Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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denounced and opposed Washington s
proclamation of neutrality. The societies
existed in various States, and first intro
duced the word " Democrat " into Ameri
can politics. Many of the Republican par
ty would not adopt the word, preferring
the old name, until the combined oppo
sition became known as the Democratic
Republican party. The Democratic so
cieties flourished for a while with great
vigor. Their members were pledged to
secrecy. Each society had a distinct seal
of its own. which w r as attached to the cer-

that these societies began
numbers and soon disap-

AVLIS soon after
to dwindle in

The certificate of membership in these
societies read as follows: "To all other
societies established on principles of
the members of
the Republican
Society of
Baltimore, cer
tify and declare
to all Repub
lican or Demo
cratic societies,
and to all Re- SEAL.
publicans in
dividually, that citizen hath been

admitted, and now is a member of our
society, and that, from his known zeal


to promote Republican principles and the full powers to settle and rule in a region
rights of humanity, we have granted extending over six degrees of latitude,
him this our certificate (which he has from Cape May to Quebec. The domain
signed in the margin), and do recommend was named Cadie in the charter (see

ACADIA). Vested with the
monopoly of the fur-trade in
the region of the river and
gulf of St. Lawrence, they at
tempted to make a settlement
on the former. Making ar
rangements with Champlain
as chief navigator, De Monts
sailed from France in March,
1604, with four ships, well
manned, accompanied by his
bosom friend, the Baron de
Poutrincourt, and Pont-
Greve as his lieutenants; and
finding the St. Lawrence ice
bound, on his arrival early in
April, he determined to make
a settlement farther to the
southward. The ships also
bore a goodly company of
Protestant and Roman Cath
olic emigrants, with soldiers,
artisans, and convicts. There
were several Jesuits in the
company. Passing around
Cape Breton and the penin
sula of Nova Scotia into the
Bay of Fundy, they anchored
in a fine harbor on the north
ern shore of that peninsula
early in May. Poutrincourt
was charmed with the coun
try, and was allowed to re
main with a part of the com
pany, while De Monts, with
the remainder, seventy in
number, went to Passama-
quoddy Bay, and on an isl
and near the mouth of the

him to all Republicans, that they may re- St. Croix, built a fort, and there spent a
ceive him with fraternity, which we offer terribly severe winter, that killed half of
to all those who may come to us with them.

similar credentials. In witness where- In the spring they returned to Poutrin-
of, etc. Alexander McKinn, president; court s settlement, which he had named
George Sears, secretary." The seal of the Port Royal now Annapolis, N. S. Early
Baltimore Society, which issued the the next autumn De Monts and Poutrin-
above certificate, is composed of a figure court returned to France, leaving Cham-
of Liberty, with pileus, Phrygian cap, and plain and Pont-Greve" to make further ex-
fasces, with the name of the society. plorations. There was a struggle for rule
De Monts, SIEUB (PIERRE DE GAST), and existence at Port Royal for a few
was a wealthy Huguenot, who was com- years. Poutrincourt returned to France
missioned viceroy of New France, with for recruits for his colony. Jesuit




priests who accompanied him on his re- licationa include History of the 1st Rhode

turn to Acadia (Nova Scotia) claimed Island Cavalry; Westerly and Its Wit-

the right to supreme rule by virtue of nesses for 250 Years; History of the 3d

their holy office. Poutrincourt resisted Rhode Island Heavy Artillery, etc. He

their claim stoutly, saying, "It is my part died in Providence, R. I., Aug. 16, 1001.
to rule you on earth; it is your part to Dennie, JOSEPH, journalist; born in

guide me to heaven." When he finally Boston, Aug. 30, 1768; graduated at

left Port Royal (1612) in charge of his Harvard in 1790; became a lawyer; but

son, the Jesuit priests made the same abandoned his profession for the pursuit

claim on the fiery young Poutrincourt, of literature. He contributed articles to

who threatened them with corporal pun- various newspapers, while yet practising

ishment, when they withdrew to Mount law, over the signature of " Farrago." In

Desert Island and set up a cross in token 1795 lie became connected with a Boston

