-
fy. Old Greek Education (1882) ; Wilkins, Essay on National Educa-
tion in Greece (1873) I Browning, O., Introduction to the History of
Educational Theories, (1881), chap, i ; Packard, On Plato's System of
Education, Studies in Greek Thought, pp. 65 ff. ; Nettleship, The
Theory of Education in Plato's republic, Abbott's Hellenica, pp. 67
ff.; iSTewman, The Politics of Aristotle, vol. I, introd. 344 ff.

Importance of an understanding of these theories Con-
cerning theories of education in general Greek idea of the
purpose and aim of education compared with the views of
modern educators Subjects for instruction Methods of

Lecture XXVIII. Schools and Teachers.

Beside works cited under preceding : Becker's Charicles, Exc. ii to
Sc. i; St. John, Hellenes I 164 ff.; BD. s. v. Schulen, Padagogen ;
Bliimner, LS. I 113 ff.; Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 451 ff-; HB. pp. 311
ff.; Schreiber, Bilderatlas I, Taf Ixxxix ff.; GK. pp. 197 ff.


lyack of public provision Age of attendance Time of
day Vacations School-rooms Apparatus Object
teaching Arithmetic Numbers of pupils Teachers
Courses Methods The higher education Development
of universities.

Lecture XXIX. Athletics,

Buchholz, Homerisclie Reahen II, i, 288 ff.; GK. pp. 212 ff., 115 ff.;
Becker's Charicles, Exc. to Sc. v ; Mahaffy, Old Greek Education, 25
ff.; MahafFy, Social Life in Greece, 336 ff.; Miiller, MHb. IV, i, pp. 451 c
and ff. ; Bliimner, LS. II pp. 94 ff. ; St. John, Hellenes I 1 89 ff. ; BD.
5. V. Gymnastik, Hanteln, Ringkampf, Diskoswerfen, Werfen mit
Speeren, Wettlauf, Fiinfkampf, Faustkampf, Pankration, Atlileten.;
Smith, Diet. Antiq. s. v. Gymnasium, Halteres, Stadium, Discus, Luc-
ta. Pancratium, Cestus ; HB. pp. 341 ff.; Schreiber, Bilderatlas I,
Taf xxi f ; Bintz, Die Gymnastik der Hellenen (1878) ; Krause, Gym-
nastik und Agonistik der Hellenen, 2 vols. (1841) ; Jager, Die Gym-
nastik der Hellenen (1881) ; Haase, Erscli und Griiber Encyclop. s. v.
Palastra. ; Botticher, Olympia pp. 89 ff, ; Grasberger, Erziehung und
Unterricht, vol. I, chaps, i and iii.

Relation to education Relation to religion Relation to
art Palaestra Gymnasium Preparation for exercise
Bath Chariot race Boxing Wrestling Foot-race
Quoits Lance-throwing Leaping Ball-games Decline
of gymnastics in professionalism.

Lecture XXX. Music.

GK. pp. 199 ff.; St. John, Hellenes I 184 ff.; Bliimner, LS. II 138 ff.;
HB. pp. 317 ff.; BD. s. v. Musik, Floten, Saiteninstrumente ; Miiller,
MHb. IV, I, 452 <^ and ^; Schreiber, Bilderatlas I, Taf vii ; Mahaffy,
Old Greek Education, 36 ff., 61 ff. : Westphal, Die Musik des griech.
Altertums (1883) ; Girard, ^'education ath^nienne pp. 185 ff. (i^

Value of the Greek word ' music ' The rhapsodes
Music in education The Greek scale The modes


Stringed instruments Wind instruments Clanging in-

Lecture XXXI. The Theatre.

Klein, Geschichte des Dramas, vols. I and II (1865) ; Moulton, The
Ancient Classical Drama (^90) ; Jebb, Primer of Greek Literature, pp.
69 ff. ; Donaldson, the Theatre of the Greeks, 6th edit. (1849) ; Hermann-
Miiller, Griech. Biihnenalterthiimer (Hermann's Lehrbuch III, 2)
(18S6) ; Oehmichen, Das Biihnenwesen der Griech. und Rom. MHb.
V, 3, pp. 222 fF. (1890) ; Opitz, Schauspiel und Theaterwesen der Griech.
und Romer (1889) ; Haigh, The Attic theatre, pp. loi ff. (1889) ; Ar-
ticles by Harrison and Haigh in Classical Review, IV 274 ff. (June,
1890) ; Harrison- Verrall, Mythology and Monuments of ancient Ath-
ens, pp. 271 ff. (1890) ; Arnold, BD. s. v. Theatergebaiide, Milchhofer,
BD. s. V. Athen, pp, 190 ff.; GK. pp. 121 ff.; Wheeler, J. R., Papers of
the American school of classical studies, I 121-179 ; Schreiber, Bilder-
atlas I, Taf. i, ii.

Rise and development of the drama in outline Begin-
nings of theatre - building Vitruvius The orchestra
The stage Present controversy concerning the stage in
early theatres /Seats of spectators Passages Entrances
Dimensions Acoustics Remnants of the theatre at
Athens At Epidauros Roman theatres.

Lecture XXXII. The Dramatic Representations.

From works cited above : Hermann-Miiller, pp. 107 ff.; Oehmichen,
pp. 191-222, 248 ff.; Schreiber, Taf. iii-v ; GK. pp. 275 ff.; Opitz, pp.
125 ff.; Haigh, pp. 65-100; 164 ff.; and also, Becker's Charicles, Exc.
to Sc. X ; BD. .s. v. Theatervorstellung, Trauerspiel, Lustspiel, Chor,
Schauspieler ; G611, Kulturbilder, ^I 320 ff. ; Bliimner, LS. Ill 45 ff-;
St. John, Hellenes II 220 ; Millet, Costumes in the Greek play at
Harvard, Century Magazine, Nov., 1881, pp. 65 ff.; Norman, An Ac-
count of the Harvard Greek Play, illustr. (1882) ; Speed-Pry or. The


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