Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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Owing to his exaction of enormous fees first call for a general colonial union

authorized by the board of trade for the against the common enemy. All hesi-

issue of patents for lands, he gained the tated excepting North Carolina. The

ill-will of the people of Virginia, and legislature of that province promptly voted

when he called for money to enable him 400 men, who were soon on the march

to oppose the encroachments of the for Winchester, the place of rendezvous;

French, the House of Burgesses paid no but they eventually proved of little worth,

attention to his expressed wishes. Din- for, doubtful of being paid for their ser-

widdie, unmindful of this conduct, en- vices, a great part of them were dis-

listed a captain s command, and sent them banded before they reached the Shenan-

to build a fort at the forks of the Ohio doah Valley. Some volunteers from

(now Pittsburg), and called on neighbor- South Carolina and New York hastened

ing colonies for aid in the work. He sent to the gathering - place. Virginia respond-

George Washington to the French corn- ed to the call to arms by organizing

mander on a mission of observation, a regiment of 600 men, of which Joshua

Washington proved himself to be a zeal- Fry was appointed colonel and Major

ous officer; and Dinwiddie, discovering his Washington lieutenant-colonel. The Vir-

capacity, made him adjutant-general of a ginians assembled at Alexandria, on



military district.



the Potomac, whence Lieutenant - Colonel



The revelations made to Washington Washington, with the advance, marched
at Fort Le Boeuf, the evident preparations (April 2, 1754) at their head for the
of the French to make a concerted move- Ohio. Meanwhile Captain Trent had re-
ment to secure the occupation of the Ohio cruited a company among the traders west
region, and the tenor of St. Pierre s an- of the mountains, and had begun the erec-
swer to Dinwiddie s letter, convinced the tion of a fort at the forks of the Ohio.

They were attacked (April 18) by a party
of French and Indians, who expelled Trent
and his men, completed the fort, and
named it Duquesne, in honor of the cap
tain - general of Canada. News of this
event reached Washington at Will s
Creek (now Cumberland). He pushed
forward with 150 men to a point on the
Monongahela less than 40 miles from Fort
Duquesne. There he was informed that
a strong force of French and Indians was
marching to intercept him. He wisely fell
back to the Great Meadows, where he
erected a stockade, and called it Fort Ne
cessity. Before it was completed, a few
of his troops attacked an advanced party
of the enemy under Jumonville in the
night, and the commander and several of
his men were killed. Some of his capt
ured men were sent to Governor Dinwid-




die. Reinforced, Washington marched for

latter of the necessity of quick and ener- Fort Duquesne again, but was driven back
tfetic countervailing measures. St. Pierre to Fort Necessity, which he was obliged
declared that he was acting under the in- to surrender on July 3. See NECESSITY,
structions of his superior, the Marquis FORT.

Duquesne, at Montreal, and refused to Dinwiddie was the first to suggest to

117



DINWIDDIE COURT-HOUSE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE

the British board of trade the taxing of the supervision of a bishop. In the United
the colonies (1754) for funds to carry on States dioceses of the Protestant Episco-

the war with the French and Indians; pal Church bear the name of the State,

and he was one of the five colonial gov- part of the State, or Territory under the

ernors who memorialized Parliament bishop s jurisdiction; in the Roman

(1755) in favor of the measure. He had Catholic Church they take the name of

much clashing and vexation with the the city containing the bishop s cathedral.

