Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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zell left reinforcements at Niagara, and the Erie Canal in 1825 sent a tide of emi-
proceeded to Detroit with the remainder gration westward, and Detroit began its
of his troops and provisions in a vessel marvellous growth. Beginning with 2,222
that arrived on the evening of July 30. inhabitants in 1830, it has on an average
They succeeded in entering the fort with doubled each decade.

provisions. Pontiac had already sum- The city was the scene of disastrous

moned Gladwin to surrender; now Dal- operations in the early part of the War

zell proposed to make a sortie and attack of 1812-15. In August, 1812, General

the besieging Indians. Gladwin thought Brock, governor of Upper Canada, with

it would be imprudent, but Dalzell per- a few regulars and 300 militia, hastened

sisted, and before daylight on the morn- to Amherstburg, arriving there on the

ing of July 31 he sallied out with 240 night of Aug. 13, and on the following

chosen men to attack the Indians, who lay morning held a conference with Tecumseh

about a mile up the river. Pontiac was and 1,000 Indians, telling them he had come

on the alert, and, at a small stream on to assist in driving the Americans from

the northern verge of Detroit, the Eng- their rightful hunting-grounds north of the

lish, furiously assailed by the Indians, Ohio. The Indians were pleased, and, at



a subsequent interview with Tecumseh
and the other chiefs, they assured him
that the Indians would give him all
their strength in the undertaking. Then
Brock marched from Maiden to Sandwich,
which the Americans had deserted, and a
battery was planted opposite Detroit,
which commanded the fort there. The
American artillerists begged permission
to open fire upon it, and Captain Snelling
asked the privilege of going over in the
night to capture the British works. Hull
would not allow any demonstrations
against the enemy, and the latter pre
pared for assault without any molesta
tion. Hull was much deceived by letters
intended to be intercepted, showing
preparations for large and immediate re
inforcements to Brock s army; and he
had also been deceived into the belief
that a large portion of the followers of
the latter, who were only militia, were
regulars. The militia had been dressed
in scarlet uniforms, and were paraded so
as to show treble their real number. Hull
was hemmed in on every side; his pro
visions were scarce, and he saw no chance
of receiving any from Ohio. He knew

that if the Indians were exasperated
and the fort should be taken there
would be a general massacre of the
garrison and the inhabitants, and his
kindness of heart and growing caution,
incident to old age, made him really
timid and fearful. When Brock s prepa
rations for attack were completed (on the
15th), he sent a summons to Hull for an
unconditional surrender of the post. In
that demand was a covert threat of let
ting loose the bloodthirsty Indians in
case of resistance. Hull s whole effective
force at that time did not exceed 1,000
men. The fort was thronged with trem
bling women and children and decrepit
old men of the village and surrounding
country, who had fled to it for protection
from the Indians. He kept the flag that
bore the summons waiting fully two hours,
for his innate bravery and patriotism bade
him refuse and fight, while his fear of
dreadful consequences to his army and the
people bade him surrender. His troops
were confident in their ability to success
fully confront the enemy, and he finally
refused compliance with the demand. Ac
tive preparations were then made for de-




