Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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she was soon joined by three others ar- not comply without orders, for which he
mored gunboats in the front line. A sec- sent. Grant was away, in consultation
ond line was formed of unarmored boats, with Commodore Foote, who had arrived.
The former were exposed to a tremendous Again McClernand sent for help, say-
pounding by missiles from the shore-bat- ing his flank was turned. Wallace took
teries; and they were compelled to retire, the responsibility. Then Buckner ap-
after receiving 140 shots and having fifty- peared. The battle raged fiercely. McCler-
four men killed and wounded. Foote re- nand s line was falling back, in good
turned to Cairo to repair damages and to order, and calling for ammunition. Wai-
bring up a sufficient naval force to assist lace took the responsibility of order-
in carrying on the siege. Grant resolved ing some up. Then he thrust his brigade
to wait for the return of Foote and the (Colonel Thayer commanding) between
arrival of reinforcements. But he was the retiring troops and the advancing
not allowed to wait. Confederates, flushed with hope, and
On the night of the 14th the Confeder- formed a new line of battle across the
ate leaders held a council of war and it road. Back of this was a reserve. In this
was concluded to make a sortie early the position they awaited an attack, while
next morning, to rout or destroy the in- McClernand s troops supplied themselves
vading forces, or to cut through them and with ammunition from wagons which Wai-
escape to the open country in the direc- lace had ordered up. Just then the com-
tion of Nashville. This was attempted bined forces of Pillow and Buckner fell
at five o clock (Feb. 15). The troops en- upon them and were repulsed by a bat-
gaged in it were about 10,000 in number, tery and the 1st Nebraska. The Confed-
commanded by Generals Pillow and Bush- erates, after a severe struggle, retired to
rod R. Johnson. They advanced from their works in confusion. This was the
Dover Mississippians, Tennesseeans, and last sally from the fort. " God bless you!" 1
Virginians accompanied by Forrest s wrote Grant s aide the next day to Wai-
cavalry. The main body was directed to lace, " you did save the day on the right."
attack McClernand s division, who occu- It was now noon. Grant was in the
pied the heights that reached to the river, field, and after consultation with McCler-
Buckner was directed to strike Wallace s r.and and Wallace, he ordered the former
division, in the centre, at the same time, to retake the hill he had lost. This was
so that it might not be in a- condition to soon bravely done, and the troops biv-
help McClernand. These movements were ouacked on the field of victory that cold
not suspected by the Nationals, and so winter night. Meanwhile, General Smith
quick and vigorous was Pillow s attack had been smiting the Confederates so vig-
that Grant s right wing was seriously orously on their right that, when night
menaced within twenty minutes after the came on, they were imprisoned within
sortie of the Confederates was known. The their trenches, unable to escape. Find-
attack was quick, furious, and heavy, ing themselves closely held by Grant, the

137



DONG AN

question, How shall we escape? was a duke s domain, and he took measures to
paramount one in the minds of Floyd protect the territory from encroach-
and Pillow. At midnight the three Con- ments. Dongan managed the relations
federate commanders held a private coun- between the English, French, and Indians
cil, when it was concluded that the gar- with dexterity. He was not deceived by
rison must surrender. " / cannot sur- the false professions of the French rulers
render," said Floyd; "you know my po- or the wiles of the Jesuit priests; and
sition with the Federals; it won t do, when DE NONVILLE (q. v.) invaded the
it won t do." Pillow said, "I will not country of the Five Nations (1686) he
surrender myself nor my command; I showed himself as bold as this leader in
will die first." " Then," said Buckner, defence of the rights of Englishmen,
coolly, " the surrender will devolve on Dongan sympathized with the people of
me." Then Floyd said, " General, if his province in their aspirations for lib-
you are put in command, will you allow erty, which his predecessor (Andros) had
me to take out, by the river, my brigade ?" denied ; and he was instrumental in the
" If you will move before I surrender," formation of the first General Assembly
Buckner replied. Floyd offered to sur- of New York, and in obtaining a popular
render the command, first, to Pillow, who form of government. When the King vio-
replied, " I will not accept it I will never lated his promises while he was duke,
surrender." Buckner said, like a true Dongan was grieved, and protested; and
soldier, " I will accept it, and share the when the monarch ordered him to intro-
fate of my command." Within an hour duce French priests among the Five Na-
after the conference Floyd fled up the tions, the enlightened governor resisted
river with a part of his command, and Pil- the measure as dangerous to English
low sneaked away in the darkness and power on the continent. His firmness in
finally reached his home in Tennessee, defence of the rights of the people and
The Confederates never gave him employ- the safety of the English colonies in
ment again. The next morning, the fort America against what he could not but
and 13,500 men were surrendered, and the regard as the treachery of the King
spoils of victory were 3,000 horses, forty- finally offended his sovereign, and he was
eight field-pieces, seventeen heavy guns, dismissed from office in the spring of
20,000 muskets, and a large quantity of 1688, when Andros took his place, bear-
military stores. During the siege the ing a vice-regal commission to rule all
Confederates lost 237 killed and 1,000 New England besides. Dongan remained
wounded ; the National loss was estimated in the province until persecuted by Leisler
at 446 killed, 1,755 wounded, and 152 in 1690, when he withdrew to Boston. He
made prisoners. died in London, England, Dec. 14, 1715.