House of Burgesses; and worn out with Diplomatic Service. The following is

trouble and age, he left Virginia under a table of the chiefs of the United States

a cloud caused by a charge made by his embassies and legations in foreign coun-

enemies that he had appropriated to his tries on Jan. 1, 1901 :
own use 20,000 transmitted to him for

compensation to the Virginians for money ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

expended by them in the public service. William P. Lord, Envoy Extraordinary

He died in Clifton, England, Aug. 1, 1770. and Minister Plenipotentiary, Bueno s

Dinwiddie Court-house, ACTIONS AT. Ay res.
In March, 1865, the National force under

General Sheridan crossed the Appomat- AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.

tox River from Bermuda Hundred, passed Addison C. Harris, Envoy Extraordi-

to the rear of the army before Peters- nary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Vienna,
burg, and early on the morning of the 29th

marched down the Jerusalem plank-road, BELGIUM.

and turning westward pushed on by way Lawrence Townsend, Envov Extraor-

of Reams s Station to Dinwiddie Court- dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary,

house, where he halted for the night at Brussels.

5 P.M. Sheridan expected to cut loose ~
from the rest of the army on the 30th

to make a raid on the South Side and Dan- George H. Bridgman, Envoy Extraor-

ville railroads, but General Grant sud- dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, La

denly changed his plans. General Lee, Paz.

seeing that his only line of communication BR\ZII
might be cut off at any hour, and feeling

the necessity of maintaining his ex- Charles Page Bryan, Envoy Extraor-

tended line of works covering Peters- dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Rio

burg and Richmond, concentrated a force de Janeiro,

of about 15,000 men, and hastened to place CHILE.

them in front of the 5th and 2d Corps of H enry L. Wilson, Envoy Extraordinary

the National army. He then sought to and Minister Plenipotentiary, Santiago,
strike a heavy blow on the extreme west

of Grant s lines, then held by Sheridan, CHINA.

which he supposed was a weak point. Edwin H. Conger, Envoy Extraordinary

Sheridan captured the works at Five and Minister Plenipotentiary, Peking.
Forks, and so gained the key to the whole

region that Lee was striving to protect. COLOMBIA.

In the struggle to regain this point strong Charles Burdett Hart, Envoy Extraor-

parts of both armies were soon facing each dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary,

other at Dinwiddie Court - house. Here Bogota.

Sheridan won the day after a severe en- p -p
gagement, the Confederates being unable

to make any rally, and the fighting ceased William L. Merry, Envoy Extraor-

with darkness. During the night the Con- Binary and Minister Plenipotentiary, San

federates retired. Jose.

Diocese, originally a division of de- DENMARK.

partments or districts under the civil Laurits S. Swenson, Envoy Extraor-

government of the Roman Empire, sub- dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary,

sequently restricted to the territory under Copenhagen.

ris



DIPLOMATIC SERVICE

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. NETHERLANDS.

William F. Powell, Charge" d Affaires, Stanford Newel. Envoy Extraordinary-
Port ail Prince. and Minister Plenipotentiary, The Hague.

ECUADOR. NICARAGUA AND SALVADOR.

Archibald J. Sampson, Envoy Extraor- William L. Merry, Envoy Extraordinary
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, and Minister Plenipotentiary, San Jos6.
Quito. (See Costa Rica.)

EGYPT.

PARAGUAY AND URUGUAY.
John G. Long, Agent and Consul-Gen
eral Cairo William R. Finch, Envoy Extraordi-
. nary and Minister Plenipotentiary,

Montevideo.
Horace Porter, Ambassador Extraor- PERSIA.

dinarv and Plenipotentiarv, Paris.

Herbert W. Bowen, Minister Resident

GERMAN EMPIRE. an( l Consul-General, Teheran.

Andrew D. White, Ambassador Ex- PERU

traordinary and Plenipotentiary, Berlin.

Irving B. Dudley, Envoy Extraordinary

GREAT BRITAIN. and Minister Plenipotentiary, Lima.

Joseph H. Choate, Ambassador Extraor- PORTUGAL
dinary and Plenipotentiary, London.

John N. Irwin, Envoy Extraordinary

GREECE, RUMANIA, AND SERVIA. and Minister Plenipotentiary, Lisbon.

Arthur S. Hardy, Envoy Extraordinary ^
and Minister Plenipotentiary, Athens.