fence. The British opened a cannonade English after the conquest of Canada, in
and bombardment from their battery, 1700. It was quadrangular in form, with
which was kept up until near midnight, bastions and barracks, and covered about
The firing was returned with spirit; but two acres of ground. The embankments
Hull would listen to no suggestion for were nearly 20 feet high, with a deep
the erection of a battery at Spring Wells ditch, and were surrounded with a doubfe
to oppose the enemy if they should at- row of pickets. The fort did not corn-
tempt to cross the river. Early on the maiid the river. The town, also, was sur-
morning of the 16th they crossed and rounded by pickets 14 feet in height, with
landed unmolested; and as they moved loop-holes to shoot through,
towards the fort, in single column, Te- De Vaca. See CABEZA DE VACA.
cumseh and his Indians, 700 strong, who Devens, CHARLES, jurist; born in
had crossed 2 miles below during the Charlestown, Mass., April 4, 1820; grad-
night, took position in the woods on their uated at Harvard University in 1838;
left as flankers, while the righ-t was pro- studied at the Cambridge Law School, and
tected by the guns of the Queen Charlotte, practised the profession of law several
in the river. They had approached to a years. In 1848 he was a State Senator,
point within 500 yards of the American and from 1849 to 1853 was United States
line, when Hull sent a peremptory order marshal for Massachusetts. He was en-
for the soldiers to retreat within the al- gaged in his profession at Worcester,
ready overcrowded fort. The infuriated Mass., when the Civil War began, and
soldiers reluctantly obeyed; and while was one of the earliest Union volunteers,
the enemy were preparing to storm the becoming major of a rifle battalion April
fort, Hull, without consulting any of his 16, 1861, and colonel of the 15th Massa-
officers, hoisted a white flag, and a capitu- chusetts Regiment in July following. Be-
lation for a surrender was soon agreed fore the arrival of Colonel Baker, he com-
upon. The surrender took place at noon, manded at BALL S BLUFF (q. v. }, and again
Aug. 16, 1812. The fort, garrison, army, after that officer s death. In April, 1862,
and the Territory of Michigan were in- he was made brigadier-general ; served on
eluded in the terms of surrender. The the Peninsula; was wounded at Fair
spoils of victory for the British were Oaks; was in the battles of South Moun-
2,500 stand of arms, twenty-five iron and tain and Antietam; and commanded a
eight brass pieces of ordnance, forty bar- division in the llth Army Corps at
rels of gunpowder, a- stand of colors, a Chancellorsville. In the Richmond cam-
great quantity of military stores, and the paign of 1864-65 he was continually en-
armed brig John Adams. One of the gaged, and in December, 1864, he was in
brass cannon bore the following inscrip- temporary command of the 24th Army
tion: "Taken at Saratoga on the 17th Corps. In April, 1865, he was brevetted
of October, 1777." General Hull and his major-general of volunteers, and in 1867
fellow-captives were sent first to Fort was appointed a justice of the Superior
George and then to Montreal, where they Court of Massachusetts. He was United
arrived Sept. 6, when they were paroled, States Attorney - General in 1877-81, and
and returned to their homes. Hull was justice of the Massachusetts Supreme
tried for treason and cowardice, and sen- Court from 1881 till his death, in Boston,
tenced to be shot, but was pardoned by Jan. 7, 1891.

the President. His character has since De Vries, DAVID PIETERSSEN, colonist,
been fully vindicated. See HULL, WILL- In December, 1630, he sent out a number
IAM. of emigrants from Holland who establish-

Detroit, FORT. The old French village ed a settlement called Swanendal, near the
of Detroit contained 160 houses in 1812, mouth of the Delaware River, where they
and about 800 souls. It stretched along began the cultivation of grain and to-
the river at a convenient distance from bacco. Two years later when De Vries
the water, and the present Jefferson Ave- arrived at the head of a second party he
nue was the principal street. On the high found that all the first settlers had been
ground in the rear, about 250 yards from massacred by the Indians. In April, 1634,
the river, stood Fort Detroit, built by the he concluded that his enterprise was un-



successful, and the expedition returned to
Holland. He is the author of Voyages from
Holland to America, from 1632 till 16U.
Dewey, GEORGE, naval officer; born in
Montpelier, Vt., Dec. 26, 1837; gradu
ated at the United States Naval Academy
in 1858; and served on the frigate Wa-
bash in the Mediterranean squadron until
the beginning of the Civil War, when he
was assigned to the steam sloop Missis
sippi of the West Gulf squadron. On
April 19, 1861, he was commissioned lieu
tenant, and was with Admiral Farragut
when the latter s squadron forced the
passage of forts St. Philip and Jackson
in April, 1862. He also took part in the
attack on Fort St. Philip and the subse
quent battles with gunboats and iron
clads which gave Farragut control of New
Orleans. In the smoke of the battle the
Mississippi ran aground within range of
the shore batteries. When it was seen

in 1884 to captain; and in 1896 to com
modore. He was appointed to command
the Asiatic squadron in January, 1898, an
assignment then considered but little
short of exile. About March of the same
year, when it became evident that war
would be declared between the United
States and Spain, Commodore Dewey, act
ing on orders from Washington, began to
mobilize his vessels in the harbor of
Hong-Kong. After the declaration of
war he received orders to capture or de
stroy the Spanish fleet known to be in
Philippine waters. It was then supposed
that the harbor of Manila, where the Span
ish fleet was most likely to rendezvous,
was mined with explosives and supplied
with search-lights, and that the forts of
CAVITE (q. v.) had been put in readiness
for an attack. Taking all chances, the
United States squadron sailed boldly into
the bay on the night of April 30. Dewey s


that the ship could not be saved, the offi
cers and men set her afire and escaped in
the boats. Later, Dewey served in the
North Atlantic blockading squadron, and
still later with the European squadron.
In 1872 he was promoted to commander;

