Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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neer, was published, with some minor
poems. After 1833 Mr. Dana wrote but
little. He died in Boston, Feb. 2, 1879.

Dana, RICHARD HENRY, 2d, lawyer;
born in Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 1, 1815;
graduated at Harvard University in 1837;
admitted to the bar in 1840; author of
Two Years Before the Mast and many ar
ticles on legal subjects; reviser of Whea-
ton s International Law; nominated min
ister to Great Britain in 1876, but not
confirmed by the Senate; United States
counsel at the Halifax conference. He
died in Rome, Italy, Jan. 7, 1882.

Danbnry, DESTRUCTION OF. Governor
Tryon was one of the most malignant foes
of the American patriots during the Revo
lutionary War. He delighted, apparently,
in conspicuously cruel acts ; and when any
thing of that nature was to be done he
was employed to do it by the more re
spectable British officers. He was chosen
to lead a marauding expedition into Con
necticut from New York in the spring of
1777. At the head of 2,000 men, he left
that city (April 23), and landed at
Compo, between Norwalk and Fairfield,
two days later. They pushed on towards
Danbury, an inland town, where the
Americans had gathered a large quantity
of provisions for the army. The maraud
ers reached the town unmolested (April
25) by some militia that had retired, and,
not contented with destroying a large
quantity of stores gathered there, they
laid eighteen houses in the village in
ashes and cruelly treated some of the
inhabitants. General Silliman, of the
Connecticut militia, was at his home in
Fairfleld when the enemy landed. He im
mediately sent out expresses to alarm the
country and call the militia to the field.
The call was nobly responded to. Hear
ing of this gathering from a Tory scout,
Tryon made a hasty retreat by way of
Ridgefield, near which place he was con
fronted by the militia under Generals



Wooster, Arnold, and Silliman. A sharp
skirmish ensued, in which Wooster was
killed, and Arnold had a narrow escape
from capture, after his horse had been
shot under him. For his gallantry on that
occasion the Congress presented him with
a horse richly caparisoned. Tryon spent
the night in the neighborhood for his
troops to rest, and early the next morn
ing he hurried to his ships, terribly smit
ten on the way by the gathering militia,
and at the landing by cannon-shot direct
ed by Lieutenant-Colonel Oswald. They
escaped capture only through the gal-
hint services of some marines led by Gen
eral Erskine. About sunset the fleet de
parted, the British having lost about 300
men, including prisoners, during the in
vasion. The Americans lost about 100
men. The private losses of property at
Danbury amounted to about $80.000.
Danbury is now a city widely known for
its extensive manufactures of hats, and
has an assessed property valuation ex
ceeding $11,500,000. The population in
1890 was 16,552; in 1900, 16,537.

Dane, NATHAN, jurist ; born at Ips
wich, Mass., Dec. 27, 1752; graduated
at Harvard in 1778. An able lawyer
ond an influential member of Congress
(1785-88), he was the framer of the cele
brated ordinance of 1787. He was a
member of the Massachusetts legislature
several years, and was engaged to revise
the laws of the State (1799), and revise
and publish the charters (1811) which
had been granted therein. Mr. Dane was
a member of the Hartford Convention (see
HARTFORD) in 1814. His work entitled A
General Abridgment and Digest of Amer
ican Law, in 9 large volumes (1823-29),
is a monument of his learning and in
dustry. He founded the Dane professor
ship of law in Harvard University. He
died in Beverly, Feb. 15, 1835.

Danenhower, JOHN WILSON, explorer;
born in Chicago, 111., Sept. 30, 1849;
graduated at the United States Naval
Academy in 1870; served on the Vandalia
during Gen. U. S. Grant s visit to Egypt
and the Levant; and was promoted lieu
tenant in 1879. He joined the Arctic
steamer Jeanctte as second in command
in 1878. The vessel sailed from San
Francisco on July 8, 1879, through Ber
ing Straits into the Arctic Ocean, where



DANFORTH DANISH WEST INDIES

it was held in the ice-pack for twenty-two Daniel, WILLIAM, prohibitionist; born

months. From the place where the in Somerset county, Md., Jan. 24, 1826;

steamer was caught the crew travelled graduated at Dickinson College in 1848 ;

south for ninety-five days over the ice, admitted to the bar in 1851; elected

drawing three boats with them. They to the Maryland legislature in 1853,

then embarked, but were separated by a and to the State Senate in 1857; was

storm. Lieutenant Danenhower s boat an ardent supporter of temperance rneas-

reachod the Lena delta, where the Tun- ures, and in 1884 joined the National

guses saved the crew, Sept. 17, 1881. Prohibition party, which nominated him

After making an unsuccessful search for for Vice-President of the United States

the other boats he left ENGINEER GEORGE with William St. John for President. The

W. MELVILLE (q. v.) to continue the Prohibition ticket received about 150,000

search for LIEUT. GEORGE W. DE LONG votes.