of sovereignty. They were there in 1613, weekly newspaper called The Tablet. It

when Samuel Argall, a freebooter of the survived only three months, when Dennie

seas, went, under the sanction of the gov- became the editor of the Farmer s Weekly

ernor of Virginia, to drive the French Museum, at Walpole, N. H., which ac-

from Acadia as intruders on the soil of quired an extensive circulation. To it he

a powerful English company. The Jesuits contributed a series of attractive essays

at Mount Desert, it is said, thirsting for under the title of The Lay Preacher. These

vengeance, piloted Argall to Port Royal, gave their author a high reputation and

He plundered and burned the town, drove were extensively copied into the news-

the inhabitants to the woods, and broke papers of the country. He went to Phil-

up the settlement. Unable to contend adelphia in 1799, where he was confiden-

with the English company, De Monts tial secretary to Timothy Pickering, then

abandoned Acadia and proposed to plant Secretary of State. In that place he re-

a colony on the St. Lawrence River, under mained for a few months, and after edit-

the direction of Champlain and Pont- ing for a short time the United States

Greve. But his monopoly was partially Gazette, he commenced, in conjunction

revoked in 1608. Under the auspices of with Asbury Dickens, the Portfolio, at

a company of merchants at Dieppe and first a weekly, but afterwards a. monthly

St. Malo, settlements were begun at periodical, which acquired a high reputa-

Quebec and Montreal. Soon afterwards tion. In that publication he adopted the

the fortune of De Monts was so much re- literary name of " Oliver Oldschool." The

duced that he could not pursue his scheme Portfolio became the recognized leader in

of colonization, and it was abandoned. periodical literature, and was enriched by

Denison, DANIEL, military officer ; born the contributions of some of the foremost
in England in 1613; settled in New Eng- writers in the country. Mr. Dennie con-
land about 1631; was commissioner to tinned his connection with it until his
arrange the differences with D Aulny, the death, Jan. 7, 1812.

French commander at Penobscot, in 1646 Dennison, WILLIAM; war governor;

and 1653; and later was major-general of born in Cincinnati, O., Nov. 23, 1815; was

the colonial forces for ten years. He was educated at the Miami University, and

made commander-in-chief of the Massa- graduated in 1835. Admitted to the bar

chusetts troops in 1675, but owing to ill- in 1840, he became an eminent practi-

ness during that year was not able to tioner. In 1848-50 he was a member of

lead his forces in the Indian War. He the Ohio legislature; and he took an

published Irenicon, or Salve for New Eng- active part in financial and railroad mat-

land s Sore. He died in Ipswich, Mass., ters. Mr. Dennison was one of the

Sept. 20, 1682. founders of the Republican party in 1856.

Denison, FREDERIC, clergyman ; born in In 1860 he was chosen governor of Ohio,

Stonington, Conn., Sept. 28, 1819; grad- which office he held two years, during

uatecl at Brown College in 1847: or- which time he performed most important

dained to the Baptist ministry; chaplain official service in putting troops into the

of the 3d Rhode Island Heavy Artillery field for the Union army. From October,

for three years in the Civil War. His pub- 1864, to July, 1866. he was Postmaster-
ITT.-F 81



General, when he withdrew from the cab
inet of President Johnson. He died in
Columbus, 0., June 15, 1882.

De Nonville, MARQUIS, military officer ;
after reaching the rank of colonel in the
French army was appointed (1685) gov
ernor of Canada, with instructions to
" humble the pride of the Iroquois," who
were the friends of the English and had
rejected overtures from the French. He
took post at Fort Frontenac, on the site
of Kingston, Canada, and there prepared
for an expedition against a portion of the
Five Nations. He declared to his
sovereign that the Indians sustained
themselves only by the aid of the English,
who were " the chief promoters of the in
solence and arrogance of the Iroquois."
He tried to induce them to meet him in
council, to seduce them from the influence
of the English, and a few went to Fronte-
nac; but when Dongan heard of the de
signs of the French he invited representa
tives of the Five Nations to a council in
New York City. They came, and Dongan
told them the King of England would be
their " loving father," and conjured them
not to listen to the persuasions of the
French. Finally, in May, 1687, De Non-
ville was joined by 800 French regulars
from France, and soon afterwards he,
assembling more than 2,000 French regu
lars, Canadians, and Indians, proceed
ed, at their head, to attack the Sene-
cas. He coasted along the southern shores
of Lake Ontario to Irondequoit Bay, in
Monroe county, where he landed and was
joined by some French and Indians com

