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chiefly at his own expense, a corps of
loyalists. In 1777 he was appointed a
brigadier-general in the royal service. His
military operations were chiefly in the
region of New York City. At the evacua
tion of that city in 1783 he went to Eng
land. He died in Beverley, England,
Nov. 27, 1785.

De Lancey, OLIVER, military officer;
born in New York City in 1752; edu
cated abroad ; entered the British army
in 1766, and rose to major in 1773; was
with the British army in Boston during
the siege in 1775-76, and accompanied it
to Nova Scotia. He returned with it to
Staten Island in June, and commanded the
British cavalry when the army invaded
Long Island in August, which formed the
advance of the right column. To him Gen
eral Woodhull surrendered under promise
of protection, but it was not afforded, and
the patriot was murdered. He was active
under Sir Henry Clinton throughout the
war. In 1781 he succeeded Major Andre as
adjutant - general, and on his return to
England undertook the arrangement of the
claims of the loyalists for compensation
for losses in America. He was also at the
head of a commission for settling all
army accounts during the war. Because
of defalcations in his public accounts, he
was removed from office. He was elected
to Parliament in 1796; was promoted to
lieutenant-general in 1801, and to general
in 1812. He died in Edinburgh, Scotland,
Sept. 3, 1822.

Delano, COLUMBUS, statesman; born in
Shoreham, Vt., June 5, 1809; settled in
Mount Vernon, O., in 1817; admitted

to the bar in 1831, and became prominent
as a criminal lawyer. He was a member
of Congress in 1844-64 and 1866-68; was
appointed United States commissioner of
internal revenue in 1869, and later by
reorganizing the bureau increased the re
ceipts in eight months more than 100 per
cent.; and was Secretary of the Depart
ment of the Interior in 1870-75. He died
in Mount Vernon, 0., Oct. 23, 1896.

Delaware, the first of the thirteen
original States that ratified the federal
Constitution; takes its name from Lord
De la Warr (Delaware), who entered the
bay of that name in 1610, when he was
governor of Virginia. It had been dis
covered by Hudson in 1609. In 1629
Samuel Godyn, a director of the Dutch
West India Company, bought of the Ind
ians a tract of land near the mouth of
the Delaware; and the next year De
Vries, with twenty colonists from Hol
land, settled near the site of Lewes. The
colony was destroyed by the natives three
years afterwards, and the Indians had
sole possession of that district until 1638,
when a colony of Swedes and Finns


landed on Cape Henlopen, and purchased
the lands along the bay and river as far
north as the falls at Trenton (see NEW
SWEDEN). They built Fort Christiana
near the site of Wilmington. Their settle
ments were mostly planted within the
present limits of Pennsylvania. The
Swedes were conquered by the Dutch of



New Netherland in 1655, and from
that time until 10G4, when New Nether-
land was conquered by the English,
the territory was claimed by the
Dutch, and controlled by them. Then
Lord Baltimore, proprietor of Maryland,
claimed all the territory on the west side
of Delaware Bay, and even to lat. 40 ;
and settlers from Maryland attempted to
drive away the settlers from the present
State of Delaware. When William Pcnn
obtained a grant of Pennsylvania, he was
very desirous of owning the land on Dela
ware Bay to the sea, and procured from
the Duke of York a release of all his title

and claim to New Castle and 12 miles
around it, and to the land between that
tract and the sea: and in the presence of
all the settlers he produced his deeds
(October, 1682), and formally accepted
the surrender of the territory. Lord Bal
timore pressed his claim, but in 1685 the
Lords of Trade and Plantations made a
decision in Penn s favor. A compromise
afterwards adjusted all conflicting claims.
The tracts which now constitute the State-
of Delaware, Penn called " The Terri
tories," or " Three Lower Counties on the
Delaware." They were governed as a
part of Pennsylvania for about twenty




years afterwards, and each county had

six delegates in the legislature. Then ENGLISH COLONIAL.