Charlemagne Tower, Ambassador Ex-

GUATEMALA AND HONDURAS. traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary,

W. Godfrey Hunter, Envoy Extraor- St. Petersburg,

dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, SIAM.

Guatemala City. Hamilton King, Minister Resident and

HAITI. Consul-General, Bangkok.

William F. Powell, Envoy Extraor- SPAIN
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Port

au Prince. Bellamy Storer, Envoy Extraordinary

J TAIY and Minister Plenipotentiary, Madrid.

, Ambassador Extraor- SWEDEN AND NORWAY.

dinary and Plenipotentiary, Rome. William W. Thomas, Jr., Envoy Ex-

J APAX traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary,

Stockholm.

Alfred E. Buck, Envoy Extraordinary SWITZERLAND

and Minister Plenipotentiary, Tokio.

John G. A. Leishman, Envoy Extraor-

KOREA. dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary,

Horace N. Allen, Minister Resident Berne,
and Consul-General, Seoul. TURKEY.

LIBERIA Oscar S. Straus, Envoy Extraordinary

, and Minister Plenipotentiary, Constanti-

Owen L. W. Smith, Minister Resident noT) ] c

and Consul-General, Monrovia. VENEZUELA

MEXICO. Francis B. Loomis, Envoy Extraordi-

Powell Clayton, Ambassador Extraor- nary and Minister Plenipotentiary, Cani-
dinarv and Plenipotentiary, Mexico. cas.

119



DIPLOMATIC SERVICE



The following is a table of the chiefs
of the foreign embassies and legations in
the United States on Jan. 1, 1901:

ARGENTINE KEPUBLIC.
Dr. Eduardo Wilde, Envoy Extraordi
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.

Mr. Ladislaus Hengelmuller von Hen-
gervar, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister
Plenipotentiary.

BELGIUM.

Count G. de Lichtervelde, Envoy Ex
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

BOLIVIA.

Seiior Don Fernando E. Guachalla,
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni
potentiary.

BRAZIL.

Mr. J. F. de Assis-Brasil, Envoy Ex
traordinary and Minister Plenipoten
tiary.

CHILE.

Senor Don Carlos Morla Vicuna, Envoy
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten
tiary.

CHINA.

Mr. Wu Ting-Fang, Envoy Extraordi
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

COLOMBIA.

Senor Dr. Luis Cuervo Marquez,
Charge d Affaires.

COSTA RICA.

Senor Don Joaquin Bernardo Calvo,
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Pleni
potentiary.

DENMARK.

Mr. Constantin Brun, Envoy Extraor
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
Seiior Don Emilio C. Joubert, Charge
d Affaires.

ECUADOR.

Senor Don Luis Felipe Carbo, Envoy
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten
tiary.

FRANCE.

M. Jules Cambon, Ambassador Extraor
dinary and Plenipotentiary.



GERMANY.

Herr von Holleben, Ambassador Ex
traordinary and Plenipotentiary.

GREAT BRITAIN.

The Right Honorable Lord Pauncefote,
of Preston, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., Ambassador
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

GUATEMALA.

Seiior Don Antonio Lazo Arriaga, Envoy
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten
tiary.

HAITI.

Mr. J. N. Leger, Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary.

ITALY.

Baron de Fava, Ambassador Extraor
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

JAPAN.

Mr. Kogoro Takahira, Envoy Extraor
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

KOREA.

Mr. Chin Pom Ye, Envoy Extraordinary
and Minister Plenipotentiary.

MEXICO.

Seiior Don Manuel de Azpiroz, Am
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten
tiary.

NETHERLANDS.

Baron W. A. F. Gevers, Envoy Extraor
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

NICARAGUA.

Seiior Don Luis F. Corea, Envoy Ex
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

PERU.

Mr. Manuel Alvarez Calderon, Envoy
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten
tiary.

PORTUGAL.

Viscount de Santo-Thyrso, Envoy Ex
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.

RUSSIA.

