Benson John Lossing.

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himself in the engagements on Long Island and My Freedom (1855) ; and Life and
and Harlem Plains. He died in North- Times of Frederick Douglass (1881). He
ford, Conn., May 28, 1777. died near Washington, D. C., Feb. 20,

Douglass, FREDERICK, diplomatist; 1895.

born in Tuckahoe, Talbot co., Md., in Feb- Dow, LORENZO, clergyman; born in
ruary, 1817; was a mulatto, the son of a Coventry, Conn., Oct. 16, 1777; was
slave mother: lived in Baltimore after he ordained in the Methodist ministry; went
was ten years of age, and secretly taught as a missionary to Ireland in 1799 and
himself to read and write. Endowed with 1805; introduced camp-meetings into Eng-
great natural moral and intellectual abil- land; and through a discussion which re-
ity, he fled from slavery at the age of suited from these the Primitive Methodist
twenty-one years, and, going to New Bed- Church was organized. On account of his
ford, married, and supported himself by eccentricities he was nicknamed " Crazy
day-labor on the wharves and in work- Dow." He died in Georgetown, D. C.,
shops. In 1841 he spoke at an anti-slavery Feb. 2, 1834.

convention at Xantucket, and soon after- Dow, NEAL, reformer; born in Port-
wards was made the agent of the Massa- land, Me., March 20, 1804. From the
chusetts Anti - slavery Society. He lect- time he was a boy he was noted for his
ured extensively in New England, and, zeal in the temperance cause, and was
going to Great Britain, spoke in nearly one of the founders of the Prohibition
all the large towns in that country on party. In 1851 he drafted the famous



prohibitory law of Maine, and was elected Drake, SIB FRANCIS, navigator; born

mayor of Portland in 1851 and 1854. In near Tavistock, Devonshire, England, be-

the Civil War he was commissioned colonel tween 1539 and 1546. Becoming a seaman

of the 13th .Maine Volunteers; was pro- in early youth, he was owner and master

moted to brigadier-general ; and was a of a ship at the age of eighteen years,

prisoner of war at Mobile and in Libby After making commercial voyages to

prison. In 1880 he was the candidate of Guinea, Africa, he sold her, and invested

the Prohibition party for President, and the proceeds in an expedition to Mexico,

in 1894 temperance organizations through- under Captain Hawkins, in 1567. The

out the world observed his ninetieth birth- fleet was nearly destroyed in an attack

day. He died in Portland, Me., Oct. 2, 1897. by the Spaniards at San Juan de Ulloa

Dowie, JOHN ALEXANDER, adventurer; (near Vera Cruz), and Drake returned to
born in Scotland. At one time a pastor England stripped of all his property. The
in Australia, he aftenvards went to Chi- Spanish government refused to indemnify
cago. 111., and became a " healer," real- him for his losses, and he sought revenge
estate operator, newspaper proprietor, and and found it. Queen Elizabeth gave him
manufacturer. He founded a lace-making a commission in the royal navy, and in
industry near Waukegan, 111. The place 1572 he sailed from Plymouth with two
was called " Zion " and his followers ships for the avowed purpose of plunder-
" Zionites." He announced that he was ing the Spaniards. He did so successfully
the Prophet Elijah returned to earth, and on the coasts of South America, and re-
surrounded himself with armed guards turned in 1573 with greater wealth than
under a pretence that his life was in he ever possessed before. Drake was wel-
danger. In 1904 he proclaimed himself First corned as a hero; he soon won the title
Apostle of the Christian Catholic Church, honorably by circumnavigating the globe.

Downie, GEORGE, naval officer ; born in He had seen from "a mountain on Darien
Ross, Ireland; at an early age entered the the waters of the Pacific Ocean, and re-
British navy; in 1812 was given command solved to explore them. Under the patron-
of the squadron on the Lakes and com- age of the Queen, he sailed from Plymouth
manded the British fleet at the battle of in December, 1577; passed through the
Plattsburg, in which he was killed, Sept. Strait of Magellan into the Pacific Ocean;
11, 1814. pillaged the Spanish settlements on the

Draft Riots. See CONSCRIPTION; NEW coasts of Peru and Chile, and a Spanish

YORK (city). galleon laden with gold and silver bullion;

Dragoons, an old name for cavalry. and, pushing northward, discovered the bay

Drainsville, SKIRMISH AT. The loyal of San Francisco, took possession of Cali-

people of the country became impatient fornia in the name of his Queen, and

because the Army of the Potomac, fully named the country New Albion, or New

200,000 strong at the end of 1861, was England.

