Benjamin Robbins Curtis.

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l.L CATITAV, YOSEMITE VALLEY



D0TTING8 ROUND THE CIRCLE.



BY



BENJAMIN ROBBINS CURTIS,

FELLOW OF THE AMERICA.JJ GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.



SEVENTH EDITION.




BOSTON:
HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY.

New York; 11 East Seventeenth Street.



COPYEIGHT, 1876.

Bt JAMES R. OSGOOD & CO.



OAMBAIDOE : PRINTED AT THE EIVERSFDE PRESS.



TO

ANDREW nSKE,

WHO ACCOMPANIED ME IN THE MAJORITY OF THESE 'WANDEEINGS,

AS A TOKEN OP GRATITUDE FOE THE CONTINUAL

PLEASUEE HIS COMPANIONSHIP

AFFOSDED MS.



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION.



To this edition of Dottings I have added a chapter
of miscellaneous material. I hope it will interest those
who are already familiar with the book, as well as those
who now for the first time make its acquaintance.

B. H. C.

Boston, September, 1879.



PREFACE



It has been said of one of the greatest minds that
the world has ever produced, that " he dotted round
the circle of human knowledge." With all due mod-
esty for making use of the comparison, I offer to the
public these "Dottings," made in a journey around the
world.

Starting immediately after my graduation at Harvard,
I set out upon a tour of the world, equipped with a
large number of desirable letters of introduction. By
their means I was presented to some of the prominent
people in the East, and by their kind favor I was
shown what was deemed by them worthy of notice.

The result of my observations I now lay before the
public. In the course of such rapid travel it cannot
be expected that any deep political or ethnical investi-
gations have been attempted. I simply offer a pano-
ramic picture of several of the chief countries of the
world.



viii PREFACE.



I have said but little in regard to my wanderings in
Europe. So much has been written of Italy and France
and England, that I have merely noted my arrival in
the different cities, and the impressions I derived from
the most important.

If I can interest any to such a degree that they wdll
wish to see for themselves these wonders of the world
so imperfectly described, I shall feel happy in the
thought that my past pleasure will be experienced afresh
by others.

B. R. C.
Boston, October, 1876.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

Page

From Boston to Salt Lake City 1

Departure. — A Sunday at Niagara Falls. — Detroit. — Chicago. — St.
Louis. — A Freshet on the Plains. — Denver. — Up the Rocky Moun-
tains on a Cow-Catcher. — Central City. — Idaho Springs. — Chey-
enne. — Ogden. — Arrival at Salt Lake City.

CHAPTER II.

From Salt Lake Citt to the Yosemite Valley .... 19
Salt Lake City. — An Interview with Brigham Young. — A Bath in the
Great Salt Lake. — Ogden to Stockton. — Starting for the Yosemite.
— Four Days on the Road.

CHAPTER III.

From the Yosemite Valley to the Pacific Ocean .... 36
Excursions in the Yosemite. — Stockton to San Francisco. — The " Chi-
nese Quarter." — Embarkation for Japan.

CHAPTER IV.

Across the Pacific to Japan 54

The P. M. S. S. Co.'s Great Republic. — My Fellow- Passengers. — The
Long Sea -Voyage. — Arrival at Yokohama.

CHAPTER V.
From Yokohama to Yedo 68

Yokohama. — A Japanese Theatre. — Inoshima. — Daibutsu. — Kama-
kura. — The Railroad to Yedo.



X CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VI.

Yedo 87

Description of the City. — Shiba. — Atago Yama. — Uyeno. — Asakusa.

CHAPTER VII.

Yokohama to Shanghai 101

Yokohama to Kobe. — Osaka. — The Inland Sea. — Across the Yellow
Sea to China. — Shanghai. — " Chin-chin-ing the Moon."

CHAPTER VIII.

Shanghai to Pekin 115

Shanghai to Che-foo. — A Storm in the Gulf of Pe-chi-li. — Tien-tsin. —
Overland to Pekin. — A Chinese Inn. — Arrival at the Capital.