Dongan, THOMAS, colonial governor; On May 24, 1901, eight loose sheets of
born in Castletown, county Kildare, Ire- parchment, containing the engrossed acts
land, in 1634; a younger son of an Irish passed during 1687-88, and bearing the
baronet; was a colonel in the royal army, signature of Thomas Dongan as governor
and served under the French King. In of the province of New York, were re-
1(>78 he was appointed lieutenant-governor stored to the State of New York by the
of Tangier, Africa, whence he was re- Commonwealth of Massachusetts. This in-
called in 1680. The relations between teresting historical find was accounted
England and France were then delicate, for on the presumption that the docu-
and Dongan being a Roman Catholic, like merits had formed a part of the archives
the proprietor of New York, he was of Massachusetts since the time of Sir Ed-
chosen by Duke James governor of that mund Andros, and the fact that they
province (1683), as it was thought his related to the province of New York had
experience in France might make it easier been entirely overlooked,
to keep up friendly relations with the The dates and titles of the Dongan
French on the borders. Dongan caused acts are:

a company of merchants in New York to March 17, 1686-87. An Act to Prevent

be formed for the management of the Frauds and Abuses in the County of Suf-

fisheries at Pemaquid, a part of the folk.

138



DONGAN CHARTER DORCHESTER HEIGHTS

June 17, 1687. An Act for Raising y x d. and from Concord, April 19, 1775, by the

per Pound on All Real Estates. rebels." He died near Bristol, England,

Aug. 20, 1687. A Bill for Raising Id. in March, 1821.

per Pound on All Persons, Estates, etc. Donnelly, IGNATIUS, author; born in

Sept. 2, 1687. An Act for Raising y a d. Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 3, 1831; removed
per Pound on All Persons, Estates, etc. to Minnesota in 1856; elected lieutenant-
Sept. 2, 1687. An Act for Regulating governor of the State in 1859 and 1861 ;
the Collection of His Majesty s Excise. Representative in Congress, 1863-69;

Sept. 27, 1687. An Act for Naturaliz- president of the State Farmers Alliance

ing Daniel Duchemin. of Minnesota for several years; nominee of

Oct. 11, 1687. A Bill to Prevent Frauds the Anti - Fusion People s party for Vice-
in His Majesty s Excise by Ordinary Keep- President of the United States in 1900.
ers. He was the author of Atlantis, the Antedi-

May 17, 1688. An Act for Raising luvian World; The Great Cryptogram, in

2,555 6s. on or before the First Day of which he undertook to prove by a word

November, 1688. See NEW YORK. cipher that Francis Bacon was the author

Dongan Charter, THE. See NEW YORK of Shakespeare s plays; The American

CITY. People s Money, etc. He died in Min-

Doniphan, ALEXANDER WILLIAM, mill- neapolis, Minn., Jan. 2, 1901.

tary officer; born in Kentucky, July 9, Donnohue, DILLIARD C., lawyer; born

1808; graduated at Augusta College in in Montgomery county, Ky., Nov. 20, 1814;

1826; admitted to the bar in 1830. In was appointed a special commissioner to

addition to his legal studies he was in- Haiti in 1863 to investigate the practica-

terested in military matters and became bility of colonizing the slaves of the South

brigadier-general in the Missouri State in that republic after their freedom. Both

militia. In 1838 he compelled the MOR- President Lincoln and Secretary Seward

MONS (q. v.), under Joseph Smith, to give favored this plan, but the report of Mr.

up their leaders for trial, lay down their Donnohue showed that it would not be

arms, and leave the State. In 1846 he feasible. He died in Greencastle, Ind.,

entered the United States service as colo- April 2, 1898.