Penn allowed them a separate legislature; From 1664 up to 1682, under the government of New

,, ,. York; and from 1683 up to 1773, under the proprietary

but the colony was under the governor of government of Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania until 1776, when the in-

State \. constitution was adopted by a ame


1776 to 1777
1778 " 1781
1782 " 1783
1784 to 1786
1786 " 1789
1789 " 1796
1796 " 1797
1797 " 1798
1798 " 1801
1801 " 1802
1802 " 1805
1805 " 1808
1808 " 1811
1811 1814
1814 1817
1817 1820
1820 1821
1821 1822
1822 1823
1823 1824
1824 1827
1827 " 1830
1830 1833
1833 1836
1836 1837
1837 1840
1840 1844
1844 " 1846
1847 to 1851
1851 i4 1855
1855 " 1859
1859 " 1863
1863 " 1867
1867 " 1871
1871 " 1875
1875 " 1879
1879 " 1883
1883 " 1887
1887 " 1891
1891 " 1895
1895 to 1897
1897 " 1901
1901 1905
1905 " 1909

convention of the people of the three JJJ^w Rodney,

counties New Castle Kent and Sussex John Dickinson

Sept. 20, 1776. A State government NSotaaVai byke!. .

was organized, and John McKinley was Thomas Collins

elected its first governor. In 1/92 a sec- J, uuuiDg B J edfo rf . ..

ond constitution was framed and adopted. Daniel Rodgers

Although Delaware was a slave State, it j^es sykes

refused to secede at the outbreak of the David Hail

jivil war; and, though it assumed a QeorgeTruitt

sort of neutrality, it furnished several Joseph Haziett

regiments 01 volunteers lor tne union * . jr J

army. In all the wars Delaware patri- Jacob Stout

otically furnished its share of men and ^^ u ^ j" s

money for the public defence. In 1902 Joseph Haziett

the State had an assessed property valua- p^ 01 ] pT^* er

tion of $09,351.696; and in 1904 had David Hazzard

ocofa r\f <KfJQ^ 9^rt in ct-vnoaa r\f all lia Caleb P Bennett

Charles Folk

blllties. The population in 1890 Was Cornelius P Comegys

1 PS 4Q^ in 1 QOO 184 7^5^ William B Cooper. .

Thomas Stockton

When Howe entered Philadelphia (Sep- Joseph Maul

William Thorp

control of the Delaware River below that William H Ross

J William Burton

of the Schuvlkill and Delaware, was William Cannon

In 11 If TTnvf TVTifflin On flip "\Tp\V Tpr<aPV GrOVe SaUlsbUFV

shore, opposite, at Red Bank, was Fort John P cochran

Charles C Stockley

with heavy artillery. At Billmgsport, on Benjamin T Biggs

extensive but unfinished works designed William T Watson

, , , .. . ,, . Php W Tnrmpll

John H inn

there. Other formidable obstructions p res ton Lea.

\vore placed m the river below forts UNITED STATES SENATORS

No. of Congress


chcvaux-dc-frise sunken crates of stones. -
. . , ,. , Richard Bassett
with heavy spears of iron-pointed timber, George Read

Island 2d
1st " 2d
3d to 6th
3d " 5th
5th to 8th
7th llth
8th 12th
llth 16th
13th 14th
15th 19th
18th to 10th
19th to 20th
20th 21st
21st 23d
21st 23d
24th 28th
24th 2ftth
29th 30th

1789 to 1793
1789 1793
1793 1H01
1793 1798
1799 to 1805
1801 1809
1805 1813
1810 1821
1813 1817
1817 1827
1821 1823
1824 1827
1827 to 1829
1827 1829
1829 1835
1830 1836
1836 1845
1837 1847
1845 1849

Besides these, there were floating batteries. jbul Clayton "".. ....


ED STATES DELAWARE, m vol. ix. XEi A Bayard . . ......