seemingly kept at bay by 60,000 Con- He had sailed northward as high, prob-
federates. There was a sense of relief ably, as latitude 46, or near the boundary
when, on Dec. 20, Gen. E. O. C. Ord had between Oregon and the British posses-
a sharp skirmish with a Confederate sions, and possibly he went farther north,
force near Drainsville, led by Gen. J. E. B. for he encountered very cold weather in
Stuart. Ord had gone out to capture June, and turned back. Drake entered a
Confederate foragers, and to gather for- fine bay and landed his stores, prepara-
age from the farms of Confederates. He tory to repairing his ship; and he re-
was attacked by Stuart, who had come up mained on the coast fully a month,
from Centreville. A severe fight occurred, hospitably treated by the natives. Late
and the Confederates were beaten and in June he was visited by the king of the
fled. The Nationals lost seven killed and country and his official attendants. The
sixty - three wounded ; the Confederates former was dressed in rabbit-skins a
lost forty-three killed and 143 wounded, peculiar mark of distinction. His officers
The Nationals returned to camp with six- were clad in feathers, and his other fol-
teen wagon-loads of hay and twenty-two lowers were almost naked. Drake received
ot corn. them cordially. The sceptre-bearer and



another officer made speeches, after which country to the English by the king and
the natives indulged in a wild dance, in people. On the same plate were engraved
which the women joined. Then Drake the portrait and arms of the Queen and
was asked to sit down, when the king and the navigator. Then he sailed for the
his people desired him to become the Molucca Islands. It is believed that Sil
king and governor of the country." Then Francis Drake entered the " Golden Gate "


the king, singing with all the; rest, set a
crown upon Drake s head, and saluted him
as Hioh, or sovereign. Drake accepted the
honor in the name of Queen Elizabeth.
After taking possession of the country he
erected a wooden post, placed upon it a
copper plate, with an inscription, on which
was asserted the right of Queen Elizabeth
and her successors to the kingdom, with
the time of his arrival there, and a state
ment of the voluntary resignation of the

of San Francisco Bay, and that near its
shores the ceremony of his coronation took

Fearing encounters with the Spaniards
on his return with his treasure-laden ves
sels, Drake sought a northeast passage to
England. Met by severe cold, he turned
back, crossed the Pacific to the Spice Isl-
nnds, thence over the Indian Ocean, and,
doubling the Cape of Good Hope, readied
England in November, 1580. The delighted



Queen knighted Drake, \vho afterwards
plundered Spanish towns on the Atlantic
coasts of America; and, returning, took
a distressed English colony from Roanoke
Island and carried them to England. In
command of a fleet of thirty vessels, in
1587, he destroyed 100 Spanish vessels in
the harbor of Cadiz; and from a captured
vessel in the East India trade the English
learned the immense value of that trade
and how to carry it on. As vice-admiral,
Drake materially assisted in defeating the
Spanish Armada in 1588; and the next
year he ravaged the coasts of the Spanish
peninsula. After various other exploits
of a similar kind, he accompanied Haw
kins to the West Indies in 1595. Haw
kins died at Porto Rico, and Drake, in
supreme command, gained victory after

raphy; Life of Gen. Henry Knox; The
Town of Roxbury; Indian History for
Young Folks, etc. He edited Schoolcraft s
History of the Indians. He died in Wash
ington, D. C., Feb. 22, 1885.


Drake, SAMUEL ADAMS, historian; born
in Boston, Mass., Dec. 20, 1833; adopted
journalism as a profession, but at the be
ginning of the Civil War entered the
National service and rose to the rank
of colonel of United States volunteers in
1863. He is the author of Nooks and Cor
ners of the New England Coast; The Mak
ing of Neiv England; Old Landmarks of
Boston; History of Middlesex County, etc.