ing from the west. Thence he pene
trated to Ontario county, where he was
attacked by a party of Senecas in ambush,
but he repulsed his assailants. The next
day two old Seneca prisoners, after hav
ing been confessed by the Jesuit priests,
were cooked and eaten by the savages and
the French. Withdrawing to a point in
Monroe county, De Nonville proceeded to
take possession of the whole Seneca
country (July, 1687) in the name of
King Louis, with pompous ceremonies.
After destroying all the stored corn (more
than 1,000,000 bushels), the growing
crops, cabins, and a vast number of swine
belonging to the natives whose country
he had invaded, De Nonville returned to
Irondequoit Bay and thence to Montreal.
An act of gross treachery committed by
him before he undertook the expedition,
in seizing deputies from those nations and
sending them to France, gave the death
blow to Jesuit missions among the Five
Nations. Lamberville, a faithful mis
sionary, barely escaped with his life,
through the generosity of the Ononda-

Dent, FREDERICK TRACY, military offi
cer; born in White Haven, Mo., Dec. 17,
1820; graduated at the United States
Military Academy in 1843; served in the
war with Mexico with marked distinction;
and later was prominent in frontier duty.
In 1863-64 he commanded a regiment in
New York City to suppress riots; in the
latter year he became a staff officer to
General Grant; and in 1865 was command
ant of Richmond and of the garrison at
Washington. After the war he received
the brevets of brigadier-general in the
regular and volunteer armies; retired in
1883. He died in Denver, Col., Dec. 24,

Dent, JOHN HERBERT, naval officer;
born in Maryland in 1782; entered the
navy in 1798; served on the frigate Con
stellation in 1799 when she captured the
French vessels Insurgente and La Ven
geance. He had command of the Nautilus
and Scourge in Treble s squadron during
the war with Tripoli, and took part in
the assault on the city of Tripoli in
1804; and was promoted captain in 1811.
He died in St. Bartholomew s parish, Md.,
July 31, 1823.

Dentistry, SCHOOLS OF. The develop-



ment of the science of dentistry in the
United States is well attested by the num
ber of institutions giving instruction
therein. For the most part these schools
are departments of the universities and
large colleges which are authorized to
grant degrees and diplomas. At the end
of the school year 1898 there were fifty
such departments or schools, having 961
professors and instructors, 6,774 students,
and graduating classes aggregating 1,849

students. In the ten years then ending
the number of schools had exactly doubled,
and the number of students showed an in
crease of 327 per cent.

Denton, DANIEL, author; in 1670 he
published in London A Brief Description
of New York, which in 1845 was repub-
lished with notes in New York. It is be
lieved that this was the first printed Eng
lish history of New York and New Jer


Dependent Children, CARE OF. Henri- and the reduction to mechanical routine

etta Christian Wright, an American lady of all the ordinary offices of life, the child

who has taken an active interest in had become dulled in faculty, unthinking,

philanthropic work, and has been specially and dependent. In the institution, he had

interested in the condition of poor chil- been, during the formative period of his

dren deprived of their natural protectors, life, a " number," and he " ate, drank,

and whose education and training, there- studied, marched, played and slept in

fore, have to be assumed by the com- companies, platoons, and regiments." A

munity, writes as follows: visitor to one institution found a class of

boys between eleven and thirteen years of

The history of the state care of children age who had never brushed their own hair,

the world over has been that of the work- the matron having found it easier to stand

house or almshouse. In France, indeed, them in rows and perform this service for

boarding-out seems to have been applied them than to teach each individual boy

widely as early as 1450, when an ordi- how to do it for himself. Hundreds of

nance was passed regulating the salaries girls in their teens left the institution

of the nurses and agents employed in car- yearly who had never made a fire, placed

ing for pauper children in country homes, a tea-kettle to boil, or performed any of