GOVERNORS OF DELAWARE. Oajgbrl^Horjey . ; ; -
UNDER THE swKDKS. Nicholas Van Dyke

Nam - Date - Thomas Clnvton

Peter Minuit . 1638 to 1640 Daniel Kodnry.

Peter Hollender 1040 1642 Henr y M - Rl(1gely

Johan Printz 1643" 1652 i T 8 ,? 1 r n Lan f
icco i -IPCA John M Clayton

Johan Pappegoia 1653 " 1654 . . . : T < .
Johan C Rising . 1654 " 1655 Arnold Naudam.

Richard H. Bayard
UNDER THE DUTCH. Thomas Clayton

Peter Stuvvesant .. . . | 1655 to 1664 John M. Clayton





No. of Congress.


John Wales

30th to 31st

1849 to 1851

Presley Spruance
James A. Bayard

30th " 82d
32d " 38th

1847 " 1853
1851 " 1864

John M Clayton

33d " 34th

1853 " 1856

Joseph P. Comegy-s
Martin Bates



Willard Saulsburv

30th to 41st

1859 to 1871

George Read Kiddle
James A. Bayard
Thomas Francis Bayard. .
Eli Saulsbury

38th " 40th
41st to 48th
4 (1 " 50th

18G4 " 18C7
18G7 18G9
18G9 1885
1871 1889

George Gray

4 Jth " 5Gth

1885 1899

Anthony Higgins

51st " 54th

1889 1895

Richard R. Kenney
Lewis H. Ball
James F. Allee

54th " Sfith
58th to 59th

1897 " 1901
1903 " 1905
1903 " 1907

Delaware, or Delawarr, THOMAS WEST,
3i> LORD: appointed governor of Virginia
in 1009. He built two forts at the mouth
of the James River, which he named
Henry and Charles, in honor of the King s
sons. In 1011 he sailed for the West
Indies, but was driven back by a storm
and landed at the mouth of the Delaware
River, whence he sailed for England. In
1018 he embarked for Virginia and died
on the voyage.

Delaware Indians, an important fam
ily of the Algonquian nation, also called
Lenni-Lenapes, or " men." When the
Europeans found them, they were dwell

ing in detached bands, under separate
sachems on the Delaware River. The
Dutch traded with them as early as 1613,
and held friendly relations with them;
but in 1632 the Dutch settlement of Swan-
endael was destroyed by them. The
Swedes found them peaceful when they
settled on the Delaware. This family
claim to have come from the west with
the Minquas, to whom they became vas
sals. They also claimed to be the source
of all the Algonquians, and were styled
" grandfathers/ The Delawares com
prised three powerful families (Turtle,
Turkey, and Wolf), and were known as
Minseys, or Munsees, and Delawares
proper. The former occupied the northern
part of New Jersey and a portion of Penn
sylvania, and the latter inhabited lower
New Jersey, the banks of the Delaware
below Trenton, and the whole valley of
the Schuylkill. After the conquest of
New Netherland, the English kept up
trade with the Delawares, and William
Penn and his followers bought large tracts
of land from them. They were parties
on the Indian side to the famous treaty
with Penn. At that time the Indians
within the limits of his domain were
estimated at 6,000 in number. The FIVE




NATIONS (q. v.} conquered the Delawares, of a treaty in 1787, a small band of Dela-
and called them "women" in contempt; v/ares returned to the Muskingum, the
and when, at the middle of the eighteenth remainder being hostile. These fought
century, the latter, dissatisfied with the Wayne, and were parties to the treaty at
interpretation of a treaty, refused to Greenville in 1795. The scattered tribes
leave their land, the Five Nations in Ohio refused to join Tecumseh in the
haughtily ordered them to go. War of 1812, and in 1818 they ceded all