Drake, SAMUEL GARDNER, antiquarian;
born in Pittsfield, N. H., Oct. 11, 1798; re-


victory over the Spaniards. He died near ceived a common-school education, and

Puerto Bello, Dec. 27, 1595, and was taught in a district school for several

buried at sea. years. Settling in Boston, he there estab-

Drake, FRANCIS SAMUEL, biographer; lished the first antiquarian book-store in

born in Northwood, N. H., Feb. 22, 1828; the United States, in 1828. He was cno

son of Samuel Gardner Drake. He is the of the founders of the New England His-

author of Dictionary of American Biog- torical Genealogical Society, of which he



was at one time president, and in 1847
began the publication of the New England
Genealogical Register, continuing it many
years as editor and publisher, making
large contributions of biography to its
pages. Mr. Drake resided in London
about two years (1858-60). He prepared
many valuable books on biographical and
historical subjects. His Book of the Ind
ians is a standard work on Indian history
and biography. He prepared an excellent
illustrated History of Boston, and his
illustrative annotations of very old Amer
ican books and pamphlets are of exceed
ing value. He died in Boston, June 14,

Drama, EARLY AMERICAN. As early
as 1733, there appears to have been a
sort of theatrical performance in the city
of New York. In October of that year,.
George Talbot, a merchant, published a
notice in Bradford s Gazette, directing in
quiries to be made at his store " next
door to the Play-house." In 1750 some
young Englishmen and Americans got up
a coffee-house representation of Otway s
Orphans in Boston. The pressure for en
trance to the novelty was so great that
a disturbance arose, which gave the au
thorities reason for taking measures for
the suppression of such performances. At
the next session of the legislature a law
was made prohibiting theatrical enter
tainments, because, as it was expressed
in the preamble, they tended not only " to
discourage industry and frugality, but
likewise greatly to increase immoral
ity, impiety, and a contempt for religion."
Regular theatrical performances were in
troduced into America soon afterwards,
when, in 1752, a company of actors from
London, led by William and Lewis Hal-
lam, played (a part of them) the Beaux
Stratagem at Annapolis. Soon afterwards
the whole brought out the play of the
Merchant of Venice at Williamsburg, Va.
The same company afterwards played at
Philadelphia, Perth Amboy, New York,
and Newport. The laws excluded them
from Connecticut and Massachusetts.

Dramatic Art. See JEFFERSON, JO

Draper, JOHN WILLIAM, scientist; born
in St. Helen s, near Liverpool, England.
May 5, 1811; was educated in scientific
btudies at the University of London; came


to the United States in 1833, and con
tinued his medical and chemical studies
in the University of Pennsylvania, where


he took the degree of M.D. He became
(1830-39) Professor of Chemistry, Natural
Philosophy, and Physiology in Hampden-
Sidney College, Virginia. From 1839 Dr.
Draper was connected, as professor, with
the University of the City of New York,
and aided in establishing the University
Medical College, of which he was appoint
ed (1841) Professor of Chemistry. In 1850
physiology was added to the chair of
chemistry. From that year he was the
president of the medical faculty of the in
stitution, and in 1874 he was a-lso presi
dent of the scientific department of the
university. Dr. Draper was one of the
most patient, careful, and acute of scien
tific investigators. His industry in ex
perimental researches was marvellous, and
his publications on scientific subjects are
voluminous. He contributed much to
other departments of learning. His His
tory of the Intellectual Development of
Europe appeared in 1862; his Thoughts
on the Future Civil Policy of America, in
1865; and his History of the American
Civil War, in 3 volumes, appeared be
tween 1867 and 1870. To Dr. Draper are
due many fundamental facts concerning
the phenomena of the spectrum of light
and heat. Among his later productions
were reports of experimental examination?!
of the distribution of heat and of chemi-


cal force in the spectrum. Dr. Draper s in American history. " In order to

researches materially aided in perfecting stimulate your exertions in favor of your

Daguerre s great discovery. In 1876 the civil liberties, which protect your relig-

Rumford gold medal was bestowed upon icus rights," he said, " instead of dis-

Dr. Draper by the American Academy of coursing to you on the laws of other

Sciences. He died Jan. 4, 1882. states and comparing them to our own,

Draper, LYMAN COPELAND, historian; allow me to tell you what your civil lib-
born in Evans, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1815. In erties are, and to charge you, which I do
1833 he gathered information regarding in the most solemn manner, to hold them
the Creek chief Weatherford, and from dearer than your lives a lesson and
that time onward he was an indefatigable charge at all times proper from a judge,
student, devoting his life to the collection but particularly so at this crisis, when
of materials bearing upon the history of America is in one general and grievous
the Western States and biographies of commotion touching this truly important
the leading men of the country. In 1853 point." The judge then discoursed on
he was appointed secretary of the Wis- the origin of the colony, the nat-
consin State Historical Society and was ure of the constitution, and their
connected with the library of the society, civil rights under it, and concluded by
with a few short intervals, till his death, saying that some might think his charge
He published the Collections of the State inconsistent with his duty to the King
Historical Society (10 volumes); The who had just placed him on the bench;
Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence,
etc. He died in Madison, Wis., Aug. 26,

Drayton, PERCIVAL, naval officer; born
in South Carolina, Aug. 25, 1812; entered
the navy as a midshipman in 1827; was
promoted lieutenant in 1838; took part in
the Paraguay expedition in 1858; com
manded the monitor Passaic in the bom
bardment of Fort McAllister, and Far-
ragut s flag - ship, the Hartford, in the
battle of Mobile Bay, Aug. 5, 1864; and
afterwards became chief of the bureau of
navigation. He died in Washington, D. C.,
Aug. 4, 1865.