(q. v.), and with his crew made a journey Daniels, WILLIAM HAVEN, author; born

of 6,000 miles to Orenburg. He arrived in in Franklin, Mass., May 18, 1836; edu-

the United States in June, 1882." He pub- cated at Wesleyan University; Professor

lished The Narrative of the Jcannettc. of Rhetoric there in 1868-69. He then

He died in Annapolis, Md., April 20, 1887. devoted himself to religious work, chiefly

Danforth, THOMAS, colonial governor; in the capacity of an evangelist. His pub-
born in Suffolk, England, in 1622; set- lications include The Illustrated History
tied in New England in 1(534 : in 1679 was of Methodism in the United States; A
elected president of the province of Maine; Short History of the People called
and was also a judge of the Superior Methodist, etc.

Court, in which capacity he strongly con- Danish West Indies, a group of

demned the action of the court in the islands lying east by southeast of Porto

witchcraft excitement of 1692. He died Rico, and consisting of St. Croix, St.

in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 5, 1699. Thomas, and St. John. St. Croix is the

Dangers from Slavery. See PARKER, largest, being about 20 miles long and 5

THEODORE. miles wide, with an area of 110 square

Daniel, JOHN MONCURE, editor : born in miles. It is generally flat, well watered,
Stafford county, Va., Oct. 24, 1825; in and fertile. Two-fifths of the surface is
1853 was appointed minister to Italy, in sugar plantations, and the principal
Garibaldi requested Daniel to annex Nice crops are sugar, cotton, coffee, indigo,
to the United States, but Daniel declined and rum. The climate is unhealthful at
on the ground that such action would be all seasons, and hurricanes and earth-
contrary to the Monroe doctrine. When quakes occur frequently. The population
the Civil War broke out Daniel hastened is about 18,000. St. Thomas is about
home and entered the Confederate army, 17 miles long by 4 miles wide. Its sur-
but resigned and resumed the editorship face is rugged and elevated, reaching its
of the Richmond Examiner, in which he greatest height towards the centre. The
attacked Jefferson Davis. He died in soil is sandy, and mostly uncultivated.
Richmond, Va., March 30, 1865. Charlotte Amalie, which is the principal

Daniel, JOHN WARWICK, legislator; town and the seat of government for the

born in Lynchbnrg, Va., Sept. 5, 1842: Danish West Indies, has an excellent

served through the Civil War in the Con- harbor and large trade. The population

federate army: member of Congress in of the island is about 14,000. St. John

1885-87 and of the United States Senate has an area of 42 square miles. The

in 1887-1905: author of Attachments chief exports are cattle and bay-rum,

under the Code of Virginia, etc. and the population is about 1.000. Ne-

Daniel, PETER VIVIAN, statesman ; born gotiations with Denmark for the cession
in Stafford county, Va.. April 24, 1784; of the islands to the United States began
graduated at Princeton in 1805; appoint- in 1898, after the close of the war with
ed judge of the United States Circuit Spain; but owing to political changes in
Court in 1836; and to the United States the Danish government, no definite re-
Supreme Court in 1841. He died in Rich- suits were then attained. In December,
mond, Va.. June 30, 1860. 1900, Congress became favorable to the

9



DANITES DABIEN SHIP CANAL

bill of Senator Lodge, advising the pur- for the ships to return to England for
chase of the islands, and negotiations to supplies, and, to hasten them, White went
that end were reopened. On Dec. 29, with them, leaving behind eighty - nine
1900, the United States offered to pay men, seventeen women, and .two children.
$3,240,000 for the islands; but the Danish Among the women was his married daugh-
Upper House rejected the treaty to sell, ter, Eleanor Dare, who had given birth
Oct. 22, 1902. to a daughter, in August, 1587, to whom