nel of the 1st Missouri Regiment; in De- Donop, CARL EMIL KURT VON, mili-

cember of that year he defeated a superior tary officer; born in Germany, in 1740;

force of Mexicans at BRACETI KIVER (</. was in command of a detachment of mer-

v.) ; two days later he occupied El Paso, cenary Hessian troops during the early

In February, 1847, with less than 1,000 part of the Revolutionary War. On Oct.

men, after a march of over 200 miles 22, 1777, while leading a charge against

through a sterile country, he met a force Fort Mercer, at Red Bank, N. J., he

of 4,000 Mexicans at the pass of Sacra- was mortally wounded, and died on the

mento. He attacked with such vigor that 25th.

the Mexicans were soon overpowered, hav- Doolittle, AMOS, engraver; born in

ing lost over 800 in killed and wounded, Cheshire, Conn., in 1754; was self-edu-

Doniphan s own loss being one man killed, cated; served an apprenticeship with a

eleven wounded. He subsequently marched silversmith; and established himself as

700 miles through a hostile country until an engraver on copper in 1775. While a

he reached Saltillo. He died in Richmond, volunteer in the camp at Cambridge

Mo., Aug. 8, 1887. (1775) he visited the scene of the skir-

Donkin, ROBERT, military officer ; born mish at Lexington and made a drawing
March 19, 1727; joined the British army and engraving of the affair, which fur-
in 1746; served through the Revolution- nishes the historian with the only correct
ary War, first as aide-de-camp to General representation of the buildings around
Gage, and then as major of the 44th the " Green " at that time. He after-
Regiment. He published Military Col- wards made other historical prints of the
lections and Remarks, " published for the time. He died in New Haven, Conn.,
benefit of the children and widows of the Jan. 31, 1832.

valiant soldiers inhumanly and wantonly Dorchester Heights, an elevation south

butchered when peacefully marching to of Boston, which, on March 4, 1776, was

139

^f^Y^

OF THE

" UNIVERSITY



DO BNIN DOUBLED AY



occupied by the Americans, who threw of the Territories of Iowa and Wisconsin,
up strong intrenchments during the night. He aided in founding Madison, Wis., which
This movement had much to do with city was made the capital of the State
the evacuation of Boston by the British through his efforts. He held a seat in
on March 17 following. Congress in 1836-41 and 1849-53;

Dornin, THOMAS ALOYSIUS, naval of- governor of Wisconsin in 1841-44; and
ficer; born in Ireland about 1800; entered was appointed governor of Utah in 1864.
the United States navy in 1815; prevented He died in Salt Lake City, Ut., June 13,
William Walker s expedition from invad- 1865.

ing Mexico in 1851; later sailed to Ma- Doubleday, ABNER, military officer;
zatlan and secured the release of forty born in Ballston Spa, N. Y., June 26,
Americans there held as prisoners; after- 1819; graduated at West Point in 1842;
wards captured two slavers with more
than 1,400 slaves, and took them to Li
beria; was promoted commodore and re
tired during the Civil War. He died in
Norfolk, Va., April 22, 1874.

Dorr, THOMAS WILSON, politician;
born in Providence, R. I., Nov. 5, 1805;
graduated at Harvard in 1823; stud
ied law with Chancellor Kent; and be
gan its practice in 1827. He is chiefly
conspicuous in American history as the
chosen governor of what was called the
" Suffrage party," and attempted to take
the place of what was deemed to be op

the legal State government (see RHODE ^Iffijji
ISLAND). He was tried for and convicted wy$j&
of high treason, and sentenced to im- WW
prisonment for life in 1842, but was par- V

doned in 1847; and in 1853 the legislat
ure restored to him his civil rights and ABNER DOUBLEDAY.
ordered the record of his sentence to be

expunged. He lived to see his party tri- served in the artillery in the war with
umph. He died in Providence, Dec. 27, Mexico; rose to captain in 1855; and
1854. served against the Seminole Indians

Dorr s Rebellion. See DORR, THOMAS in 1856-58. Captain Doubleday was an
WILSON; RHODE ISLAND. efficient officer in Fort Sumter with Major

Dorsey, STEPHEN WALLACE, politician; Anderson during the siege. He fired the
born in Benson, Vt., Feb. 28, 1842; re- first gun (April 12, 1861) upon the Con~
ceived a common - school education ; re- federates from that fort. On May 14 he
moved to Oberlin, O. ; served in the Civil was promoted to major, and on Feb. 3,
War in the National army; was elected 1862, to brigadier-general of volunteers,
president of the Arkansas Central Rail- In Hooker s corps, at the battle of Antie-
way; removed to Arkansas; chosen chair- tarn, he commanded a division; and when
man of the Republican State Committee; Reynolds fell at Gettysburg, Doubleday
was United States Senator in 1873-79; took command of his corps. He had been
was twice tried for complicity in the STAR made major-general in November, 1862,
ROUTE FRAUDS (q. v.), the second trial and had been conspicuously engaged in
resulting in a verdict of not guilty. the battles of Fredericksburg and Chancel-