Comte Cassini, Ambassador Extraor
dinary and Plenipotentiary.

SALVADOR.

Seiior Don Rafael Zaldivar, Envoy Ex
traordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.



120



DIRECTORY DISCIPLES OF CHRIST

SIAM. tourneur, and Carnot. The latter organ-

Phya Prashiddhi, Envoy Extraordinary ^ ed the armies with great skill,

and Minister Plenipotentiary, accredited Disbanding of the Union Armies,

both to the United States and Great See ARMY > DISBANDING OF THE UNION

Britain ARMIES.

g PAIN Disbrowe, SAMUEL, magistrate; born
in Cambridgeshire, England, Nov. 30,

Duke de Arcos, Envoy Extraordinary 16ig . came ^ to America in 1639; and

and Minister Plenipotentiary. bought from the Indians the site of Guil .

SWEDEN AND NORWAY. f rd > Conn The constitution of this set-

. tlement in the writing of Disbrowe is still

Mr. A. Grip, Envoy Extraordinary and preserved and prov ides for judiciary, ex-

Minister Plenipotentiary. ecutive, and legislative departments, etc.

o WTT7FPT ANn He returned to England in 1650, and died

in Cambridgeshire, Dec. 10, 1690.

Mr. J. B. Pioda, Envoy Extraordinary Disciples of Christ, a religious body
and Minister Plenipotentiary. founded in Washington, Pa., 1811, by

Thomas Campbell, a minister who had
left the Presbyterian Church in Ire-

Ali Ferrouh Bey, Envoy Extraordinary ]and and came to the United States in

and Minister Plenipotentiary. 180 7. He deplored the divided state of

,j the Church and the evils which arose there-

from. He held that the only remedy for

Senor Dr. Don Juan Cuestas, Minis- thig was a com pi ete restoration of primi-
ter Resident. tive apostolic Christianity. This view met

VENEZUELA. w ^h some approval, a new sect was

Senor Don Augusto F. Pulido, Charge formed, and the first church was organized
d Affaires ad interim. on May 4, 1811. In addition to the funda-

See CONSULAR SERVICE. mental truths which the Disciples of

Directory, FRENCH, the name given to Christ hold in common with all Chris-
the government of the French Republic, tian bodies the following may be cited as
established by a constitution in August, some of their more particular principles:
1795, framed by the moderate republican 1. The Church of Christ is intentionally
party after the fall of Robespierre and the and constitutionally one; and all divisions
end of the Reign of Terror. The executive which obstruct this unity are contrary to
directory consisted of live persons, who the will of God, and should be ended. 2.
promulgated the laws, appointed the min- As schisms sprang from a departure from
isters, and had the management of mili- the New Testament Christianity, the rem-
tary and naval affairs. They decided qties- edy for them is to be found in the restora
tions by a majority vote, and presided, by tion of the Gospel in its purity. 3. In
turns, three months each, the presiding order to accomplish this restoration all
member having the signature and the seal, human formulation of doctrine as authori-
During their terms of office none of them tative bases for church membership must
could have a personal command, or absent be surrendered, and the Bible received
himself for more than five days from the alone as the basis of all faith and prac-
place where the council held its sessions tice; the exchange of all party names for
without its permission. The legislative scriptural names, and the restoration of
power, under the constitution, was vested the ordinances as they were originally,
in two assemblies, the Council of Five The polity of the Disciples is congrega-
Hundred and the Council of the Ancients, tional ; the local churches have elders and
the former having the exclusive right of deacons. They have no general body for
preparing laws for the consideration legislative purposes, but combine in dis-
of the latter. The judicial authority was trict and national organizations for mis-
oommitted to elective judges. The first sionary work. In 1900 they reported 6,5*28
directors chosen (Nov. 1, 1795) were MM. ministers, 10,528 churches, and 1,149,982
Barras, Revelliere-Lepeaux, Rewbell, Le- communicants.