squadron comprised the flagship Olympia,
a first-rate steel-protected cruiser; the
Boston, the Baltimore, and the Raleigh,
second-rate steel-protected cruisers; the
Concord and Petrel, steel gunboats; the
McCulloch, revenue-cutter; and two nc.v





ly purchased supply ships. The Spanish
squadron consisted of the Reina Christina,
steel cruiser ; the Cast ilia, wooden cruiser ;
the Don Antonio de Ulloa, iron cruiser;
the Don Juan de Austria, iron cruiser ; the
Isla de Cuba, steel protected cruiser; the
Isla de Luzon, steel protected cruiser ;
the Isla de Mindanao, auxiliary cruis
er; the gunboats General Leso, El Cano,
and Marques del Duero, and two
torpedo - boats. Early on Sunday morn
ing, May 1, Dewey attacked the Spanish
squadron, under command of Admiral
Montojo. Two engagements were fought;
during the interval between them the
American ships drew off to the east side
of the bay, that the men might rest and
have breakfast. The fight lasted two
hours, and resulted in the destruction of
the Spanish squadron, by fire and sinking,
without the loss of an American ship or
man. Immediately after the receipt of
Dewey s brief message of victory, the Pres
ident promoted him to rear-admiral, and
Congress voted him the thanks of the coun
try and a sword. Subsequently, the grade
of admiral was revived, and the President
conferred it on him. Holding the bay of
Manila and the Cavite" works, he had

the chief city of the Philippines at his
mercy, but made no attempt to occupy
that city. There ensued a period of mas
terful diplomacy, which won for the victor
high commendation. Between the im
minent dangers of foreign complications
and the operations of the native insur
gents under ACUIXALDO ( q. v. ) , he
acquitted himself with rare judgment.
After the occupation of MANILA (q. v.)
by the American troops, he was granted
leave to return home, whenever and how
ever it should suit his convenience; and,
sailing in his battle-scarred flag-ship, he
reached New York on Sept, 20, 1890, and
was given the grandest reception ever
accorded a public officer, the demonstra
tions comprising a naval parade up the
river to General Grant s tomb, on the 29th,
and a land parade on the following day.
Subsequently, he established his residence
in Washington, D. C., in a dwelling pre
sented to him by popular subscription.

Dewey, MELVIL, librarian; born in
Adams Centre, N. Y., Dec. 10, 1851;
graduated at Amherst in 1874; edited the
Library Journal in 1876-81 ; became di
rector of the New York State Library in
1888; is author of Decimal Classification




and Relative Index; Library School Rules, It is of him that the story is told that

etc. he sent a lot of warming-pans to the West

De Witt, SIMEON, surveyor; born in Indies, which he disposed of at a large

Ulster county, N. Y., Dec. 26, 1756; profit to the sugar manufacturers for use

graduated at Queen s (now Rutgers) Col- as skimmers. He died in Newburyport,

lege in 177G; joined the army under Mass., Oct. 26, 1806.

Gates; and was made assistant geog- De Zeng, FREDERICK AUGUSTUS, BARON,
rapher to the army in 1778, and chief military officer; born in Dresden, Saxony,
geographer in 1780. He was surveyor- in 1756; came to America in 1780 as cap-
general of New York fifty years (1784- tain in one of the Hessian regiments; and
1834). In 1796 he declined the appoint- at the end of the Revolutionary War mar-
ment of surveyor-general of the Uriited ried an American lady and settled in Red
States. He was regent, vice-chancellor, Hook, N. Y. He was naturalized in 1789,
and chancellor of the State of New York, and became intimate with Chancellor
member of many learned societies; and Livingston, Governor Clinton, General
author of Elements of Perspective (1835). Schuyler, and others, and was greatly in-
He died in Ithaca, N. Y., Dec. 3, 1834. terested in the opening of canals and in

Dexter, HENRY MARTYN, clergyman; the navigation of the interior waters and

born in Plympton, Mass., Aug. 13, 1821; lakes. He died in Clyde, N. Y., April 26,

graduated at Yale in 1840; became pas- 1838.

tor of the Congregational Church in Diamond State. A name applied to

Manchester in 1844; removed to Boston the State of Delaware because of its

as pastor of the Berkeley Street Church small size, its wealth, and its importance.

in 1849. He is the author of Congregation- Diaz del Castillo, BERNAL, military

alism of the Last 300 Years; As to Roger officer; born in Medina del Campo, Spain,

Williams and his Banishment from- the about 1498; came to America as an ad-

Massachusetts Colony; History of Old venturer in 1514, joining the expedition

Plymouth Colony; and the editor of of Cordova in 1517, and of Grijalva in

Church s Eastern Expeditions; Entertain- 1518. He served Cortez faithfully and

ing Passages Relating to Philip s War. He valiantly. During his adventurous career

died in New Bedford, Mass., Nov. 13, 1890. he was engaged in 119 battles and skir-