Doty, JAMES DUANE, governor; born in lorsville. He was brevetted brigadier-gen-
Salem, N. Y., in 1799; studied law and eral and major-general of the United States
settled in Detroit; member of the Michi- army in March, 1865; was commissioned
gan legislature in 1834, and there intro- colonel of the 35th Infantry in September,
duced the bill which provided for the 1867; and was retired in December, 1873.
divifiion of Michigan and the establishment He died in Mendham, N. J., Jan. 26, 1893.

no




DOUGHFACES DOUGLAS



General Doubleday was author of Reminis
cences of Forts Sumter and Moultrie in
1860-61 ; Chancellor smile and Gettysburg,
and other military works.

Doughfaces. During the great debate
on the slavery question in 1820, elicited
by proceedings in relation to the admis
sion of Missouri as a free-labor or slave-
labor State, eighteen Northern men were
induced to vote for a sort of compromise,
by which the striking out i\? prohibition
of slavery from the Missouri bill was car
ried by 90 to 87. John Randolph, who
denounced the compromise as a " dirty
bargain," also denounced these eighteen
Northern representatives as " dough



faces " plastic in the hands of expert
demagogues. The epithet was at once
adopted into the political vocabulary of
the republic, wherein it remains.

Doug-las, SIR CHARLES, naval officer;
born in Scotland; joined the British navy;
was placed in command of the fleet sent
to the Gulf of St. Lawrence at the begin
ning of the Revolutionary War. Early
in 1776 he relieved Quebec, then under
siege by the Americans, after a difficult
voyage through the drifting ice of the
river. He introduced locks in lieu of
matches for firing guns on board ships;
and was promoted rear-admiral in 1787.
He died in 1789.



DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD

Douglas, STEPHEN ARNOLD, statesman; the leading political topics which now agi-
born in Brandon, Vt., April 23, 1813; tate the public mind. By an arrangement
learned the business of cabinet-making; between Mr. Lincoln and myself, we are
studied law: became an auctioneer s clerk present here to-day for the purpose of bav
in Jacksonville, 111.; and taught school ing a joint discussion, as the representa-
until admitted to the bar, when he soon tives of the two great political parties of
became an active politician. Because of the State and Union, upon the principles
his small stature and power of intellect in issue between those parties; and this
and speech he was called " The Little vast concourse of people shows the deep
Giant." He was attorney-general of Illi- feeling which pervades the public mind in
nois in 1835; was in the legislature; regard to the questions dividing us.
chosen secretary of state in 1840; judge Prior to 1854, this country was divided
in 1841; and was in Congress in 1843-47. into two great political parties, known as
Pie was a vigorous promoter of the war the Whig and Democratic parties. Both
with Mexico, and was United States Sena- were national and patriotic, advocating
tor from 1847 to 1861. He advanced and principles that were universal in their
supported the doctrine of popular sov- application. An old-line Whig could pro-
ereignty in relation to slavery in the Terri- claim his principles in Louisiana and
lories, and was the author of the Kansas- Massachusetts alike. Whig principles
Nebraska bill (see KANSAS) ; and in had no boundary sectional line: they were
1856 was a rival of Buchanan for the not limited by the Ohio River, nor by the
nomination for the Presidency. He took Potomac, nor by the line of the free and
sides in favor of freedom in Kansas, and slave States, but applied and were pro-
so became involved in controversy with claimed wherever the Constitution ruled
President Buchanan. He was a candidate or the American flag waved over the
of the Democratic party in 1860 for Presi- American soil. So it was and so it is
dent of the United States, but was de- with the great Democratic party, which,
feated by Abraham Lincoln. He died in from the days of Jefferson until this
Chicago, 111., June 3, 1861. See KANSAS. period, has proven itself to be the historic

The Douglas-Lincoln Debate. In open- party of this nation. While the Whig

ing this famous debate, in Ottawa-, 111., and Democratic parties differed in regard

on Aug. 21, 1858, Mr. Douglas spoke as to a bank, the tariff, distribution, the

follows: specie circular, and the sub-treasury, they

agreed on the great slavery question which

Ladies and Gentlemen, I appear before now agitates the Union. I say that the

you to-day for the purpose of discussing Whig party and the Democratic party

141



DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD




STEPHEN ARNOLD DOUGLAS.



agreed on the slavery question, while they
differed on those matters of expediency to
which I have referred. The Whig party
and the Democratic party jointly adopted
the compromise measures of 1850 as the
basis of a proper and just solution of the
slavery question in all its forms. Clay
was the great leader, with Webster on
his right and Cass on his left, a-nd sus
tained by the patriots in the Whig and
Democratic ranks who had devised and
enacted the compromise measures of
1850.

