Benson John Lossing.

Harper's encyclopdia of United States history from 458 A.D. to 1905 (Volume 3) online

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unless it was intended to accept the
proposition of Lord North as the basis for
an agreement.

Duane, JAMES CHATHAM, military offi
cer; born in Scheijectady, N. Y., June 30,
1824; graduated at the United States
Military Academy in 1848, .and served
with the corps of engineers till 1854.
He rendered excellent work during the
Civil War, notably in the building of a
bridge 2,000 feet long over the Chicka-
hominy River. He was brevetted brig
adier-general in 18G5; promoted brig
adier-general and chief of engineers, U. S.
A., in 1886; retired June 30, 1888. From
his retirement till his death, Nov. 8, 1897,
he was president of the New York
Aqueduct Commission.

Duane, WILLIAM, statesman; born in
Devonshire, England, March 18, 1747; re
moved to New York in 1768; member of
the New York provincial congress; dele
gate to the Continental Congress, 1777-78;
secretary of the treasury board, 1789;
Assistant Secretary of the Treasury under
Hamilton. He died in New York City,
May 7, 1799.

Duane, WILLIAM ALEXANDER, jurist;
born in Rhinebeck, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1780;
entered the United States navy in 1798;
admitted to the bar in 1802; member of
the State Assembly; judge of the New
York Supreme Court, 1822-29; president
of Columbia College, 1829-42. He wrote
The Life of Lord Sterling, The Steamboat
Controversy, etc. He died in New York
City, May 30, 1858.

Duane, WILLIAM JOHN, lawyer; born
in Ireland in 1780; was Secretary of the
United States Treasury in 1833, but was
opposed to General Jackson s action in the
matter of the United States Bank, and
was therefore removed from office. He
died in Philadelphia, Pa., Sept. 27, 1865.

Dubois, FRED T., legislator; born in
Crawford county, 111., May 27, 1851; re
moved to Idaho in 1880; was a member of
Congress in 1887-91 ; secured the admis-

15



sion of Idaho to the Union in 1890; and
was its first Senator, serving from 1891
to 1897; and was re-elected in 1901.

Dubois, WILLIAM EDWARD B., educator;
born in Great Harrington, Mass., Feb. 23,




PAUL BELLONI DU CHAILLU.



1868, of negro descent; was graduated at
Harvard University in 1890; and became
professor of economics and history in At
lanta University in 1896. He wrote The
Suppression of ihc Slave Trade, etc.

Du Chaillu, PAUL BELLONI, explorer ;
born in New Orleans, La., July 31, 1838.
He is best known by the results of two
exploring trips to west Africa, during
which he discovered and examined consid
erable territory almost unknown previous
ly, and added sixty species of birds and
twenty of mammals to the zoology of
Africa. His accounts of the gorillas and
pygmies excited a large interest among
scientists, and for a time many of his as
sertions were sharply contradicted as be
ing impossible; but subsequent explo
rations by others confirmed all that he
had claimed. His publications include
Explorations and Adventures in Equa
torial Africa ; A Journey to Ashango
Land; Stories of the Gorilla Country;
Wild Life Under the Equator; My Apingi
Kingdom; The Country of the Dwarfs;
The Land of the Midnight Sun; The
Viking Af/c; Tvar, the Viking; The
People of the Great African Forest; etc.
He died in St. Petersburg, April 29, 1903.



DUCHE DUDLEY



Duche, JACOB, clergyman; born in
Philadelphia, in 1737; educated at the
University of Pennsylvania; and became
tin eloquent Episcopalian. A descendant
of a Huguenot, he naturally loved free
dom. He was invited by the Con
tinental Congress of 1774 to open
their proceedings with prayer. In 1775 he
became rector of Christ Church, and
espoused the patriot cause. Of a timid
nature, Duche, when the British took pos
session of Philadelphia ( 1777) , alarmed by
the gloomy outlook, forsook the Amer
icans, and, in a letter to Washington,
urged him to do likewise. This letter
was transmitted to Congress, and Duche
fled to England, where he became a popu
lar preacher. His estate was confiscated,
and he was banished as a traitor. In 1790
Duche returned to Philadelphia, where he
died Jan. 3, 1798.