Dexter, SAMUEL, jurist; born in Bos- mishes, and was wounded several times. He
ton, May 14, 1761; graduated at Har- wrote a history of the conquest of New
vard in 1781; studied law at Worees- Spain, which he completed in 1568, in
ter, and became a State legislator, in tended to correct the misstatements of
which place he was distinguished for in- Gomara s Chronicle of New Spain, in
tellectual ability and oratory. President which nearly all the glory of its conquest
Adams appointed him, successively, Sec- was given to Cortez. Diaz was a rough,
retary of War (1800) and of the Treas- unlettered soldier, and his history has
ury (1801), and for a while he had charge been pronounced a "collection of fables."
of the State Department. On the acces- He died in Guatemala, about 1593.
sion of Jefferson (1801) he resumed the Dickerson, MAIILON, statesman; born
practice of law. He declined foreign em- in Hanover, N. J., April 17, 1770; grad-
bassies offered by Adams and Madison, uated at Princeton in 1789; practised law
Mr. Dexter was a Federalist until the in Philadelphia, where he became recorder
War of 1812, when, being in favor of that of the city court. He returned to New
measure, he separated himself from his Jersey, was elected a member of the leg-
party. He was the first president of the islature in 1814, governor of the State
first temperance society formed in Massa- in 1815, and United States Senator in
chusetts. He died in Athens, N. Y., May 1816. He was Secretary of the Navy un-
4, 1816. der Presidents Jackson and Van Buren.

Dexter, TIMOTHY, merchant; born in He died in Succasunna, N. J., Oct. 5,

Maiden, Mass., Jan. 22, 1743. Inordinate 1853.

vanity and extraordinary shrewdness were Dickinson, ANNA ELIZABETH, reformer ;

combined in him with almost imbecility born in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 28, 1842;

in all matters excepting those of trade, made her first appearance among public



speakers in 1857, and spoke frequently on
temperance and slavery. During the Civil
War she was employed by Republican com
mittees to make addresses, and after its
conclusion she lectured on reconstruction
and on woman s work and wages. She
was an ardent advocate for woman s suf

Dickinson, CHARLES WESLEY, inventor;
born in Springfield, N. J., Nov. 23, 1823;
became a machinist, and gave his attention
to fine machinery. He perfected the bank
note engraving lathe, first used by the
national government in 1802; and invent
ed a pantograph tracer, improved type
setting and type - distributing machines,
etc. He died in Belleville, N. J., July 2,

Dickinson, DON M., lawyer; born in
Port Ontario, N. Y., Jan. 17, 184G; set
tled in Michigan in 1848; graduated at
the Law Department of the University of
Michigan in 1806; began practice in
Detroit; member of the Democratic
National Committee in 1884-85; served as
Postmaster-General of the United States
in 1888-89. He was appointed senior
counsel for the United States before the
Bering Sea Claims Commission in 1896.

Dickinson, JOHN, publicist; born in
Maryland, Nov. 13, 1732; son of Chief-
Justice Samuel D. Dickinson ; studied law
in Philadelphia and at the Temple in Lon
don, and practised his profession in Phila
delphia. In the Pennsylvania Assembly,
to which he was elected in 17C4, lie showed
great legislative ability, and was a ready
and vehement debater. At the same time,
he wrote much on the subject of Brit sh
infringement on the liberties of the colo
nies. The most noted of these writings
were papers (twelve in number) entitled
Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer, etc.,
published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle in
1767. Mr. Dickinson was a member of
the first Continental Congress, and wrote
several of the state papers put forth by
that body. Considering the resolution of
independence unwise, he voted against it
and the Declaration, and did not sign the
latter document. This made him unpopu
lar. In 1777 he was made a brif*ad ; er-Ten-
eral of the Pennsylvania militia. He was
elected a representative in Congress from
Delaware in 1779, and wrote the Address
to the States put forth by that body in


May of that year. He was successively
president of the States of Delaware and
Pennsylvania (1781-85), and a member
of the convention that framed the na
tional Constitution (1787). Letters from
his pen, over the signature of " Fabiua,"


advocating the adoption of the national
Constitution, appeared in 1788; and an
other series, over the same signature, or
our relations with France, appeared ir
1797. Mr. Dickinson assisted in framing
the constitution of Delaware in 1792. His
monument is DICKINSON COLLEGE (q. v.)
at Carlisle, Pa., which he founded and
liberally endowed. He died in Wilmington
Del., Feb. 14, 1808.