Drayton, WILLIAM HENRY, statesman;
born in Drayton Hall, S. C., in Septem
ber, 1742; educated in England, and on WILLIAM HENRY DRAYTON.
his return he became a political writer.

In 1771 he was appointed privy coun- " but, for my part," he said, " in my

cillor for the province of South Carolina, judicial character I know no master but

but he soon espoused the cause of the the law. I am a servant, not to the King,

patriots, and protested against the pro- but to the constitution ; and, in my esti-

ceedings of his colleagues. In 1774 he rnation, I shall best discharge my duty

addressed a pamphlet to the Continental as a good servant to the King and a trusty

Congress, in which he stated the griev- officer under the constitution when I

ances of the Americans, and drew up a boldly declare the laws to the people and

bill of rights, and substantially marked instruct them in their civil rights." This

out the line of conduct adopted by the charge, scattered broadcast by the press,

Congress. He was appointed a judge in had a powerful influence in the colonies,

1774, but was suspended from the office and, with other patriotic acts, cost Judge

when he became a member of the com- Drayton his office. In 1775 he was presi-

mittee of safety at Charleston. The first dent of the Provincial Congress of South

charge to the grand jury at Camden, S. C., Carolina. In 1776 he became chief- jus-

in 1774, by Judge Drayton is conspicuous tice of the State; and his published charge



to a grand jury in April, that year, dis- " all men are created equal " ; that the
played great wisdom and energy, and was patriots of the Revolution and their pro-
widely circulated and admired. Mr. Dray- genitors " for more than a century be-
ton was chosen president, or governor, of fore " regarded the negro race as so far
South Carofina in 1777, and in 1778-79 inferior that they had no rights which
was a member of the Continental Congress, the white man was bound to respect, and
He wrote a history of the Revolution to that they were never spoken of except as
the end of the year 1778, which was pub- property. He also declared that the
lished by his son in 1821. He died in framers of the national Constitution
Philadelphia, Sept. 3, 1779. held the same views. The chief-justice

Dred Scott Case, THE. At about the went further in his extra-judicial decla-
time that Mr. Buchanan became Presi- rations, saying that the MISSOURI
dent-elect of the republic, a case of much COMPROMISE (q. v.) and all other acts
moment was adjudicated by the Supreme restricting slavery were unconstitu-
Court of the United States. A negro tional, and that neither Congress nor
named Dred Scott had been the slave of local legislatures had any authority for
a United States army officer living in restricting the spread over the whole
Missouri. He was taken by his master Union of the institution of slavery. The
to a military post in Illinois, to which dominant party assumed that the de-
the latter had been ordered in the year cision was final ; that slavery was a na-
1834. There Scott married the female tional institution, having the right to
slave of another officer, with the consent exist anywhere in the Union, and that
of their respective masters. They had the boast of a Georgia politician that
two children born in that free-labor Ter- he should yet " count his slaves on
rilory. The mother was bought by the Bunker Hill " might" be legally carried
master of Scott, and parents and chil- out. President Buchanan, who had been
dren were taken by that officer back to informed of this decision before its
Missouri and there sold. Scott sued for promulgation, foreshadowed his course in
his freedom on the plea of his involun- the matter in his inaugural address
tary residence in a free-labor Territory (March 4, 1857), in which he spoke of
and State for several years. The case the measure as one which would " speed-
was tried in the Circuit Court of St. ily and finally " settle the slavery ques-
Louis, and the decision was in Scott s t ; on. The decision was promulgated
favor. The Supreme Court of the State March 0. 1857.

reversed the decision, and the case was Drewry s, or Drury s, Bluff. See
carried to the Supreme Court of the Unit- RODGERS, JOHN.