Commingling with warlike tribes, the their lands to the United States, and set-
Delawares became warlike themselves, and tied on the White River, in Illinois, to
developed great energy on the war-path, the number of 1,800, leaving a small
They fought the Cherokees, and in 1773 remnant behind. They finally settled in
some of them went over the mountains Kansas, where missions were established
and settled in Ohio. As early as 1741 among them, and they rapidly increased
the Moravians had begun missionary work in the arts of civilized life. In the Civil
among them on the Lehigh, near Bethle- War, the Delawares furnished 170 soldiers
hem and Nazareth, and a little church for the National army. Having acquired
was soon filled with Indian converts. At land from the Cherokees in the Indian
the beginning of the French and Indian Territory, they now occupy the Coowees-
War the Delawares were opposed to the eoowee and Delaware districts; numbered
English, excepting a portion who were led 754 in 1900.

by the Moravians; but in treaties held Delaware River, WASHINGTON S PAS-
at Easton, Pa., at different times, from SAGE OF THE. At the close of November,
1756 until 1701, they made peace with the 1776, the British occupied New Jersey,
English, and redeemed themselves from and only the Delaware River shut off Corn-
Iheir vassalage to the Six NATIONS (q. v.). wallis from Philadelphia. On Dec. 2,
They settled on the Susquehanna, the Washington, with a considerable force,
Christian Indians apart. Then another crossed the river, securing every boat so
emigration over the mountains occurred, that the British were unable to follow
and they planted a settlement at Mus- him. Determined to surprise the Hessians,
kingum, O. These joined Pontiac, and under Colonel Rahl, at Trenton, Washing-
besieged Fort Pitt and other frontier ton recrossed the river a few miles above
posts, but were defeated in August, 1763, Trenton on Dec. 25, with 2,400 men and
by Colonel Bouquet, and their great chief, twenty pieces of artillery. Owing to the
Teedyuscung, was killed. Their towns darkness and the floating ice it w r as 4
were ravaged, and the Moravian converts, A.M. on the 26th before the entire force
who were innocent, fled for refuge to had crossed. General Knox, the constant
Philadelphia. These returned to the Sus- companion of Washington throughout the
quehanna in 1764, and the Ohio portion war, had crossed the river before it became
made peace at Muskingum the same choked with ice, and during the night
year, and at Fort Pitt in 1765. The that Washington and his party recrossed
remainder in Pennsylvania emigrated to it, Knox stood on the opposite shore, and
Ohio, and in 1786 not a Delaware was indicated where a landing could be safely
left east of the Alleghany Mountains, made. See TRENTON, BATTLE OF.
Moravian missionaries went with their Delfthaven, the port of Holland from
Hocks, and the Christian Indians increased, which the Pilgrim fathers sailed in the
The pagans kept upon the war-path until Spcedirrll, July 22, 1620, for Southamp-
thoy were severely smitten in a drawn ton. They embarked on the Mayfloioer at
battle at Point Pleasant, in 1774. Plymouth.

The Delawares joined the English when Delniar, ALEXANDER, political econo-
the Revolutionary War broke out, but mist; born in New York, Aug. 9, 1836;
made peace with the Americans in 1778, edited Daily American Times; Hunt s
when a massacre of ninety of the Chris- Merchants Magazine; Financial Chron-
tian Indians in Ohio by the Americans icle, etc., and published Gold Money and
aroused the fury of the tribe. Being Paper Money; Treatise on Taxation; The
almost powerless, they fled to the Huron National Banking System; History of
Iiiver and Canada. Under the provisions Money and the Monetary System, etc.
HI. E 65