First Prayer in Congress. The follow
ing is the text of Dr. Duche s first prayer
in Congress:

Lord, our Heavenly Father, high and
mighty King of kings and Lord of lords,
Who dost from Thy throne behold all the
dwellers of the earth, and reignest with
power supreme and uncontrollable over
the kingdoms, empires, and governments,
look down in mercy, we beseech Thee, on
these American States, who have fled to
Thee from the rod of the oppressor and
thrown themselves on Thy gracious pro
tection. Desiring to be henceforth only
dependent on Thee, to Thee have they ap
pealed for the righteousness of their
cause: to Thee do they now look up for
that countenance and support which
Thou alone canst give. Take them, there
fore, Heavenly Father, under Thy nurtur
ing care: give them wisdom in council
and valor in the field. Defeat *,he
malicious designs of our adversaries,
convince them of the unrighteousness of
their cause; and, if they still persist in
their sanguinary purpose, oh ! let the voice
of Thy unerring justice, sounding in their
hearts, constrain them to drop the
weapons of war in their unnerved hands
in the day of battle. Be Thou present,
Cod of wisdom, and direct the councils of
this honorable assembly; enable them
to settle things on the best and surest
foundation, that the scene of blood may



be speedily closed; that order, harmony,
and peace may be restored, and truth and
justice, religion and piety prevail and
flourish among the people. Preserve the
health of their bodies and the vigor of
their minds ; shower down on them and
the millions they represent such temporal
blessings as Thou seest expedient for them
in this world, and crown them with ever
lasting glory in the world to come. All
this we ask in the name and through the
merits of Jesus Christ, Thy Son, our
Saviour. Amen.

Duchesne, PHILIPPA ROSE, missionary;
born in France in 1769; came to America
in 1818 and engaged in religious work
among the Indians of Louisiana. In 1820
she founded in Barriens, on the Bois-
Brule, the first permanent home of the
sisterhood of the Sacred Heart in America,
and lived to see the order established in
all the large cities of the United States.
She died in St. Charles, La., in 1852.

Ducking-stool. The English colonies
in America continued for a long time the
manners and customs of their native land ;
among others, that of the use of the duck
ing-stool for the punishment of inveterate
scolding women. Bishop Meade, in Old
Churches, Ministers, and Families in Vir
ginia, says, " If a woman was convicted
of slander, her husband was made to pay
five hundred-weight of tobacco " ; but the
law proving insufficient, the penalty was
changed to ducking. Places for ducking
were prepared at court-houses. An in
stance is mentioned of a woman who was
ordered to be ducked three times from a
vessel lying in the James River. The
woman was tied to a chair at the longer
end of a lever, controlled at the shorter
end by men with a rope. The stool being
planted firmly, the woman was raised on
the lever, and then lowered so as to be
plunged under the water.

Dudley, DEAN, genealogist ; born in
Kingsfield, Me., May 23, 1823; admitted
to the bar in 1854. Among his works are
genealogies of the Dudley and Swift
families; Officers of Our Union Army and
Navy, etc.

Dudley, JOSEPH, colonial governor ;
born in Roxbury, Mass., July 23, 1647;
graduated at Harvard in 1665; pre
pared for the ministry, but, preferring
politics, became a representative in tho



158



DUDLEY DUG SPRINGS

general court and a magistrate. From 1644. He died in Boxbury, Mass., July

1677 to 1681 he was one of the commis- 31, 1653.

sioners for the united colonies of New Eng- Duelling. See BLADENSBURG DUEL-

lund. He was in the battle with the Nar- LING FIELD.

raganseta in 1675, and was one of the com- Duer, WILLIAM, statesman; born in

missioners who dictated the terms of a Devonshire, England, March 18, 1747;

treaty with that tribe. In September, 1685, in 1767 was aide to Lord Clive in India;

King James commissioned him president came to America, and in 1768 purchased

of New England, and in 1687 he was made a tract of land in Washington county,

chief -justice of the Supreme Court. Dud- N. Y. ; became colonel of the militia,

ley was sent to England with Andros judge of the county court, member of the

in 1689, and the next year was made New York Provincial Congress, and of

chief-justice of New York. He went to the committee of safety. He was one of

England in 1693, and was deputy govern- the committee that drafted the first consti-

or of the Isle of Wight. He entered tution of the State of New York (1777),

Parliament in 1701, and from 1702 to and was a delegate in Congress in 1777-

1715 he was captain-general and governor 78; and he was secretary of the Treasury

of Massachusetts. Then he retired to his Board until the reorganization of the

quiet home at Roxbury, where he died, finance department under the national

April 2, 1720. Constitution. He was assistant Secre-

The disputes between the royal govern- tary of the Treasury under Hamilton

crs and the people, which continued until 1790. Colonel Duer married (1779)

about seventy years, were begun in Mas- Catharine, daughter of Lord Stirling,

sachusetts with Dudley. In his first He died in New York City, May 7, 1799.