ed States, CHIEF-JUSTICE ROGER B. Drum, RICHARD COULTER, military otfi-
TANEY (q. v.) presiding. The chief-jus- cer; born in Pennsylvania, May 28, 1825;
tice and a majority of the court were joined the army in 184(5, and served in the
friends of the slave system, and theii de- Mexican War, being present at the siege
cision, which, for prudential reasons, was of Vera Cruz and the actions of Chapul-
withheld until after the Presidential elec- tepee and Mexico City. He was coin
tion in 1856, was against Scott. The missioned colonel arid assistant adju-
chief-justice declared that any person tant-general, Feb. 22, 1809; promoted
" whose ancestors were imported into this brigadier-general and adjutant-general,
country and held as slaves" had no right June 15, 1880; and retired May 28, 1889.
to sue in a court in the United States; Drummond, SIR GEORGE GORDON, niili-
iri other words, he denied the right of tary officer; born in Quebec in 1771; en-
citizenship to any person who had been iered the British army in 1789; served in
a slave or was a descendant of a slave. Holland and Egypt; and in 1811 was
The chief -justice, with the sanction of a made lieutenant-general. In 1813 he was
majority of the court, further declared second in command to Sir George Prevost;
that the framers and supporters of the planned the capture of Fort Niagara in
Declaration of American Independence December of that year; took the villages
did not include the negro race in our of Black Rock and Buffalo; captured Os-
country in the great proclamation that wego in May, 1814; and was in chief coni-



niand of the British forces at the battle In 1783-84 he was a member of the coun-
of LUKDY S LANE (q. v.) in July. In Au- cil and State Senator, and in 1788 was a
gust he was repulsed at Fort Erie, witli member of the convention of New York
heavy loss, and was severely wounded. He that adopted the national Constitution,
succeeded Prevost in 1814, and returned From 1789 to 1794 he was llnited States
to England in 1816. The next year he re- district judge. He died in -Duanesburg,
ceived the grand cross of the Bath. He N. Y., Feb. 1, 1797.
died in London, Oct. 10, 1854. Late in May, 1775, Judge Duane moved

Drummond, WILLIAM, colonial gov- in Congress, in committee of the w r hole,
ernor ; born in Scotland ; was appointed the " opening of negotiations in order to
governor of the Albemarle county colony accommodate the unhappy disputes sub-
by Sir William Berkeley, governor of Vir- sisting between Great Britain and the col-
ginia, and joint proprietary of Carolina, onies, and that this be made a part of the
During the Bacon rebellion (see BACON, [second] petition to the King" prepared
NATHANIEL), when Berkeley retreated to by John Jay. It was a dangerous pro-
Accomac, Drummond proposed that
Berkeley should be deposed. This prop
osition met with the favor of the lead
ing planters, who met at Williamsburg
and agreed to support Bacon against
the government. The death of Bacon
left the rebellion without a competent
leader. Sir William Berkeley wreaked
his vengeance on thirty-three of the
principal offenders. When Drummond
was brought before him Berkeley ex
claimed: "I am more glad to see you
than any man in Virginia. You shall
be hanged in half an hour." He died
Jan. 20, 1677.

Drury s Bluff, BATTLE AT. See

Dry Tortugas, a group of several
small, barren islands, about 40 miles
west of the Florida Keys. They served
as a place of imprisonment during the
Civil War.

Dryden, JOHN FAIRFIELD, states
man; born near Farmington, Maine,
Aug. 7, 1839; educated at Yale Uni
versity; removed to New Jersey, 1871;
established the Prudential Insurance
Company in 1875; elected to the Unit
ed States Senate from New Jersey to
fill vacancy caused by the death of
General Sewell in 1901.

Duane, JAMES, jurist; born in New posal at that time, as it was calculated
York City, Feb. 6, 1733. In 1759 he to cool the ardor of resistance which then
married a daughter of Col. Robert Liv- animated the people. Duane was a stanch
ingston. He was a member of the first patriot, but was anxious for peace, if it
Continental Congress (1774) : of the could be procured with honor and for the
Provincial Convention of New York in good of his country. His proposition was
1776-77; also in Congress, 1780-82. considered by Congress at the same time
He returned to New York City in 1783, when a proposition for a similar purpose
after the evacuation, and was the first which had come from Lord North was
mayor of that city after the Revolution, before that body. The timid portion of



Congress prevailed, and it was resolved
to address another petition to his Majesty,
but at the same time to put the colonies
into a state of defence. Duane s motion
was carried, but against a most deter
mined and unyielding opposition, and it
rather retarded the prospect of a peaceful
solution. It had no practical significance,

Online LibraryBenson John LossingHarper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) → online text (page 24 of 76)