121



DISCOVERIES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY DISMAL SWAMP



Discoveries of the Nineteenth Cen
tury. Alfred Russell Wallace, in his book,
The Wonderful Century, makes a compari
son between the great inventions and dis
coveries of the nineteenth century and
those of the entire previous historical pe
riod, which is as follows:

OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY.

1. Railways.

2. Steamships.

3. Electric telegraphs.

4. The telephone.

5. Lucifer matches.

6. Gas illumination.

7. Electric lighting.

8. Photography.

9. The phonograph.

10. Rontgen rays.

11. Spectrum- analysis.

12. Anaesthetics.

13. Antiseptic surgery.

14. Conservation of energy.

15. Molecular theory of gases.

16. Velocity of light directly measured,

and earth s rotation experimental
ly shown.

17. The uses of dust.

18. Chemistry, definite proportions.

19. Meteors and the meteoritic theory.

20. The Glacial Epoch.

21. The antiquity of man.

22. Organic evolution established.

23. Cell theory and embryology.

24. Germ theory of disease, and the

function of the leucocytes.

OF ALL PRECEDING AGES.

1. The mariner s compass.

2. The steam-engine.

3. The telescope.

4. The barometer and thermometer.

5. Printing.

6. Arabic numerals.

7. Alphabetical writing.

8. Modern chemistry founded.

9. Electric science founded.

10. Gravitation established.

11. Kepler s laws.

12. The differential calculus.

13. The circulation of the blood.

14. Light proved to have finite ve

locity.

15. The development of geometry.
Disfranchisement. Several of the

Southern States have revised, and others



contemplate the revision, of their consti
tutions with a view to disfranchise illit
erate negroes.

Louisiana. There is an educational
qualification, which, however, does not ap
ply to men or to the sons or grandsons of
men who were qualified to vote in 1867,
nor to foreigners naturalized before Jan.
1, 1898.

Mississippi. An educational qualifica
tion and a poll tax of $2, which may be
further increased by a county poll tax
of $1.

North Carolina. An educational quali
fication and a poll tax are necessary, with
the exception that the educational qualifi
cation shall not apply to any one who
was entitled to vote under the laws of any
State in the United States on Jan. 1, 1867.

South Carolina. On Jan. 1, 1896, a
new constitution went into effect by which
voters could be enrolled up to Jan. 1,
1898, provided they could read or could
explain to the satisfaction of the register
ing officer such parts of the Constitution
of the United States as might be read
to them, but after Jan. 1, 1898, only
those able to read and write any re
quired part of the Constitution, or who
could prove themselves tax-payers on
property worth not less than $300, could
be enrolled as voters.

Maryland. A new law was passed
March 20, 1901, practically making an
educational qualification to read and write
necessary for enrolment as a voter.

See also ELECTIVE FRANCHISE.

Dismal Swamp, a morass in southern
Virginia, extending into North Carolina.
It was formerly 40 miles long and 25
miles wide, but has become somewhat re
duced in area by drainage of its border.
It is densely timbered with cypress, juni
per, cedar, pine, etc. Lake Drummond,
near its centre, covers about 6 square
miles. This swamp rises towards its
centre, which is considerably higher than
its margin. The canal, constructed
through the swamp to connect Chesapeake
Bay with Albemarle Sound, has large his
toric interests. The company organized
to build the canal received a joint charter
from the legislative assemblies of Vir
ginia and North Carolina on Dec. 1, 1787.
The canal was opened to navigation in
1822; was wholly finished in 1828] and