Fosterage existed even earlier in England, the minor household duties so necessary

where, in the reign of Edward III., an to their training as domestic servants. It

act was passed forbidding English chil- was, in fact, discovered that the child,

dren from being cared for by Irish foster who, at great expense to the state, had

parents, as it had been found that such been fed and taught for a long period of

care denationalized the children. Statis- years, was less capable of earning his

tics attest the evils of the workhouse and living than the youth who had grown up

the almshouse, where the children were "half naked and half starved" in his

herded with adult paupers, unfitting them parents cottage in the peat bogs of Ire-

for anything but lives of pauperism and land,

lowest crime. The pauper child, helpless and hopeless,

The efforts of private individuals at last had made an appeal to nature, and nature
rescued the workhouse waifs, and placed had avenged him. In place of the promise
them in institutions set apart for the care of youth and the ideals which were to
of children alone. Here the child was guarantee the security of the state, she
made cleanly in habit, and amenable to returned, for value received, the institu-
discipline, while ophthalmia, scrofula, and tionalized youth, a drag upon society, and,
other diseases inherent in institution life in the end, an added burden to the tax-
showed some signs of abatement. But payer. Grave as were these defects, there
when the child left the institution, it was was added the still graver one that in-
found that he still lacked in the great es- stitutions increased juvenile pauperism,
sential to success capacity. From the sys- Wherever a new institution arose, there
tern of constant espionage and guidance, sprang up, as if from the ground, him-



dreds of applicants for admission. The sent themselves and their wards at the

idle and vicious parents eagerly took ad- annual meetings of the society, the so-

vantage of the means thus offered for the ciety paying the travelling expenses. It

support of their children during the non- was found that the cost under the board-

wage-earning period; and, with every ing-out system was one-third per capita

new gift of a costly edifice, the state of that expended in institutions, while

found itself putting a premium upon the the rate of mortality was under 1 per

poverty it was vainly endeavoring to cent. In 1859, thirty-one years after the

stamp out. establishment of the society, the death

In the mean time a remedy for the evil rate of the children in a single work-
had already arisen. In 1828, an educa- house in Cork was 80 per cent, in one
tion inquiry commission, reporting upon year, while nearly all the survivors were
the condition of the Protestant charter afflicted with scrofula. These horrors
schools of Ireland, found so discredit- were exceeded by the revelations of the
able a state of things that the schools Dublin workhouse, which so excited popu-
were abolished, no provision being made, lar indignation that an act was passed
meanwhile, for the orphans of that faith, in 1862 authorizing the boarding-out of
Not long afterwards, three Protestant workhouse children.

Irish workingmen, considering it their That the problem of the state care of

duty to care for the children of a com- children was solved by the incorporation

rade who had just died, started a sub- of the Protestant Orphan Society of Ire-

scription of a penny a week, and, with land is proved by the subsequent history

the sum of threepence as capital, founded of dependent child-life in nearly every

a refuge for the children among some re- civilized quarter of the globe. In places

spectable laboring people of their own widely separated by geographical limits,

faith. as well as by the differences of race and

On the ruins of the charter schools creed, the state care of children is evolv-
arose, from the act of these workingmen, ing from institutionalism to the natural
the Protestant Orphan Society of Ireland, conditions of home life. England, Ire-
which has been the parent of the modern land, Russia, Italy, Scotland, Germany,
system of boarding - out the dependent Switzerland, and other European coun-
children of the state. The methods of tries have their several modifications of
this society have been sustained, in the the boarding-out system, attributable to
main, by succeeding organizations. The the varying conditions of social life, but
orphans were placed, as far as possible, conforming in the main to the leading
in the families of small farmers, or features of the original plan. And al-
laborers, whose station in life corre- though no one of these countries is yet
sponded to their own. In every case, the freed entirely from the bane of institu-
children were given into the charge of tionalism, yet year by year fosterage
the mother of the family, who was made is becoming more popular, as its benefi-
directly responsible for their care. A cent effects become more and more widely
certificate of character was required from known. In Belgium, so thoroughly rec-
the parish priest and the nearest magis- ognized is the value of home training
trate, attesting to her " morality and for future citizens, that all boys under
sobriety, to the suitability of her house the care of the state are boarded out,
and family, and the possession of one or though the girls are in many cases still
more cows," while it was also stipulated retained in institutions. In some of the
that she receive no children from the departments of France, the system of
foundling hospital or any other chari- fosterage has arrived at the precision
table institution. The homes were visited of a military organization. Here the
by inspectors, whose reports contained child, who would otherwise be placed
the history of every child while under the in a foundling or orphan asylum, is en-
care of the society. The Protestant rolled at birth as an enfant de la patrie,
clergyman of each district was also a and, whenever possible, is placed at once
regular correspondent of the society, and in a foster-home in the country. There
the foster-mothers were required to pre- his physical and moral welfare and his



