Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

. (page 17 of 76)
Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 17 of 76)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

institutions of learning for science, law, been amended only upon the lines laid
medicine, and theology, are the despair of down in the original instrument, a-nd in
the scoffer arid the demagogue, and the conformity with the recorded opinions of
firm support of civilization and liberty. the Fathers. The first great addition was

Steam a-nd electricity have changed the the incorporation of a bill of rights, and

commerce not only, they have revolution- the last the embedding into the Constitu-

ized also the governments of the world, tion of the immortal principle of the

They have given to the press its power, Declaration of Independence of the

and brought all races and nationalities equality of all men before the law. No

into touch and sympathy. They have test- crisis has been too perilous for its powers,

ed and are trying the strength of all sys- no revolution too rapid for its adaptation,

terns to stand the strain and conform to and no expansion beyond its easy grasp

the conditions which follow the germinat- and administration. It has assimilated

ing influences of American democracy. At diverse nationalities with warring tradi-

the time of the inauguration of Washing- tions, customs, conditions, and languages,

ton, seven royal families ruled as many imbued them with its spirit, and won their

kingdoms in Italy, but six of them have passionate loyalty and love,

seen their thrones overturned and their The flower of the youth of the nations

countries disappear from the map of Eu- of continental Europe are conscripted from



productive industries and drilling in ing past and splendid present, the people
camps. Vast armies stand in battle array of these United States, heirs of 100 years
along the frontiers, and a kaiser s whim marvellously rich in all which adds to
or a minister s mistake may precipitate the glory and greatness of a nation, with
the most destructive war of modern times, an abiding trust in the stability and elas-
Both monarchical and republican govern- ticity of their Constitution, and an
ments are seeking safety in the repression abounding faith in themselves, hail the
and suppression of opposition and criti- coming century with hope and joy.
cism. The volcanic forces of democratic De Peyster, ABRAHAM, jurist; born in
aspiration and socialistic revolt are rapid- New Amsterdam (New York), July 8,
ly increasing and threaten peace and se- 1658; eldest son of Johannes De Peyster,
curity. We turn from these gathering a noted merchant of his day. Between 1691
storms to the British Isles and find their and 1695 he was mayor of the city of
people in the throes of a political crisis in- New York; was first assistant justice and
volving the form and substance of their then chief-justice of New York, and was
government, and their statesmen far from one of the King s council under Governor
confident that the enfranchised and un- Hyde (afterwards Lord Cornbury), and
prepared masses will wisely use their as its president was acting-governor for
power. a time in 1701. Judge De Peyster was
But for us no army exhausts our re- colonel of the forces in New York and
sources nor consumes our youth. Our treasurer of that province and New
navy must needs increase in order that the Jersey. He was a personal friend and
protecting flag may follow the expanding correspondent of William Penn. Having
commerce which is successfully to compete amassed considerable wealth, he built a
in all the markets of the world. The sun fine mansion, which stood, until 1856, in
of our destiny is still rising, and its rays Pearl street. It was used by Washington
illumine vast territories as yet unoccu- as his headquarters for a while in 1776.
pied and undeveloped, and which are to He died in New York City Aug. 10, 1728.
be the happy homes of millions of people. De Peyster, JOHANNES, founder of the
The questions which affect the powers of De Peyster family; born in Haarlem, Hoi-
government and the expansion or limita- land, about 1600; emigrated to America
tion of the authority of the federal Con- on account of religious persecution, and
stitution are so completely settled, and so died in New Amsterdam (now New York
unanimously approved, that our political City) about 1685.

divisions produce only the healthy antag- De Peyster, JOHN WATTS, military his-

onism of parties, which is necessary for torian; born in New York City, March

the preservation of liberty. Our insti- 9, 1821; elected colonel New York militia

tutions furnish the full equipment of in 1845; appointed adjutant-general New

shield and spear for the battles of freedom, York, 1855; is author of The Dutch at

and absolute protection against every dan- the North Pole ; The Dutch in Maine ;

ger which threatens the welfare of the peo- Decisive Conflicts of the Late Civil War;

pie will always be found in the intelli- Personal and Military History of Gen.

gence which appreciates their value, and Philip Kearny, etc.

the courage and morality with which Dermer, THOMAS, an active friend of

their powers are exercised. The spirit of colonization schemes, and a man of pru-