122



DISOSW AY DISUNION

was built with the assistance of the na- connection with this event was a curious
tional government and the State of Vir- proceeding. A free negro of the District,
ginia at a cost of $1,800,000. Originally who had bought and paid for his slave
it was 32 feet wide and 4 feet deep. Sub- wife, she and her children being, by the
sequently the width was increased to 40 slave code, his lawful slaves, claimed and
feet and the depth to 6 feet, and the de- received compensation for her and her
caying wooden locks were replaced with half-dozen children. In 1871, the District
stone ones. This canal was for many was organized as a Territory with a ter-
years the principal means of communi- ritorial form of government. So extrava-
cation between the North and the South, gant, however, were the expenditures made
and was a very profitable venture. After for public improvements by the officials of
the Civil War its usefulness departed, the Territory, that in 1874 Congress re-
Early in 1899, the canal, as entirely re- pealed the act creating the Territory, and
constructed, was reopened to navigation, invested the executive powers of the munic-
[t now extends from the village of Deep ipality in three commissioners two civil-
Creek, Va., to South Mills, N. C., a dis- ians and a United States engineer officer
tance of 22 miles. The present canal is appointed by the President. All legisla-
one of the most important links in the tive powers were assumed by Congress,
chain of inland waterways along the coast The law provided was the common law of
from New York to Florida, and, as the England, modified by acts of Congress,
dangers of Cape Hatteras are avoided by There is a supreme court of six justices,
it, it has a large value both in peace and with other tribunals and officials. The
war. Thomas Moore the poet, while at expenses of the municipality are defrayed
Norfolk, put into verse an Indian legend, one-half by revenues from taxes levied on
under the title of The Lake of the Dismal private property, and one-half by con-
Swamp. gressional appropriations. The citizens

Disosway, GABRIEL POILLON, anti- have no right to vote on national or local

quary; born in New York City, Dec. 6, questions.

1799; graduated at Columbia College in In 1900 the city of WASHINGTON (q. v.)

1819; author of The Earliest Churches of was co-extensive with the District of Co-

New York and its Vicinity. He died on lumbia, the former corporations of George-

Staten Island, N. Y., July 9, 1868. town and Washington having been abol-

District of Columbia, the Federal Dis- ished. and the public affairs of the district

trict and seat of government of the United placed under the management of three

States. In 1791 the District was erected commissioners. Tho total funded debt was

into two counties, as divided by the Poto- $15,091,300, and the assessed valuation

mac, and was placed under the jurisdic- $191,049,744. The population in 1890 was

tion of a circuit court, composed of a 230,392; in 1900, 278,718. See UNITED

chief -justice and two assessors; the judg- STATES DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, in vol. ix.
ment of this court to be final in criminal Disunion, EARLY THREATS OF. In

cases, but in civil cases, where the amount angry debates in Congress on the subject

in dispute exceeded $100 in value, a writ of the fisheries, in 1779, threats of dis-

of error to lie in the Supreme Court of union were made by deputies of the

the United States. This arrangement was North and the South. It was shown that

afterwards modified. Instead of provid- the prosperity of New England depended

ing a homogeneous code of laws for the on the fisheries ; but in this the Southern

District, those of Maryland and Virginia States hnd no common interest. Indeed,

were continued. A bill to abolish slavery in all the States the doctrine of State

in the District was passed by the Congress supremacy was so universally prevalent

(April 11, 1802), and became a law by that the deputies in Congress, instead of

the signature of the President, April 16. willingly legislating for the whole, legis-

It provided for the payment, out of the lated for their respective States. When

treasury of the United States, of an aver- appeals had been made in Congress for a

age of $300 to the master or mistress of favorable consideration of New England

each slave thus emancipated. Thus eman- in relation to the fisheries without effect,

cipation began at the national capital. In Samuel Adams said that " it would be-

123



DIVORCE LAWS



come more and more necessary for the
two empires [meaning the Northern and
Southern States divided by Mason and
Dixon s line] to separate." When the
North offered a preliminary resolution
that the country, even if deserted by
France and Spain, would continue the war
for the sake of the fisheries, four States
drew up a protest, declaring peremptorily
that if the resolution should be adopted
they would withdraw from the confedera
tion. These sectional interests continu
ally stood in the way of a perfect union
of the struggling colonists. The inflexible
tenacity with which each State asserted



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