speech he demanded a " fit and convenient Duffield, WILLIAM WARD, military

house" for the governor, and a settled officer; born in Carlisle, Pa., Nov. 19,

and stated salary for him. The House, 1823; graduated at Columbia College

in their answer the next day, observed in 1842; served with gallantry in the war

that they would proceed to the considera- with Mexico. In 1861 he was mode

tion of these propositions "with all con- colonel of the 9th Michigan Infantry; in

venient speed." They resolved to present, 1862 he captured the Confederate force at

out of the public treasury, the sum of Lebanon, and was made commander of all

500, and said, " as to settling a salary the troops in Kentucky. He was brevetted

for the governor, it is altogether new to major-general of volunteers in 1863, and

us, nor can we think it agreeable to our was compelled by his wounds to resign

present constitution, but we shall be from the army before the close of the

ready to do, according to our ability, war. He published Nchool of Brigade and

what may be proper on our part for the Evolutions of the Line.

support of the government." The govern- Dug Springs, BATTLE AT. General

or sent for the speaker and the repre- Lyon was 80 miles from Springfield when

sentatives to come to his chamber, when he heard of the perils of Sigel after the

he declared his disappointment because fight at Carthage. He pushed on to the

of their procedure, and expressed a hope relief of the latter, and on July 13, 1861,

that they would think better of the mat- he and Sigel joined their forces, when

tcr. the general took the chief command. The

Dudley, THOMAS, colonial governor; combined armies numbered, at that time,
born in Northampton, England, in 1576; about 6,000 men, horse and foot, with
was an officer of Queen Elizabeth, serving eighteen pieces of artillery. There Lyon
in Holland; and afterwards he became a remained in a defensive attitude for some
Puritan, and retrieved the fortunes of time, waiting for reinforcements which had
the Earl of Lincoln by a faithful care of been called for, but which did not come,
his estate as his steward. He came to The Confederates had been largely rein-
Boston in 1630, as deputy governor, with forced; and at the close of July
his son-in-law, Simon Bradstreet, and Lyon was informed that they were
held the office ten years. He was ap- marching upon Springfield in two coJ-
pointed major-general of the colony in umns 20,000 under the respective

150



DU LHUT DUNLAP

commands of Generals Price, McCul- erected on the site of what is now Brattle-
loch, Pearce, McBride, and Rains, boro, in Vermont, the oldest English set-
Lyon went out to meet them with tJement in that State,
about 6,000 men, foot and horse, and Dummer, JEREMIAH, patriot; born in
eighteen cannon, leaving a small force Boston, Mass., in 1080; was graduated at
to guard Springfield. At Dug Springs, Harvard in 1G99; went to England as
19 miles southwest of Springfield, in a agent of Massachusetts in 1710, and re-
broken, oblong valley, they encountered mained in London till 1721. He published
a large Confederate force under Gen- a defence of the New England charters,
eral Rains. While the National vanguard in which he claimed that the colonists
of infantry and cavalry, under Steele and through redeeming the wilderness did not
Stanley, were leading, they were unex- derive their rights from the crown but
pectedly attacked by Confederate infan- by purchase or conquest from the natives,
try, who suddenly emerged from the He died in Plaistow, England, May 19,
woods. A sudden charge of twenty-five of 1739.

Stanley s horsemen scattered the Confed- Dunkards, or GERMAN BAPTISTS, a
crates in every direction. The charge was body of Christians who trace their origin
fearful, and the slaughter was dreadful, back to Alexander Mack, one of a small
"Are these men or devils, they fight so?" number of Pietists who had migrated to
asked some of the wounded. Confederate the province of Witgenstein, Germany, to
cavalry now appeared emerging from the escape persecution. In 1708 he became
woods, when some of Lyon s cannon, man- their minister, and after they were bap-
aged by Captain Totten, threw shells that tized in the Eder by being thrice im-
frightened the horses, and the Confeder- mersed, a church was formed. In 1719
ates were scattered. They then Avithdrew, Mr. Mack and all his followers came by
leaving the valley in the possession of the way of Holland to America and settled
Nationals. Lyon s loss was eight men in and around Philadelphia. From this
killed and thirty wounded; that of Rains beginning the Dunkards have spread
was about forty killed and as many through the Eastern, Northern, and West-
wounded, ern States. Their doctrine is similar to