plorer; born in New York City, Aug. 22,
1844; graduated at the United States
Naval Academy in 1865, and promoted
ensign in 18G6; master in 1868; lieuten
ant in 1869; and lieutenant-commander,
Nov. 1, 1879. He was with Capt. Daniel
L. Braine on the Juniata, when he was
ordered, in 1873, to search for the miss
ing Arctic steamer Polaris and her crew.
On July 8, 1879, he was given command of
the Jeannettc, which had been fitted out
for a three years exploration trip via
Bering Strait. By an act of Congress the
vessel was placed under the authority of
the government. After touching at Ouna-
laska, St. Michael s and St. Lawrence
Bay, the Jeannette sailed to Cape Serdze
Kamen, Siberia, in search of Professor
Nordenskjold, the Swedish explorer. Sail
ing northward the vessel was caught in
the pack-ice, Sept. 5, 1879, off Herald Isl
and, and, after drifting 600 miles to the
northwest in a devious course, was crushed
by the ice, June 13, 1881. Thus Lieuten
ant-Commander De Long and his crew
were adrift in the Arctic Sea 150 miles
from the New Siberian Islands and more
than 300 miles from the nearest point of
the mainland of Asia. With his party he
started southward, and on July 28, 1881,
arrived at Bennett Island, and on Aug. 20
at Thaddeus Island, from which place they
travelled in boats. De Long, with four
teen others out of his crew of thirty-
three, reached the main mouth of the
Lena River, Sept. 17, having travelled
about 2,800 miles, and landing on the
mainland about 500 miles from their ship.
With his men he proceeded as fast as he
could until Oct. 9, when it became im
possible to travel farther owing to the
debility of the men. The party had sepa
rated into three branches, one command
ed by De Long, the second by Lieutenant
Chipp, and the third by CHIEF ENGINEER
GEORGE W. MELVILLE (q. v.). All of De
Long s party, excepting two, perished;
Chipp s boat was lost in a gale, with
eight men ; but Melville, with nine others,
succeeded in reaching a small village on
the Lena. The two survivors of the De
Long party, who had been sent by that
officer in search of relief, met the Melville
party on Oct. 29. On hearing thoir re

port, Melville with his party started im
mediately on a search for De Long and
his companions, and on March 23, 1882.
found their remains, together with the
records of the expedition and De Long s
diary written up to Oct. 30 previous. The
United States government had the remains
of De Long and his companions brought
home and they were interred with appro
priate honors on Feb. 22, 1884. See The
Voyage of the Jeannette, by Mrs. De
Long; and In the Lena Delta,, by George
W. Melville.

Deming, WILLIAM, gun-founder; born
in 1736; during the Revolution construct
ed the first wrought-iron cannon ever made
in America, one of which was captured
by the British at the battle of Brandy-
wine, and is kept as a curiosity at the
Tower of London. He died in Mifflin, Pa.,
Dec. 19, 1830.

Democracy in New Netherland.
Gov. WILLIAM KIEFT (q. v.) had resolved
to chasten the Raritan Indians for a grave
offence. He called upon the people to
shoulder their muskets for a fight. The} 7
knew his avarice and greed, and withal his
cowardice, and boldly charged these things
upon him. " It is all well for you," they
said, " who have not slept out of the fort
a single night since you came, to endanger
our lives and our homes in undefended
places," and they refused to obey. This
attitude of the people transformed the
governor. He invited (Aug. 23, 1641) the
heads of families of New Amsterdam to
meet him in consultation on public af
fairs. They assembled at the fort, and
promptly chose twelve citizens to represent
them. So appeared the first popular as
sembly, and so was chosen the first rep
resentative congress in New Netherland.
It was a spontaneous outgrowth of the
innate spirit of democracy that animated
the people. The twelve were the vigorous
seeds of that representative democracy
which bore fruit in all the colonies more
than a century later. Again, when the
colony was threatened with destruction by
the Indians, Kieft summoned the people
into council (September, 1643), who
chose eight men as the popular represen
tatives to act with the governor in pub
lic affairs. Again when Gov. PETER
STUYVESANT (q. v.) found the finances of
the colony of New Netherland in such a