CHAPTER IX.

Pekin to the Great Wall 130

Consultations with the Ministers. — Starting for the Great Wall. — The
Bell Temple. —Wan-shou-san. — The Ming Tombs. —The Great Wall.

CHAPTER X.

Pekin 148

The City. — The Llama Temples. — The Temple of Heaven. — Curio
Street. — The Imperial College and Observatory. — The Marble
Bridge. — The Roman Catholic Cathedrals.

CHAPTER XI.

Pekin to Canton 159

Return to Shanghai. — Amoy. — Canton. — Buddhist Temples and
other Objects of Interest.

CHAPTER XII.

Canton to Batavia 184

Macao. — Fan-tan Gambling. — Hong Kong. — Singapore. — Crossing
the Equator. — Arrival at Batavia.

CHAPTER XIII.

Java to Ceylon 200

Batavia. — Buitenzorg. — An Inland Trip. — Embarkation for Ceylon.
Arrival at Point De Galle.



CONTENTS. xi



CHAPTER XIV.

Ceylon 210

Point De Galle. — Colombo. — Kandy. — The Royal Apartments on
the Serapis. — The Preparation of the Coffee- Berry. — The Prince
of Wales.

CHAPTEE XV.

Ceylon to Calcutta 222

Negapatam. — Pondicherry. — Madras. — Masulipatam. — Coconada. —
Vizagapatara. — Bimlipatam. — Gopolpore. — False Point. — Dia-
mond Harbor. — Arrival at Calcutta.

CHAPTER XVI.

Calcutta to Benares 231

Christmas Eve in Calcutta. — Illumination in Honor of the Prince of
Wales. — Benares. — The Ghats and Temples. — Burning the Dead.

— Sarnath.

CHAPTER XVII.

LucKNOW, Cav^npore, and Delhi 250

Lucknow. — The Residency, and the Mutiny Days of 1857. — Curious
Buildings. — Cawnpore. — Wheeler's Entrenchment and the Slaugh-
ter Ghat. — Delhi. — The Fort and Palace of the Moguls. — The
Jama Musjid. — The Kootub. — A Nautch Dance. — The Story of
the Siege.

CHAPTER XVIII.
Agra and Bombay 283

The Taj of Agra. — The Pearl Mosque. — The Fort. — The Tomb of
Akbar the Great. — Bombay. — The Tower of Silence. — The Caves
of Elephauta. — Embarkation for Egypt.

CHAPTER XIX.

Up the Red Sea to Cairo ' . . 292

Aden. — Heat on the Red Sea. — Suez. — Across the Desert to Cairo.

— Egyptian Mosques. — Excursion to the Pyramids. — The Dancing
Dei-vishes. — Arrival at Alexandria.

CHAPTER XX.

Alexandria to Florence 310

Alexandria. — Pompey's Pillar. — Cleopatra's Needle. — The Catacombs.

— Across the Mediterranean to Brindisi. — Arrival at Florence.



xii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXI.

Italy to France 315

Florence. — Naples. — Rome. — Venice. — Milan. — Turin. — Arrival
at Paris.

CHAPTER XXII.

Paris, London, and Boston 323

Notes on Paris and the French. — Arrival in London. — Embarkation
at Liverpool. — The Cunard Steamship Russia. — New York to
Boston.

CHAPTER XXIII.

The Dancing-Girls of Japan 330

Translation from Tasi. — Feng-Shui. — Translation of Passport to Peking.
— Shakyamuni Gautama Buddha, — Tit for Tat.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

— »

1. El Capitax, Yosemite Valley {Frontispiece).

Page

2. Japanese Peasant-Woman. . . , . . . 72-73

3. Gateway at Shiba 92-93

4. Chinese Mandapjn and Wife 110-111

5. PASSPOP.T to Pekin and the Great Wall .... 124 - 125

6. A Street in Pekin 148-149

7. A Chinese Police-Coukt 154-155

8. Official Card of U. S. Consul at Canton . . . 166 - 167

9. A Chinese Execution 170-171

10. Interior of a Buddhist Temple, Canton . . . 182-183

11. A View in Buitenzorg, Java 202-203

12. The Burning Ghat, Benares 242-243

13. H. H. the Maharaja of Bhurtpore, Ministers and Suite 276-277

14. Egyptian Dancing-Girl 298-299



/



DOTTINGS ROUND THE CIRCLE,



CHAPTER I.