Washington fills the executive office, dence and industry, was employed by the

Presidents may not rise to the full meas- Plymouth Company after his return from

ure of his greatness, but they must not Newfoundland, in 1618, to bring about, if

fall below his standard of public duty possible, reconciliation with the Indians

and obligation. His life and character, of New England, and to make further ex-

conscientiously studied and thoroughly plorations. He sailed from Plymouth with

understood by coming generations, will two vessels (one a small, open pinnace)

bo for them a liberal education for pri- in February, 1619, touched at Mohegan

vate life and public station, for citizen- Island, and then visited the coast. Der-

ship and patriotism, for love and devotion mer was accompanied from England by

to union and liberty. With their inspir- Squanto; also by Samoset, a native of



Sagadahock, whom John Mason, governor the siege of LOUISBURG ( q. v . ) , and was

of Newfoundland, had lately sent home, aide-de-camp to Wolfe when he fell at

he having been one of Hunt s captives. Quebec, that general dying in Desbarres s

Dermer succeeded, in a degree, and pro- arms. He was active in the retaking of

ceeded to explore the coast to Virginia. Newfoundland in 1762, and for ten years

He sent home his ship from Mohegan Isl- afterwards he was employed in a coast

and, laden with fish and furs, and, leav- survey of Nova Scotia. He prepared

ing Squanto at Saco, sailed southward, charts of the North American coasts in

Near Cape Cod he was captured by Ind- 1775 for Earl Howe, and in 1777 he pub-

dians, but ransomed himself by a gift of lished The Atlantic Neptune, in two large

some hatchets. Passing Martin s (Mar- folios. He was made governor of Cape

tha s) Vineyard, he navigated Long Isl- Breton, with the military command of

and Sound by the help of an Indian pilot, Prince Edward s Island, in 1784, and in

the first Englishman who had sailed upon 1804, being then about eighty- two years

these waters, and passed out to sea at of age, he was made lieutenant-governor

Sandy Hook. The current was so swift of Prince Edward s Island. He died in

that he did not stop at Manhattan; but Halifax, N. S., Oct. 24, 1824.
on his return from Virginia (1620) he Deseret, PROPOSED STATE OF. See MOR-

touched there and held a conference with MONS.

some Dutch traders " on Hudson s River," Desert Land Act, passed March 3,
warning them that they were on English 1877, allowing settlers 640 acres for pur-
territory. Dermer sent a journal of his poses of irrigation and improvement,
proceedings to Gorges, and thus, no doubt,. De Smet, PETER JOHN, missionary;
hastened the procurement of the new char- born in Termonde, Belgium, Dec. 31, 1801 ;
ter for the PLYMOUTH COMPANY (q. v.) . studied in the Episcopal seminary of

Derne Expedition. See TRIPOLI, WAR Mechlin. With five other students he

WITH. sailed from Amsterdam in 1821 for the

Derry, JOSEPH T., author ; born in Mil- United States, and entered the Jesuit

ledgeville, Ga., Dec. 13, 1841; graduated school at Whitemarsh, Md. In 1828 he

at Emory College in 1860; enlisted in the went to St. Louis and aided in founding

Oglethorpe Infantry in January, 1861, the University of St. Louis, where he

and with his company joined the Confed- later became a professor. In 1838 he

erate army, March 18, 1861; served founded a mission among the Pottawat-

throughout the war, participating in the tomie Indians on Sugar Creek. In July,

West Virginia, the Tennessee, and the 1840, he went to the Peter Valley in the

Atlanta campaigns, being taken prisoner Rocky Mountains, where he met about

at the battle of Kenesaw Mountain, June 1,000 Flathead Indians. By the help of

27, 1864. Among his works are a School an interpreter he translated the Command-

History of the United States; History of ments, the Lord s Prayer, and the Creed

Georgia; and the volume on Georgia in into their language, and these within two

the Confederate Military History of which weeks time the Flatheads learned. Dur-

Gen. Clement A. Evans is editor. ing his journey back to St. Louis he was

De Hussy, FORT ( La. ) , captured March several times surrounded by the Black -

14, 1864, by Gen. A. J. Smith with 10,000 feet Indians, who, when they saw his cru-

Nationals. Gen. Dick Taylor surrendered cifix and black gown, showed him the

with about 10,000 men. See RED RIVER greatest respect. On Sept. 24, 1841, with

EXPEDITION. a party of other missionaries, he reached

Desbarres, JOSEPH FREDERICK WAL- Bitter Root River, where the mission of

LET, military officer; born in England, of St. Mary s was begun. After spending

French ancestry, in 1722; educated for about a year in learning the Blackfeet

the army at the Royal Military College language and in endeavoring to make St.