In 1851 the Whig party and the Demo
cratic party united in Illinois in adopting
resolutions endorsing and approving the
principles of the compromise measures
of 1850 as the proper adjustment of that
question. In 1852, when the Whig party
assembled in convention at Baltimore for
the purpose of nominating a candidate for



the Presidency, the first thing it did was
to declare the compromise measures of
1850, in substance and in principle, a suit
able adjustment of that question. [Here
the speaker was interrupted by loud and
long-continued applause.] My friends,
silence will be more acceptable to me in
the discussion of these questions than
applause. I desire to address myself to
your judgment, your understanding, and
your consciences, and not to your passions
or your enthusiasm. When the Demo
cratic convention assembled in Baltimore
in the same year, for the purpose of nom
inating a Democratic candidate for the
Presidency, it also adopted the com
promise measures of 1850 as the basis of
Democratic action. Thus you see that up
to 1853-54 the Whig party and the Demo
cratic party both stood on the same plat
form with regard to the slavery question.



142



DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD



That platform was the right of the peo- was then about to become vacant, and
pie of each State and each Territory to that Trumbull should have my seat when
decide their local and domestic institu- my term expired. Lincoln went to work
tions for themselves, subject only to the to abolitionize the Old Whig party all
federal Constitution. over the State, pretending that he was

During the session of Congress of 1853- then as good a Whig as ever; and Trum-
54 I introduced into the Senate of the bull went to work in his part of the State
United States a bill to organize the Ter- preaching abolitionism in its milder and
ritories of Kansas and Nebraska on that lighter form, and trying to abolitionize
principle which had been adopted in the the Democratic party, and bring old
compromise measures of 1850, approved by Democrats handcuffed and bound hand
the Whig party and the Democratic party and foot into the abolition camp. In pur-
in Illinois in 1851, and endorsed by the suance of the arrangement the parties met
Whig party and the Democratic party at Springfield in October, 1854, and pro-
in national convention in 1852. In order claimed their new platform. Lincoln
that there might be no misunderstand- was to bring into the abolition camp the
ing in relation to the principle involved old-line W T higs, and transfer them over to
in the Kansas and Nebraska bill, I put Giddings, Chase, Fred Douglass, and Par-
forth the true intent and meaning of the
act in these words : " It is the true in
tent and meaning of this act not to legis
late slavery into any State or Territory,
or to exclude it therefrom, but to leave
the people thereof perfectly free to form
and regulate their domestic institutions
in their own way, subject only to the fed
eral Constitution." Thus you see that up
to 1854, when the Kansas and Nebraska
bill was brought into Congress for the
purpose of carrying out the principles
which both parties had up to that time en
dorsed and approved, there had been no
division in this country in regard to that
principle except the opposition of the abo
litionists. In the House of Representa
tives of the Illinois legislature, upon a
resolution asserting that principle, every
Whig and every Democrat in the House
voted in the affirmative, and only four
men voted against it, and those four were
old-line abolitionists.

Tn 1854 Mr. Abraham Lincoln and Mr.
Lyman Trumbull entered into an arrange
ment, one with the other, and each with
his respective friends, to dissolve the old
Whig party on the one hand, and to dis
solve the old Democratic party on the
other, and to connect the members of
both into an abolition party, under the
name and disguise of a Republican party.
The terms of that arrangement between
Lincoln and Trumbull have been pub
lished by Lincoln s special friend, James
H. Matheny, Esq. ; and they were that
Lincoln should have General Shields s
place in the United States Senate, which

143




MONUMENT TO STEPHEN A. DOUGLAS.



DOUGLAS, STEPHEN ARNOLD

son Lovejoy, who were ready to receive sitions; and yet I venture to say that

them and christen them in their new you cannot get Mr. Lincoln to come out

faith. They laid down on that occasion and say that he is now in favor of each one

a platform for their new Republican party, of them. That these propositions, one and

which was thus to be constructed. I have all, constitute the platform of the Black



Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 22 of 76)