FROM BOSTON TO SALT LAKE CITY.

Departure. — A Sunday at Niagara Falls. — Detroit. — Chicago. —
St. Louis. — A Freshet on the Plains. — Denver. — Up the Rocky
Mountains on a Cow-Catcher. — Central City. — Idaho Springs. —
Cheyenne. — Ogden. — Arrival at Salt Lake City.

1875, June 30. — Leaving Boston at 9 P. m. (by the Boston
and Albany Eailroad), I reach New York City at half past
five o'clock the next morning.

July 3. — After spending two days in New York City and
vicinity, I leave the Grand Central Depot at 10 a. m. (by the
Hudson Kiver Eaiboad) for Albany, where I have agreed to

meet F , my college classmate and travelling companion.

The weather is fine, but decidedly warm ; but in spite of
this, the journey along the bank of the Hudson is full of
interest. The mountains rising from the opposite shore of the
river, covered with a delicate bluish haze, look picturesque
and refreshingly cool; while the different steamers passing up
and down, with here and there a sail-boat for variety, keep
the eye continually occupied. We reach Albany at two



DOTTING S ROUND THE CIRCLE.



o'clock, and I find I have an hour to wait before the " special
express" on which F is coming will arrive from Bos-
ton. The time passes quickly by, and promptly at three

o'clock the "special" appears, with F standing on the

platform of the front car, waving his hat joyously. Soon after
this we start for Niagara Falls via Eochester. Of course
we have the traditional wedding couple on board ; and of
course the gentleman alights at every third station, eager to
pour the entire contents of the refreshment-table into his
wife's lap. As evening draws on (of course) the lady, be-
coming weary, rests her head lovingly and confidingly on her
husband's shoulder, and, with his arm encircling her, they
sit absorbed in themselves, forgetful of the outside world;
while (of course) all the other passengers regard them with
looks of half-pitying contemjDt. The train stops at Utica for
supper, and we are soon again on our way. A grand railroad
this New York Central, with its four broad tracks, its com-
fortable cars, its powerful engines, and its numberless trains !
We are rushing continually on, through broad cultivated fields
stretching away into the distance, past populous towns and
cities, or, now leaving civilization for a time, we plunge into
a thick wood, or dash round a sharp cutting in the rocks,
and stop suddenly at some manufacturing village, whose in-
habitants all turn out to give us a welcome. At 10.30 P. m.
we reach Eochester, and here we must change cars for Niagara
Falls. At 2 A. M. we arrive at our destination, and are shown

o



r5

CIS



FROM BOSTON TO SALT LAKE CITY. 3

to very comfortable rooms by the sleepy-looking clerk of the
International, and, lulled by the ceaseless roar of the Falls,
I drift into unconsciousness, thinking what a great State New
York is, in which one can travel by express-train from ten
o'clock one morning to two o'clock of the following, without
leaving its limits.