education are watched over by the agent waifs, known as " street children," who

dc surveillance, in whose quarterly reports had no homes, who begged and stole their

i& recorded the history of the child until food, who slept in the streets, assisted

his twelfth year. He is then eligible for professional criminals in their nefarious

apprenticeship, and he receives from the practices, and in time were graduated into

state a certain sum of money for an out- the ranks of the adult criminal. This

fit. But, in nearly all cases, the affec- menace to society, undreamed of by the

tion between the child and its foster- more orderly class, was made officially

parents has become by this time so strong public by the report of the superintendent

that he is either adopted legally or re- of police, and out of the exigency arose, in

tained in the family as an apprentice, 1853, the New York Children s Aid So-

the money that he earns being placed in ciety, whose president, Charles Loring

the savings-bank, in order that he may Brace, grasped with the intuition of genius

have a little capital to begin the world the true solution of the problem of child-

with on reaching his majority. saving. When Mr. Brace asked the chief

Australia has, perhaps, the most perfect of police to confer with him in regard to
system of boarding-out yet evolved. As means for saving these children, the chief
early as 1852 the first legislature of replied that the attempt would be use-
South Australia decreed that no public less. Nevertheless Mr. Brace began his
money should be given to denominational work ; and, knowing that this wreckage
schools, whether educational or charitable, of civilization could be saved only by a
Twenty-five years ago the state began return to nature, he at once began
boarding-out its dependent children; the placing the wards of the society in
saving to the government, as well as the homes in the East and West. In
rapid decrease in the juvenile pauper class, 1854 the first company of forty-six
at once made the new departure accept- children left the office of the society,
able, though the law compelling children the greater number to find homes in
to attend school throughout the entire Michigan and Iowa. Within the sec-
year increased the expense of fosterage in ond year the society had placed nearly
Australia beyond that in European coun- 800 children in homes in the Eastern and
tries. Western States. The society has contin-

The American poorhouse, from the first ued its work on the same lines, and

fell into line with the English workhouse through its efforts thousands of men and

in its influence as a breeder of crime and women have been saved from lives of

pauperism. The poorhouse child came pauperism and crime. The reports of the

either from the directly vicious class, or society, which has always kept in touch

from those " waterlogged " families with with its wards, show how fully the faith

whom pauperism was hereditary, and, as a of its founders has been justified, and how

rule, he left his early home but to return they builded even better than they knew,

to it in later life. The enactment of each From out this army of waifs, rescued from

new law to mitigate the evils of the alms- the gutter and the prison, there have

house only made the idle and vicious come the editor, the judge, the bank presi-

parent more eager to accept the advan- dent, the governor, while thousands of

tages thus offered to his offspring, and simpler careers attest the beneficence of

pauperism increased out of all proportion this noble charity. There is small reason

to the growth of the country. to doubt that, if the guardianship of the

Outside the almshouse there was a con- entire dependent children of the State had

dition even worse. All over the country, been given over to the Children s Aid So-

and especially in cities, there arose a class ciety, the question of juvenile pauperism

of children who anticipated in character and crime would long since have been

the adult tramp of to-day. These were solved. But this was not to be, and alms-

in many cases runaways, to whom the houses and institutions still retained the

restraints of the almshouse were irksome, greater number of children committed to

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 13 of 76)