Dickinson, PHILEMON, military officer;
born in Croisedore, Md., April 5, 1739.
settled near Trenton, N. J. In July, 1775
he entered the patriot army ; in Octobei
of the same year was promoted brigadier
general; in 1776 was a delegate to the Pro
vincial Congress of New Jersey; in 1777
was promoted major-general of the Ne\\
Jersey troops ; in October of that year
mn relied against the British on Staten Is
and. for which he received the thanks o*
Washington ; and served with marked dis
tinction during the remainder of the Revo
lutionary War. In 1784 he served on the
commission to choose a site for the citv
of Washington. He died near Trenton.
N. J., Feb. 4, 1809.


Dickinson College, a co-educational
institution in Carlisle, Pa.; under the con
trol of the Methodist Episcopal Church;
organized in 1783; reported at the end of
1900, thirty professors and instructors,
480 students, 45,000 volumes in the
library, 3,951 graduates, and $375,000 in
productive funds; president, George E.
Reed, S.T.D., LL.D.

Dickson, JOHN, statesman; born in
Keene, N. H., in 1783; graduated at
Middlebury College in 1808 ; practised law
in Rochester, N. Y., in 1813-25; member
of Congress in 1831-35. He is credited
with having delivered " the first important
anti-slavery speech ever made in Con
gress." He published Remarks on the Pres
entation of Several Petitions for the
Abolition of Slavery and the Slave-trade
in the District of Columbia. He died in
West Bloomfield, N. Y., Feb. 22, 1852.

tary officer; born in Saxony in 1701; was
lieutenant-colonel of cavalry under Mar
shal Saxe, and was made brigadier-gen
eral of infantry in 1748, and commander
of Brest. In 1755 he was sent to Canada
with the rank of major-general ; and in an
attack upon the fortified encampment of
Gen. William Johnson at the head of Lake
George (Sept. 8, 1755) he was so severely
wounded that he died in Surenne, near
Paris, Sept. 8, 1757.

Digges, EDWARD, colonial governor;
born in England in 1620; came to Ameri
ca and introduced the silk-worm into Vir
ginia; became governor of that colony in
1655, but before the close of the year
resigned and became the bearer of a letter
from the Virginia Assembly to Cromwell.
He died in Virginia, March 15, 1675.

Dimick, JUSTIN, military officer; born
in Hartford county, Conn., Aug. 5, 1800;
graduated at the United States Mili
tary Academy in 1819; served in the war
with Mexico, and greatly distinguished
himself at Contreras and Churubusco. In
1861-63 he commanded the depot of
prisoners at Fort Warren, Mass. He was
retired in 1863; received the brevet of
brigadier-general, U. S. A., in 1865. He
died in Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 13, 1871.

Dingley, NELSON, legislator; born in
Durham, Me., Feb. 15, 1832; gradu
ated at Dartmouth College in 1855;
studied law in Auburn and wns admitted

to the bar there in 1856; and in the last
mentioned year became editor and pro
prietor of the Lewiston Journal, a con
nection he retained till his death. From
1861 till 1873 he was a member of the
State legislature, and in 1873 and 1875
was elected governor of Maine. In 1881
he was elected to Congress to fill the va
cancy caused by the election of William
P. Frye to the United States Senate, and
by re-elections held the seat till his death.


From the opening of his congressional
career he was conspicuous as an advocate
of high tariff. In 1890 he aided in the
formulation of the McKinley tariff bill; in
1894 was a strong opponent of the Wilson
bill; and in 1897, as chairman of the
committee on w r ays and means, he brought
forward the tariff bill which was adopted
under his name. President McKinley
tendered him the post of Secretary of the
Treasury, but he declined it. In 1898 he
became a member of the Joint High Com
mission to negotiate a settlement of ex
isting differences between the United
States and Canada. He died in Washing
ton, D. C., Jan. 13, 1899.

Dinwiddie, ROBERT, colonial governor;
born in Scotland about 1690. While act
ing as clerk to a collector of customs in
the West Indies he discovered and ex
posed enormous frauds practised by his
principal, and was rewarded with the


office of surveyor of the customs, and withdraw his troops from the disputed

afterwards with that of lieutenant-govern- territory. Dinwiddie immediately pre-

or of Virginia. He arrived in the colony pared for an expedition against the

in 1752. He was rapacious, and unscrupu- French, and asked the other colonies to

lous in the accumulation of wealth, co-operate with Virginia. This was the

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 18 of 76)