Danites, an alleged secret - order so- they gave the name of Virginia. On his
ciety of the Mormons, accused of various way home, White touched at Ireland,
crimes in the interest of Mormonism. where he left some potatoes which he took
These are denied by the Mormons. " Dan from Virginia the first of that kind ever
shall be a serpent by the way, an adder seen in Europe. He started back with two
in the path," Gen. xlix. 17. The members ships laden with supplies; but instead
were also known as the Destroying An- of going directly to Virginia, he pur-
gels. See MORMONS. sued Spanish ships in search of plunder.
Darby, WILLIAM, geographer; born in His vessels were so battered that he was
Pennsylvania in 1775; served under Gen- obliged to return to England, and Span-
eral Jackson in Louisiana; and was one ish war - vessels in British waters pre-
of the surveyors of the boundary between vented his sailing for America again until
Canada and the United States. Among 1590. He found Eoanoke a desolation,
his works are Geographical Description of and no trace of the colony was ever
Louisiana; Geography and History of found. It is believed that they became
Florida; View of the United States; Lect- mingled with the natives, for long years
ures on the Discovery of America; etc. afterwards families of the Hatteras tribe
He died in Washington, D. C., Oct. 9, 1854. exhibited unmistakable specimens of blood
Darbytown Road, Va., the place of mixed with that of Europeans. It is sup-
three fights during the Eichmond and posed the friendly " Lord of Roanoke "
Petersburg campaigns. The first, July 29, had saved their lives.

1864, between Hancock s corps under Darien Ship Canal, one of the great
Gregg and Kautz and the Confederates; interoceanic canal projects which have
the second, Oct. 7, when Kautz was de- attracted the attention of interested na-
feated; and the third, Oct. 13, when the tions for many years, and, most particu-
Nationals under Butler were defeated, larly, the United States. In 1849 an
General Lee claimed to have captured Irish adventurer published a book in
1,000 Nationals. which he said he had crossed and re-

Dare, VIRGINIA, the first child of Eng- crossed the Isthmus of Darien, and that
lish parents born in the New World. In in the construction of a canal there
1587 John White went to Roanoke Island only " 3 or 4 miles of deep rock cut-
as governor of an agricultural colony sent ting " would be required. Believing this,
out by Sir Walter Raleigh. He was ac- an English company was formed for the
companied by his son - in - law, William purpose, with a capital of $75,000,000,
Dare, and his young wife. It was in- and an engineer was sent to survey a
tended to plant the colony on the main- route, who reported that the distance be-
land, but White went no farther than tween " tidal effects " was only 30 miles,
Roanoke. The new colonists determined to and the summit level only 150 feet. The
cultivate the friendship of the Indians, governments of England, France, the
Manteo (the chief who accompanied United States, and New Granada joined,
Amidas and Barlow to England), living late in 1853, in an exploration of the best
with his mother and relatives on Croatan route for a canal. It was soon ascer-
Tsland, invited the colonists to settle on tained that the English engineer had
his domain. White persuaded him to re- never crossed the isthmus at all. The
ceive the rites of Christian baptism, and summit level to which he directed the
bestowed upon him the title of baron, expedition was 1,000 feet above tide-
as Lord of Roanoke the first and last water, instead of 150 feet. The expedi-
peerage ever created on the soil of the tion effected nothing.

American republic. It became necessary In 1854 Lieut. Isaac Strain led an

*



DARK AND BLOODY GROUND DARLEY

American expedition for the same purpose, open air. Birds became silent and went
They followed the route pointed out by to rest; barn-yard fowls went to roost,
the English engineer, and, after intense and cattle sought their accustomed even-
suffering, returned and reported the pro- ing resorts. Houses were lighted with
posed route wholly impracticable. The candles, and nearly all out-of-door work
success of the Suez Canal revived the was suspended. The obscuration began
project, and in 1870 two expeditions were at ten o clock in the morning and con
sent out by the United States govern- tinued until night. The cause of the
ment one under Commander T. 0. Sel- darkness has never been revealed. The
fridge, of the United States navy, to the air was unclouded.