at Woolwich, and, as lieutenant, came to Mary s a permanent mission, he went to

America in 1756, and, raising 300 recruits Europe to solicit aid. After arousing

in Pennsylvania and Maryland, formed great enthusiasm in Belgium and France

them into a corps of field-artillery. He he sailed from Antwerp in December,

ed himself as an engineer in 1843, with five Jesuits and six sisters.



and in August, 1844, arrived at Fort Van- Bobadilla, a scion of one of the most re-
couver, and planted a central mission on nowned of the Castilian families, and his
the Willamette River. In ^1845 he under- influence at Court was thereby strength-
took a series of missions among the Sin- ened. Longing to rival Cortez and Pi-
poils, Zingomenes, Okenaganes, Koote- zarro in the brilliancy of his deeds, and
nays, and Flatbows. He made several believing Florida to be richer in the pre-
trips to Europe for aid. Father De Smet cious metals than Mexico or Peru, De Soto
wrote The Oregon Missions and Travels offered to conquer it at his own expense.
Over the Rocky Mountains; Western Mis- Permission was readily given him by his
sions and Missionaries; New Indian King, who commissioned him governor of
Sketches, etc. He died in St. Louis, Mo., Cuba, from which island he would set out
in May, 1872. on his conquering expedition. Elegant in

De Soto, FERNANDO, discoverer; born deportment, winning in all his ways, an
in Xeres, Estremadura, Spain, about 1496, expert horseman, rich arid influential, and
of a noble but impoverished family. Da- then thirty-seven years of age, hundreds
vila, governor of Darien, was his kind of young men, the flower of the Spanish
patron, through whose generosity he re- and Portuguese nobility, flocked to his
ceived a good education, and who took standard, the wealthier ones dressed in
him to Central America, where he en- suits of gorgeous armor and followed by
gaged in exploring the coast of the Pacific trains of servants. With these and his
Ocean hundreds of miles in search of a beautiful young wife and other noble
supposed strait connecting the two oceans, ladies De Soto sailed from Spain early in
When Pizarro went to Peru, De Soto ac- April, 1538, with seven large and three
companied him, and was his chief lieu- small vessels, the San Christoval, of 800
tenant in achieving the conquest of that tons, being his flag-ship,
country. Brave and judicious, De Soto Amply supplied and full of joy in the
was the chief hero in the battle that re- anticipation of entering an earthly para-
suited in the capture of Cuzco, the capital dise, gayety and feasting, music and

dancing prevailed on board the flag-ship
during that sunny voyage, in which richly
dressed ladies, with handsome pages to do
their bidding, were conspicuous, especially
on warm moonlit nights within the tropic
of Cancer. At near the close of May the
fleet entered Cuban waters. De Soto occu
pied a whole year preparing for the expe
dition, and at the middle of May, 1539, he
sailed from Cuba with nine vessels, bearing
1,000 followers, and cattle, horses, mules,
and swine, the first of the latter seen on
the American continent. He left public af
fairs in Cuba in the hands of his wife and
the lieutenant-governor. The voyage to
Florida was pleasant, and the armament
landed on the shores of Tampa Bay on
May 25, near where Narvaez had first
anchored. Instead of treating the natives
kindly and winning their friendship,
De Soto unwisely sent armed men to
capture some of them, in order to learn
something about the country he was to

of the Incas, and the destruction of their conquer. The savages, cruelly treated by
empire. Soon after that event he re- Narvaez, and fearing the same usage by
turned to Spain with large wealth, and De Soto, were cautious. They were also
was received by King Charles V. with wily, expert with the bow, revengeful, and
great consideration. He married Isabella fiercely hostile. With cavaliers clad in





glided across the
river, and with kind
words welcomed the
Spaniards and of-
fered them her
services. Presents
were exchanged. A
magnificent string of
pearls was hung
upon her neck. This
she drew over her
head and hung it
around the neck of
De Soto as a token
of her regard. Then
she invited him and
his followers to cross
over to her village.
In canoes and on
log-rafts they pass
ed the stream, and,
encamping in the
shadows of mul
berry-trees, they
soon received a
bountiful supply of

steel and riding 113 horses, with many venison and wild turkeys. There they en-
footmen armed with arquebuses, cross- joyed the young queen s hospitality until
bows, swords, shields, and lances, and a May, and when they departed De Soto
single cannon, and supplied with savage requited the kindness of the royal maiden
bloodhounds from Cuba, and handcuffs, with foul treachery. He carried her away
iron neck-collars, and chains for the cap- a prisoner, and kept her near his person
tives, De Soto began his march in June, as a hostage for the good behavior of her
1539. He was accompanied by mechanics, people towards the Spaniards. She finally
priests, inferior clergy, and monks in escaped, and returned home a bitter
sacerdotal robes bearing images of the enemy of the perfidious white people.
Virgin, holy relics, and sacramental bread De Soto crossed the beautiful country
and wine, wherewith to make Christians of the Cherokees (see CHEROKEE INDIANS),
of the captured pagans. and penetrated the fertile Coosa region,