Du Lhut, or Duluth, DANIEL GREY- that of the Evangelical Churches. They
SOLON, explorer; born in Lyons, France; endeavor to follow closely the teachings
carried on a traffic in furs under the pro- of the Bible. They dress plainly, refrain
tection of Count Frontenac; explored the from taking active part in politics, affirm
upper Mississippi in 1678-80, at which instead of taking an oath, settle their
time he joined Father Hennepin and his quarrels among themselves without going
companions. He took part in the cam- to law, do not join secret societies, etc.
paign against the Seneca Indians in 1687 They hold that every believer should be
and brought with him a large number of immersed face forward, being dipped at
Indians from the upper lakes. In 1695 he the mention of each name of the Trinity,
was placed in command of Fort Frontenac The Dunkards now consist of three bodies
and in 1697 was promoted to the command the Conservative, Old Order, and Pro
of a company of infantry. He died near gressive. In 1900 they reported 2,993
Lake Superior in 1709. The city of ministers, 1,123 churches, and 111,287
Duluth was named after him. members, the strongest branch being

Dummer, FORT. In the war against the Conservatives, who had 2,612 minis-

the Norridgewock Indians (1723) repeated ters, 850 churches, and 95,000 members,
attempts were made to engage the as- Dunlap, JOHN, printer; born in

sistance of the Mohawks, but they were Strabane, Ireland, in 1747; learned the

unsuccessful, and Massachusetts was ad- printing trade from his uncle, who was in

vised, with justice, to make peace by re- business in Philadelphia, and at the age of

storing to the Indians their lands. The eighteen began the publication of the

attacks of the barbarians extended all Pennsylvania Packet. This was made a

along the northern frontier as far west daily paper in 1784, and was the first

as the Connecticut River. To cover the daily issued in the United States. The

towns in that valley Fort Dummer was title was afterwards changed to the North-

160



DUNLAP DUNMOBE




LORD DUNMORE S SIGNATURE.



American and United States Gazette. As was the same day which had been ap-
printer to Congress Mr. Dunlap printed pointed by the Massachusetts legislature
the Declaration of Independence. He died for the same purpose.

in Philadelphia, Pa., Nov. 27, 1812. In 1775, iinding the people of his

Dunlap, WILLIAM, painter, dramatist, colony committed to the cause of free-
and historian; born in Perth Amboy, ciom, he engaged in a conspiracy to bring
N. J., Feb. 19, 1766. His father, being a the Indians in hostile array against
loyalist, went to New York City in 1777, the Virginia frontier. He employed Dr.
where William began to paint. He made John Connelly, whom he had commis-
a portrait of Washington at Rocky Hill, sioned in 1774 to lead a movement for
N. J., in 1783. The next year he went to sustaining the claims of Virginia to the
England and received instructions from whole district of Pennsylvania west of
Benjamin West. He became an actor
for a short time, and in 1796 was one of
the managers of the John Street Theatre,
New York. He took the Park Theatre in
1798. From 1814 to 1816 he was pay
master-general of the New York State
militia. He began a series of paintings
in 1816. In 1833 he published a History
of the American Theatres, and in 1834 a
History of the Arts of Design. His His
tory of New Netherland and the State of

Neic York was published in 1840. Mr. ihe Allegheny Mountains. He was a na-
Dunlap was one of the founders of the tive of Pennsylvania, and lived at Pitts-
National Academy of Design. He died in burg; and it is believed that he suggested
New York City, Sept. 28, 1839. to Dunmore the plan of combining the

Dunmore, JOHN MURRAY, EARL OF, Western Indians against the colonists,
royal governor; born in Scotland in He visited General Gage at Boston early
1732; was descended in the feminine line in the autumn of 1775, and immediately
from the house of Stuart. He was after his return to Williamsburg he left
made governor of New York in January, Dunmore and departed for the Ohio coun-
1770, and of Virginia, July, 1771, arriv- try, with two companions. . They were
ing there early in 1772. When the Vir- stopped near Hagerstown as suspicious
ginia Assembly recommended a committee persons, sent back to Frederick, and there
of correspondence (March, 1773), he im- an examination of Connelly s papers re
vealed the whole nefarious plot. He bore
Dunmore s commission of colonel, and was
directed to raise a regiment in the west
ern country and Canada, the rendezvous
to be at Detroit, where hostilities against
the white people might be more easily
fomented among the Indians. Thence he
was to march in the spring, enter Vir
ginia with a motley force, and meet Dun-
more at Alexandria, on the Potomac, who
would be there with a military and naval
force. The arrest of Connelly frustrated
the design. He was put in jail and his
papers were sent to the Continental Con
gress. He was kept a prisoner until
about the end of the war.

mediately dissolved it, and in May, 1774, What is known historically as "Dun-
he again dissolved the Assembly because more s War " was a campaign against
it had passed a resolution making the 1st the Ohio Indians undertaken by Lord
of June a day of fasting and prayer. This Dunmore in 1774.
in. L 161




SEAL OF LORD DCNMORK.