isthmus of Darien; and the other, under Darke, WILLIAM, military officer; born
Captain Shufeldt, of the navy, to the in Philadelphia county, Pa., in 1736;
Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Three routes served under Braddock in 1755, and was
\vere surveyed across the narrow part with him at his defeat; entered the patriot
of the Isthmus of Darien by Self ridge, army at the outbreak of the Revolution as
and he reported all three as having ob- a captain; was captured at the battle of
stacles that made the construction of a Germantown; subsequently was promoted
canal impracticable. He reported a colonel; and commanded the Hampshire
route by the Atrato and Napipi rivers as and Berkeley regiments at the capture of
perfectly feasible. It would include 150 Cornwallis in 1791. He served as lieuten-
miles of river navigation and a canal less ant-colonel under General St. Clair, and
than 40 miles in extent. It would call was wounded in the battle with the Miami
for 3 miles of rock cutting 125 feet Indians, Nov. 4, 1791. He died in Jeffer-
deep, and a tunnel of 5 miles, with a roof son county, Va., Nov. 2G, 1801.
sufficiently high to admit the tallest- Darley, FELIX OCTAVIUS CARR, de-
masted ships. Selfridge estimated the en- signer and painter; born in Philadel-
tire cost at $124,000.000. The whole mat- pliia June 23, 1822; evinced a taste for
ter was referred in 1872 to a commission drawing at an early age, and while a lad
to continue investigations. A French in a mercantile house spent his leisure
company undertook the construction of a time in sketching. For some of these
canal between Aspinwall and Panama in lie was offered a handsome sum, and this
1881, under the direction of Ferdinand induced him to choose art as a life pur-
de Lesseps. After expending many mill- suit. He spent several years in Phila-
ions, the project was temporarily aban- delphia, always living by his pencil, and
doned in 1890. See CLAYTON - BULWER in 1848 he went to New York, where he
TREATY: NICARAGUA SHIP CANAL; PAN- made admirable illustrations for some of
AMA CANAL. Irving s humorous works. Among these

Dark and Bloody Ground. Two sec- were The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and
tions of the United States have received Rip Van Winkle. These works procured
this appellation. First it was applied for him the reputation, at home and
to Kentucky, the great battle-field be- abroad, as a leader in the art of outline;
tween the Northern and Southern Indians, illustrations. He illustrated a great many
and afterwards to the portion of that books and made numerous admirable de-
State wherein Daniel Boone and his com- signs for bank-notes. For Cooper s works
panions were compelled to carry on a he made 500 illustrations. More than
warfare with the savages. It was also sixty of them were engraved on steel,
applied to the Valley of the Mohawk, in He executed four large works ordered by
New York, and its vicinity, known as Prince Napoleon while in this country.
Tryon county, wherein the Six Nations These were: Emigrants Attacked 6y
and their Tory allies made fearful forays Indians on the Prairies; The Village
during the Revolution. Blacksmith; The Univilling Laborer, and

Dark Day. On May 12, 1780, a re- The Repose. He illustrated several of

markable darkness overspread all New Dickens s works, and during the Civil

England, varying in intensity at different War delineated many characteristic

places. In some sections persons could scenes. Some of the more elaborate pict-

not read common printed matter in the ures on the United States government

11



DARLING DARTMOOR PRISON

bonds were made by him; and also the what she had overheard. Through this

beautiful design of the certificate of stock timely information Washington was pre-

given as evidence of subscription for the pared and the British expedition proved

Centennial Exhibition in 1876. Among to be a failure.

his later works in book illustrations Dartmoor Prison, a notable place of
wore 500 beautiful dosigns for Lossing s detention in Devonshire, England. At the
Our Country. Mr. Darley went to Europe close of the War of 1812-15 prisoners
near the close of the war, studied models held by both parties were released as soon
in Rome, and returned with a portfolio as proper arrangements for their enlarge-
full of personal sketches. He died in ment could be made. At the conclusion
Claymont, Del., March 27, 1888. of peace there were about 6,000 Ameri-

Darling-, HENRY, clergyman; born in can captives confined in Dartmoor Prison,

Reading, Pa., Dec. 27, 1823; graduated including 2,500 American seamen im-

at Amherst College in 1842; ordained to pressed by British cruisers, who had re-

the ministry of the Presbyterian Church fused to fight in the British navy against

in 1847; published Slavery and the War their countrymen, and were there when

(1863), etc. He died in Clinton, N. Y., the war began. Some had been captives

April 20, 1891. ten or eleven years. The prison was situ-

Darlington, WILLIAM, scientist: born atetl on Dart Moor, a desolate region in
of Quaker parents in Birmingham, Pa., Devonshire, where it had been con-
April 28, 1782; studied medicine, Ian- structed for the confinement of French
guages, and botany, and went to Calcutta prisoners of war. It comprised about 30
as surgeon of a ship. Returning in 1807, acres, enclosed within double walls, with
he practised medicine at West Chester seven distinct prison - houses, with en-
with success; was a Madisonian in poli- closures. The place, at the time in ques-
tics, and when the war broke out in 1812 tion, was in charge of Capt. T. G. Short-
he assisted in raising a corps for the ser- land, with a military guard. He was
vice in his neighborhood. He was chosen accused of cruelty towards the captives,
major of a volunteer regiment, but did It was nearly three months after the
not see any active service. He was a mem- treaty of peace was signed before they
ber of Congress from 1815 to 1817 and were permitted to know the fact. From
from 1819 to 1823. In his town he that time they were in daily expectation
founded an academy, an athenaeum, and a of release. Delay caused uneasiness and
society of natural history. Dr. Darling- impatience, and symptoms of a deter-
ton was an eminent botanist, and a new mination to escape soon appeared. On
and remarkable variety of the pitcher April 4 the prisoners demanded bread
plant, found in California in 1853, was Instead of hard biscuit, and refused
named, in his honor. Darlingtonica Call- to receive the latter. On the 6th,
fornia. He wrote and published works so reluctantly did the prisoners obey
on botany, medicine, biography, and his orders to retire to their quarters, that
tory. Dr. Darlington was a member of when some of them, with the appearance
about forty learned societies in America of mutinous intentions, not only refused
and Europe. He died in West Chester, to retire, but passed beyond the prescribed
Pa., April 23, 1863. limits of their confinement, they were fired