Julij 4- — The ninety-ninth anniversary of our country's in-
dependence, though falling on a Sunday, is here ushered in
by ringing of bells and an occasional fire-cracker ; the younger
portion of the community, however, evidently reserving itself

for the morrow. After breakfast F and I start on foot

for the Falls, successfully and completely routing the continu-
ous attacks of the hackmen and guides by my truthful reply,
" I have been here before," which stops each one's impor-
tunities, and apparently affects them as the sign of the cross
does the Evil One. After wandering through Prospect Park
we descend by the inclined railroad, and are ferried across
the river to the Canada side by a remarkably muscular Charon
of French descent. Two wedded couples accompany us ; and
when our little boat has reached the middle of the stream,
the mighty roaring cataract above us, the clouds of rising
spray, and the swiftly flowing river give great alarm to the
ladies, and enable the husbands to exhibit themselves in the
most heroic aspects. On the Canada side we are surrounded
by traders of all kinds ; but we have been wisely warned against
purchasing, as a heavy duty is exacted by the United States



DOTTING S ROUND THE CIRCLE.



authorities as soon as the article purchased is carried over
the border. Indeed, one gentleman got thus into quite a se-
rious difficulty; for having bought a tablecloth at a Canadian
store, he was charged a large per cent by the United States
customs officers ; and, not deeming it worth such an additional
sum, he was returning with it to the shop where he had pur-
chased it, when he was halted on the other side by the Cana-
dian officials, who declared that it was a product of the United
States, and requested him to deposit the usual duty before
bringing it into their country. The gentleman, however, suc-
ceeded in convincing them that he had bought it in Canada,
and he returned it to its original owner, declaring that he
wanted to have nothing further to do with the ill-fated article.
After wandering along the Canadian side, we return by the
new suspension-bridge, and, after an afternoon passed in quiet,
seek sleep t-o prepare us for the journey of the morrow.

July 5. —' We leave Niagara Falls at 1 p. m. by the Michi-
gan Central and Great "Western Eailroad, and, after a some-
what tedious and rather uninteresting day's journey, we arrive
in Detroit at 10 p. m., and drive at once to the Russell
House for the night. To-day we made our first trial of a
" hotel-car " ; and although the dinner is hot and the food well
cooked and of good quality, still the dust and cinders pretty
effectually spoil the repast; for, as the kitchen occupies a
large share of these hotel-cars, it is almost impossible to keep
the windows closed.



FROM BOSTON TO SALT LAKE CITY. 5

July 6. — As Detroit is familiar to one of us, and as we
are obliged to be in San Francisco by August 1 to take the
steamer for Japan, and as there are, moreover, many new
places which we wish to visit on the way, we decide to
make no stop of any length at present, and a very hasty
survey of Detroit is all that we can allow ourselves. Detroit
has many fine business blocks, and "Woodward Avenue con-
tains some of the handsomest residences in the West. The
large lake steamers lying at the docks give to the city an air
of extended commerce which is very impressive.

We leave Detroit at 9.30 a. m. by the Michigan Central
Eailroad, and when we have travelled about two hours the
aspect of the country through which we are passing has be-
come thoroughly " Western." On both sides of the railroad
the fences between the fields are far less numerous than in
New England, probably indicating that these long stretches
of rich grain are the property of a single proprietor. The
towns and villages, too, look fresh and new, and the tall, keen-
looking men, standing about in top-boots and flannel shirts,
are strange objects to our Eastern eyes. At Kalamazoo our
train rushes through a thick cloud of grasshoppers, who flutter
and spread themselves over everything they meet, making it
evident what serious damage they are capable of inflicting to
crops over which they pass. At 7 P. m. we come in sight of
Lake Michigan, and for nearly an hour our train runs close
to the water, until, having rounded a curve, we see a great



DOTTING S ROUND THE CIRCLE.



city spread out before us; clouds of smoke are pouring forth
out of tall chimneys; the spires of churches stand out against
the sky; our train rattles across several switches, rushes into
a perfect labyrinth of tracks, gives a long shrill whistle, and
at last comes to a stand-still; we alight and set foot in Chi-
cago.

In 1833 Chicago was the name applied to a few houses
near Fort Dearborn. In 1840 it had a population of 4,000;
at present it has about 400,000. "We enter one of the many
omnibuses standing near the station, and soon have obtained
most comfortable quarters at the Palmer House.