At the very outset the expedition met where the Spaniards practised the most
with determined opposition from the dusky cruel treachery towards the friendly
inhabitants, but De Soto pressed forward natives. De Soto was rewarded in kind
towards the interior of the fancied land not long afterwards, and in a terrible
of gold. He wintered east of the Flint battle with the Mobil ians, on the site of
River, near Tallahassee, on the borders of Mobile, the expedition was nearly ruined.
Georgia, and in March, 1540, broke up his Turning northward with the remnant of
encampment and marched northward, hav- his forces, he fought his way through the
ing been told that gold would be found in Chickasaw country (see CHICKASAW IND-
that direction. He reached the Savannah IANS), and reached the upper waters of
River, at Silver Bluff. On the opposite the Yazoo River late in December, where
side of the stream, in (present) Barn well he wintered, in great distress. Moving
county, lived an Indian queen, young, beau- westward in the spring, he discovered the
tiful, and a maiden, who ruled over a large Mississippi River, in all its grandeur, in
extent of country. In a richly wrought May, 1541. It was near the Lower Chica-
canoe, filled with shawls and skins and saw Bluff, in Tunica county, Miss. Cross-
other things for presents, the dusky cacica, ing the mighty stream, De Soto went west-



ward in his yet fruitless search for gold,
and spent a year in the country towards
the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains.
Returning to the Mississippi in May,
1542, he died of a fever on its banks on
the 21st.

As he had declared to the Indians, who
were sun-worshippers, that he was a son of
the sun, and that Christians could not die,
it was thought wise to conceal his death
from the pagans. He was secretly buried
in the gateway of the Spanish camp. The
Indians knew he was sick. He was not to
be seen, and they saw a new-made grave.
They looked upon it and pondered. Mos-
coso ordered the body to be taken up at
the dead of night. He was wrapped in
mantles in which sand had been sewed up,
taken in a boat to the middle of the great
river, and there dropped to the bottom in
19 fathoms of water. Herrera says it
was sunk in a hollow live-oak log. When
the Indian chief asked Moscoso for De
Soto, that leader replied, " He has ascend
ed to heaven, but will return soon."

Before his death De Soto had conferred
the leadership of the expedition upon
Moscoso, his lieutenant, who, with the
wretched remnant of the expedition,

made their way to Mexico, where the ele
gant Castilian ladies at the court of the
viceroy were enraptured by the beauty of
the dusky Mobilian girls. The news of
De Soto s death cast a gloom over Havana,
and poor Dofia Isabella, wife of the great
leader, who had so long waited for his
return, died of a broken heart.

Despard, JOHN, military officer; born
in 1745; joined the British army in 1760;
came to America in 1773; was present
at the capture of Fort Montgomery and
of Charleston; and was with Cornwallis
in the campaign which culminated in the
surrender at Yorktown. He was promoted
colonel in 1795, and major-general in
1798. He died in Oswestry, England,
Sept. 3, 1829.

D Estaing, COUNT. See ESTAING,

Destroying Angels. See DANITES.

De Trobriand, PHILIPPE REGIS, mili
tary officer; born in Chateau des Ro-
chettes, France, June 4, 1816; came to the
United States in 1841; joined the Nation
al army as colonel of the 55th New York
Regiment in August, 1861 ; took part in
the engagements at Fredericksburg, Chan-
cellorsville, Gettysburg, etc.; was present


wandered another year in the region west
of the Mississippi ; and returning to that
river in May, 1543, they built rude ves
sels, and, with a number of beautiful Ala
bama girls whom they had carried away
captive after the battle at Maubila, they

as the commander of a division at Lee s
surrender; received the brevet of major-
general of volunteers in April, 1865. He
joined the regular army in 1866; received
the brevet of brigadier-general in 1867;
retired in 1879. He published Quatre ans



de campagncs a I armee du Potomac. He
died in Bayport, L. I., July 7, 1897.