Darrah, TA DIA, heroine; place and date upon by order of Captain Shortland, for
of birth unknown; lived in Philadelphia the purpose of intimidating all. The fir-
in 1777. One of the rooms in her house ing was followed up by the soldiers, with-
was used by the British officers, who out excuse. Five prisoners were killed and
planned to surprise Washington s army, thirty-three were wounded. This act was
She overheard their plans, and early in regarded by the Americans as a wanton
the morning of Dec. 3 left her home, massacre, and when the British authori-
ostensibly for the purpose of purchasing ties pronounced it " justifiable " the
flour, but in reality to give warning to hottest indignation was excited through-
Washington. After a walk of several out the republic. The last survivor of the
miles in the snow she met one of Wash- Dartmoor prisoners was Lewis P. (-lover,
ington s officers, to whom she revealed who died in Brooklyn, Long Island. N. Y

12



DARTMOUTH COLLEGE




in February, 1879, at the age of eighty- River, in the western part of New Hamp-
nine years. shire, and grants of about 44,000 acres of
Dartmouth College, one of the highest land were made. Governor Wentworlh
institutions of learning in the English- gave it a charter ( 1769 ), under the title of
American colonies; chartered in 1769. It Dartmouth College, so named in honor of
grew out of an earlier school established Lord Dartmouth. The institution was re-
by Rev. Dr. Wheelock at Lebanon, Conn., moved, with the pupils, to Hanover, in
designed for the education of Indian chil- 1770, where President Wheelock and all
dren, he being encouraged by his success others lived in log cabins, for it was an
in educating a young Mohegan, Samson almost untrodden wilderness. Dr. Whee-
Occoin, who became a remarkable preacher, lock held the presidency until his death, in
Pupils from the Delaware tribe were re- 1779 (see WHEELOCK, ELKAZAK), and was
ceived, and the school soon attracted pub- succeeded by his son, John, who was sent
lie attention. James Moor, a farmer, gave to Europe to procure funds for the sup-
two acres of land and a house for the use port of the college. He obtained consider-
of the school, and from that time it was able sums, and philosophical implements,
known as Moor s Indian Charity School. In 1810 a religious controversy led to a
Occom accompanied Rev. N. Whittaker to conflict with the legislature, and the latter
England to raise funds for the increase of created a new corporation, called Dart-
the usefulness of the school, and about mouth University, in which the property
$50,000 were subscribed. A board of trus- of the old corporation was vested. A law-
tees was organized, of which Lord Dart- suit ensued, carried on for the college by
mouth, one of the subscribers, was elected Daniel Webster, which resulted (1819),
president. The children of the New Eng- finally, in the establishment of the in
land Indians came to the school in large violability of chartered rights and the
numbers, and Dr. Wheelock resolved to restoration of the old charter. Wheelock
transfer it to a place nearer the heart of was raised to the presidency in 1817, by
the Indian population in that region. He the new board, but died a few months
selected Hanover, on the Connecticut nfterwards. He was succeeded by William

13



DARTMOUTH COLLEGE DECISION DA VENANT



Allen. At the close of 1000 the college
reported sixty-one professors and instruct
ors, 741 students, 85,000 volumes in the
library, 9,000 graduates, and $2,300,000 in
productive funds. Rev. William J. Tucker,
D.D., LL.D., was president.

Dartmouth College Decision. By an
act of the legislature of New Hampshire
in 1816, the name of Dartmouth College
was changed to Dartmouth University, the
management was changed, and the State un
dertook to control the affairs of the college.
Daniel Webster was retained to oppose the
action of the State, and the case was ulti
mately carried up to the United States Su
preme Court, the decision of which estab
lished the inviolability of private trusts.

Daston, SARAH, an alleged witch; born
about 1613. When eighty years old she



Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 2 of 76)