July 7. — After a refreshing sleep and most excellent break-
fast, we walk out through the principal business street of
the city. What a rush and whirl and hurry everywhere !
Everybody walks rapidly along, rarely looking in each other's
faces, each mind intent on its own business ; each man, ap-
parently, eager to get to a particular place before his neighbor,
each fearful lest a moment's delay may upset his plans for-
ever. This feverish haste is, it seems to me, far more notice-
able than in New York itself. Some idea of the extent and
variety of the trade of Chicago may be formed from the fol-
lowing : " In 1872 about 70,000,000 bushels of grain came to
^market, with 1,000,000,000 feet of timber, 400,000 cattle,
1,900,000 hogs, and 3,000,000 sheep. Enormous elevators
shoot the grain into the vessels at the rate of 10,000 tons a
day; one vessel can be filled in twenty minutes."



FROM BOSTON TO SALT LAKE CITY. /

In the afternoon we take a carriage and drive about the
city. The private residences, even on IVIichigan Avenue, do
not satisfy my expectations. Many of the houses are built
of wood, and a large majority of them look hastily constructed.
The people of Chicago, however, can congratulate themselves
on their fine " Boulevards," and the sight of them make me
remember with regret how much Boston is in need of similar
drives for her citizens. "We drive next to the building con-
taining the complicated and ponderous machinery which draws
water from a point two miles out in the lake, for the use of
the city ; and, standing near this mass of iron, it hardly seems
possible that it owes its very existence and movement to the
comparatively small ^objects called men that circulate at its
feet! From the neighboring tower a fine bird's-eye view of
the city can be obtained.

We leave Chicago at 8 P. M. by the Chicago, Alton, and St.
Louis Eailroad, and reach St. Louis, our next objective
point, at nine o'clock the following morning, after travelling
with fearful rapidity.

July 8. — After breakfasting at a comfortably late hour at
the Southern Hotel, we walk out to see the new bridge
over the Mississippi Pdver, and find it truly a wonder of
engineering art and mechanical construction. We make a
hasty survey of some of the principal streets of St. Louis,
which seems to contain characteristics of both Northern and
Southern cities; but as the heat is very oppressive, we soon



8 DOTTINGS ROUND THE CIRCLE.

return to the hotel, and endeavor to keep as cool as we pos-
sibly can, sitting quietly in doors.

We had intended to travel without change from St. Louis
to Denver, but, owing to a recent " wash-out " on the North-
Missouri Eailroad, we find that we shall be obliged to travel
to Kansas City by the Missouri Pacific Eaiboad, and change
there on to the Kansas Pacific Eailroad, which will carry us
to Denver. So at 8 P. m. we arrive at the station of the Mis-
souri Pacific Eailroad, and enter the Pullman car only to find
that our section (which we have previously engaged) is oppo-
site a very colony of individuals. A mother with an elderly
daughter, two small boys, a baby, and a maid, give all the
rest of the passengers a mathematical as well as practical
puzzle to decide how they intend to stow themselves for the
night in places for a third of their nimiber. The enigma is
soon solved, however, by the mother remarking in a loud tone
of voice that " she hopes some gentleman will give her a

lower berth or take some of her children ! " Before F or

myself are called upon to immolate our night's rest on the
altar of politeness, the conductor enters and informs us that
our section is the corresponding one in the car ahead; so
we leave the other gentlemen to attend to the lady's clearly-
expressed wish, and make our way forward, congratulating
ourselves that we shall now " have peace " : but it is not to
be. We find in our section in this car a young mother with
a little girl and a very young baby, the latter of whom, over-



FROM BOSTON TO SALT LAKE CITY. 9

come probably by tiie excessive lieat and want of sleep, is
crying heartily. This family gre merely occupying our sec-
tion till their own is prepared for the night; and this being
accomplished, they retire, and we take possession. The poor
baby cries all through the night with unfailing regularity, and
when, at last, morning breaks, I am amazed to see the mother
offer her children a breakfast of cold chicken, pickles, and
Washington pie !