wretched condition that taxation was was to form and adopt a remonstrance
necessary, he dared not tax the people against the tyrannous rule of the govern-
without their consent, for fear of offend- or. It was drawn by Baxter, signed by
ing the States-General, so he called a all the delegates present, and sent to the
convention of citizens, and directed them governor, with a demand that he should
to choose eighteen of their best men, of give a " categorical answer." In it the
whom he might select nine as represen- grievances of the people w r ere stated
tatives of the tax-payers, and who should under six heads. Stuyvesant met this
form a co-ordinate branch of the local severe document with his usual pluck,
government. He tried to hedge them He denied the right of some of the dele-
around with restrictions, but the nine gates to seats in the convention. He de-
proved to be more potent in promoting nounced the whole thing as the wicked
popular liberty than had Kieft s twelve, work of Englishmen, and doubted whether
They nourished the prolific seed of George Baxter knew w r hat he was about,
democracy, which burst into vigorous life He w r anted to know whether there was
in the time of JACOB LEISLEK (q. v.). no one among the Dutch in New Nether-
Stuyvesant tried to stifle its growth. The land " sagacious and expert enough to
more it was opposed, the more vigorous draw up a remonstrance to the Director-
it grew. General and his council," and severely
Late in the autumn of 1653 a conven- reprimanded the new city government of
tion of nineteen delegates, who represented New Amsterdam ( New York ) for " seiz-
eight villages or communities, assembled ing this dangerous opportunity for con-
at the town-hall in New Amsterdam, os- spiring with the English [with whom
tensibly to take measures to secure them- Holland was then at war], who were ever
selves from the depredations of the bar- hatching mischief, but never performing
barians around them and sea-rovers. The their promises, and who might to-morrow
governor tried in vain to control their ally themselves with the North " mean-
action; they paid very little attention to ing Sweden and Denmark. The conven-
his wishes or his commands. He stormed tion was not to be intimidated by bluster,
and threatened, but prudently yielded to They informed Stuyvesant, by the mouth
the demands of the people that he should of Beeckman, that unless he answered
issue a call for another convention, and their complaints, they \vould appeal to
give legal sanction for the election of dele- the States-General. At this the governor
gates thereto. These met in New Am- took fire, and, seizing his cane, ordered
sterdam on Dec. 10, 1653. Of the eight Beeckman to leave his presence. The
districts represented, four were Dutch and plucky ambassador coolly folded his arms,
four English. Of the nineteen delegates, and silently defied the magistrate,
ten were of Dutch and nine \vere of Eng- When Stuyvesant s anger had abated, he
lish nativity. This was the first really asked Beeckman s pardon for his rude-
representative assembly in the great State ness. He was not so complaisant with the
of New York chosen by the people. The convention. He ordered them to dis-
names of the delegates were as follows: perse on pain of his "high displeasure."
From New Amsterdam, Van Hattem, The convention executed their threat by
Kregier, and Van de Grist; from sending an advocate to Holland to lay
Brcucklen (Brooklyn), Lubbertsen, Van their grievances before the States-Gen
der Beeck, and Beeckman ; from Flushing, eral.

Hicks and Flake; from Newtown, Coe and It has been observed how the first germ

Hazard; from Heemstede (Hempstead), of democracy or republicanism appeared

Washburn and Somers; from Amersfoort in New Amsterdam, and was checked in

(Flatlands), Wolfertsen, Strycker, and its visible growth by the heel of power.

Swartwout; from Midwont (Flatbush), It grew, nevertheless. It was stimulated

Elbertsen and Spicer; and from Graves- by the kind acts of Gov. THOMAS DONGAN

end, Baxter and Hubbard. Baxter was (q. v.) ; and when the English revolution

at that time the English secretary of of 1688 had developed the strength of

the colony, and he led the English the people s will, and their just aspira-

dolegatea. The object of this convention tions were formulated in the Bill of



Rights, it sprang up into a vigorous
fruit-bearing plant. Its power was mani
fested in the choice and administration
of Leisler as ruler until a royal governor
was appointed, and his death caused the
line of separation between democracy and
aristocracy republicanism and monarchy
" Leislerians " and " Anti-Leislerians "
to be distinctly drawn. During the
exciting period of Leisler s rule, the

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 10 of 76)