Detroit, a city, port of entry, metropolis
of Michigan, and county seat of Wayne
county; on the Detroit River, 7 miles
from Lake St. Clair, and about 18 miles
from Lake Erie. It is noted for the
variety and extent of its manufactures
and for its large traffic on the Great
Lakes. For the defence of the harbor and

Foreign commerce and interstate trade
are facilitated by an excellent harbor, ex
tensive dry-docks, and important steam
boat and railroad connections. According
to the census of 1900 the city had 2,847
manufacturing establishments, employing
$71,751,193 capital and 45,707 wage-
earners; paying $18,718,081 for wages and
$52,349,347 for materials used; and hav
ing a combined output valued at $100,-


city the federal government is construct- 892,838. The principal manufactures were:

ing Fort Wayne, a short distance below Foundry and machine-shop products, $8,-

the city, which is designed to be the 943,311; druggists preparations, $4,915,-

strongest American fortification on the 913; smoking and chewing tobacco and

northern frontier. The value of the snuff, $3,746,045; iron and steel, $3,198,-

foreign trade of the city in merchandise 881; packed meat, $3,167,430; cigars and

during the fiscal year ending June 30, cigarettes, $2,790,268; malt liquors, $2,-

1904, was: Imports, $4,467,154; exports, 593,093 ; and steam-heating apparatus, $2,-

$23,698,435, both a considerable increase 104,066. In 1903 the assessed property

over the returns of the previous year, valuations were: Real estate, $190,197,-

The principal shipments are grains, meat, 060; personal, $81,671,860 total, $271,-

wool, iron and copper ores, and lumber. 808,920; and the tax rate was $16.57 per




$1,000. The city owned property free were forced to make a precipitate retreat
from all encumbrance estimated in 1902 in the darkness, leaving twenty of their
at $25,427,139. The net general city debt, comrades killed and forty-two wounded
Jan. 1, 1904, was $3,637,938; net special on the border of the brook, which has
debt, $291,276 total net debt, $3,929,214, ever since been called Bloody Run. Dal-
besides a water debt of about $1,000,000. zell was slain while trying to carry off
The population in 1890 was 205,876; in some of the wounded, and his scalp be-
1900, 285,704. came an Indian s trophy. Pontiac con-
Detroit was first settled by Antoine Ca- tinued the siege of Detroit until the ar-
dillac, July 24, 1701, with fifty soldiers rival of Colonel Bradstreet in May, 1764.
and fifty artisans and traders. Three In January, 1774, the British Parlia-
years later the first white child, a daugh- ment included Detroit and its dependent
ter of Cadillac, was baptized in the place, territory with Canada, and the first civil
which was called by the French "La Ville government was instituted June 22, 1774,
d Etroit." The French surrendered Detroit with GENERAL HENRY HAMILTON (g. v.) as
to the English, under Maj. Robert Rodgers, governor. Governor Hamilton, a human
Nov. 29, 1760. tiger, delighting in blood, instigated 11.3
The tragedy of Pontiac s War opened Indians to murder the defenceless set-
in Detroit. Under pretext of holding a lers on the border. He organized an ex-
friendly council with Major Gladwin, com- pedition in 1779 to capture Vincennes,
mander of the fort, the wily chief entered but GENERAL GEORGE ROGERS CLARK (q. v.)
it in May, 1763, with about 300 warriors, attacked him on the way on March 5,
each carrying a knife, tomahawk, and and forced him to an unconditional sur-
short gun under his blanket. When Pon- render. Hamilton was sent to Virginia,
tiac should rise and present the green side put into irons by Thomas Jefferson, and
of a belt, the massacre of the garrison escaped hanging only through the inter-
was to begin. Gladwin was warned of cession of Washington, but was finally
the plot the day before by a friendly Ind- paroled. The British troops were allowed
ian, and the calamity was averted by to return to Detroit.

the appointment of another day for the In 1782 Detroit had a permanent popu-
council. When the Indians retired, the lation of 2,100, of whom 178 were slaves,
gates of the fort were closed upon them, but the withdrawal of the British gar-
and, knowing the reason, Pontiac began risen and the exodus of the English set-
a siege that lasted a year. tiers to found Amherstburg reduced the
General Amherst hastily collected a inhabitants to about 500, most of whom
small body in the East for the relief of were of French descent. During the forty-
Detroit and reinforcement of Fort Ni- five years after the close of the war
agara, and sent them under the command Detroit grew slowly, in 1828 having a
of Captain Dalzell, one of his aides. Dal- population of 1,517 only. The opening of

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 17 of 76)