Jidy 9. — "We reach Kansas City at 8.30 a. m., and find the
train for Denver waiting near by on the Kansas Pacific Rail-
road. We start at ten o'clock, and soon after are rushing
over the desolate prairies.* Far as the eye can see, on either
side of the train stretches one flat, unbroken, barren waste of
land, with scarcely a living thing to break the intense silence
and dreadful monotony. Once in about two hours the train
halts at a " station," — consisting of one dwelling-house, a
saloon, and a few lazy-looking Indians, — and, after taking
in a fresh supply of water and coal, we leave all this behind
us, with no great regret. Wearied with the monotony, I go
forward on to the engine, and persuade the engineer to let
me ride with him. From here I can at least see all that the
country has to show. Once, as we dash along, a great eagle
rises majestically in front of us, hovers a moment near by as if
filled with a sort of sad wonder at being driven away from his

* In fact, in all my after-travel to San Francisco I did not find any more dreary,
lonely, and uninteresting country than from Kansas City to Denver.



10 DOTTINGS ROUND THE CIRCLE.

solitary haunt, and then floats gracefully off. A little farther
along we scatter a herd of antelopes, which bound quickly
aside. Having paused for half an hour at a characteristic
" station " to discuss some dangerous-looking compounds called
" dinner," we continue our journey. The afternoon wears
wearily away ; we stop again for " supper " ; the sun sets in
a mass of dark clouds, and a storm is evidently upon us.
Soon the rain begins to patter down on the car-roof, accom-
panied by thunder, lightning, and hail. Still we rush on.
Outside the car windows all is thick darkness, and the rain-
drops striking against the glass can plainly be heard above

the noise of the train. I look over at F ; he is fast

asleep, and I strive to foUow his example.

July 10. — We are due in Denver at 6 p. m. ; but at the
station where we halt for dinner we receive the annoying
news by telegraph that the thunder-storm of yesterday has
washed away two bridges between us and Denver, and a long
delay is inevitable. To add to our misfortunes, it begins to
rain again heavily, and a more desolate-looking car's company
can hardly be found. Fortunately, however, we are halted at
a little place (called Hugo) where food can be obtained.
Another afternoon passes; evening closes in. What a com-
fortless position ! Standing still away out on a desolate
prairie in a drenching rain, — drenching, for the roof of our
Pullman leaks badly, and all we can do is to follow the
porter's advice and " wait till it swells " !



FROM BOSTON TO SALT LAKE CITY. II

July 11. — Sunday morning dawns, however, clear and cool ;
and it seems as if Nature is determined to show us as bright
a face as possible after her gloomy aspect of yesterday. After
breakfasting on what the place affords, we stroll about and
endeavor to pass the time as best we can ; and I cannot help
thinking how differently we are spending Sunday from those
in Boston : for, instead of the musical church-bells, we hear
only the discordant sounds from pigs, poultry, and cattle ; and,
instead of the throngs of well-dressed people bound to the
different churches, we see only a few weary passengers, and
an occasional Indian riding along on a mustang. By dinner-
time we find that our unexpected and prolonged stay at Hugo
has somewhat exhausted its culinary resources; and for this,
as well as other reasons, we are delighted to hear, about 2 P. Ji.,
that the bridges have been repaired, and that we can proceed.
After travelling slowly for one hundred and five miles, we
finally arrive at Denver at 8 P. M., having been on the road
from Kansas City fifty-eight hours ! Every one coming to
Denver hears, long before his arrival, of its excellent hotels,
the best, indeed, between St. Louis and Salt Lake City, — the
Grand Central, the Interocean, the Sargent House, and others.
Not knowing, of course, exactly where they are located in
the city, he will be somewhat surprised, immediately on his
arrival at the station, to see directly opposite, across the
square, a row of small ivoodeji hotels, each one bearing one
of these well-kno%vn names, its namesake being in reality



12 DOTTING S ROUND THE CIRCLE.

located in a distant part of the town; and, unless one is on
the lookout for this deception, it may happen that you take



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