DUNMOBE, JOHN MUBBAY, EABL OF

The cold-blooded murder of the family an insurrection among the slaves. Final-
of LOGAN ( q. v.), an eminent Mingo chief, ly, late in April, he caused marines to
and other atrocities, had caused fearful come secretly at night from the Fowey,
retaliation on the part of the barbarians, a sloop-of-war in the York River, and carry
While Pennsylvanians and the agents of to her the powder in the old magazine at
the Six Nations were making efforts for Williamsburg. The movement was dis-
peace, Governor Dunmore, bent on war, covered. The minute-men assembled at
called for volunteers, and 400 of these dawn, and were with difficulty restrained
were gathered on the banks of the Ohio, a from seizing the governor. The assembled
little below Wheeling. This force marched people sent a respectful remonstrance to
against and destroyed (Aug. 7, 1774) a Dunmore, complaining of the act as spe-
Shawnee town on the Muskingum. They cially cruel at that time, when a servile
were followed by Dunmore, with 1,500 Vir- insurrection was apprehended. The gov-
ginians, who pressed forward against an ernor replied evasively, and the people de-
Indian village on the Scioto, while Col. manded the return of the powder. When
Andrew Lewis, with 1,200 men, encoun- Patrick Henry heard of the act, he gath-
tered a force of Indians at Point Pleasant, ered a corps of volunteers and marched
at the mouth of the Great Kanawha towards the capital. The frightened gov-
Eiver (Oct. 10), where a bloody battle en
sued. The Indians were led by Logan,
Cornstalk, and other braves. The Vir
ginians were victorious, but lost seventy
men killed and wounded. Dunmore was
charged with inciting the Indian war and
arranging the campaign so as to carry out
his political plans. It was charged that
he arranged the expedition so as to have
the force under Lewis annihilated by the
Indians, and thereby weaken the physical

strength and break down the spirits of KEMAINS OF LORU DUSMORE S PALACE.
the Virginians, for they were defying royal

power. His efforts afterwards to incite ernor sent a deputation to meet him. One
a servile insurrection in Virginia for the of them was the receiver-general of the
same purpose show that he was capable province. They met 16 miles from Will-
of exercising almost any means to accom- iamsburg, where the matter was com-
plish his ends. The Indians in the Ohio promised by the receiver-general paying
country, alarmed at the approach of Dun- the full value of the powder. Henry sent
more, had hastened to make peace. Logan the money to the public treasury and re-
refused to attend the conference for the turned home.

purpose, but sent a speech which became In November, 1775, Lord Dunmore pro-
famous in history. Dunmore s officers in ceeded in the war-ship Fowey to Norfolk,
that expedition, having heard of the move- where he proclaimed freedom to all slaves
Tnents in New England, and of the Con- who should join the royal standard, which
tinental Congress, held a meeting at Fort he had unfurled, and take up arms against
Gower (mouth of the Hockhocking River) , the "rebels." He declared martial law
and after complimenting the governor and throughout Virginia, and made Norfolk
declaring their allegiance to the King, re- the rendezvous for a British fleet. He sent
solved to maintain the rights of the colo- marauding parties on the shores of the
Tiists by every means in their power. Elizabeth and James rivers to distress the

The bold movement in the Virginia Whig inhabitants. Being repelled with

convention (March, 1775) excited the spirit, he resolved to strike a severe blow

official wrath of Governor Dunmore, who that should produce terror. He began to

stormed in proclamations; and to frighten lay waste the country around. The peo-

tne Virginians (or, probably, with a more pie were aroused and the militia were

mischievous intent), he caused a rumor rapidly gathering for the defence of the

to be circulated that he intended to excite inhabitants, when Dunmore, becoming

1H2




DUNMORE S WABr-DUPONT



alarmed, constructed batteries at Norfolk,
armed the Tories and negroes, and fortified
a passage over the Elizabeth River, known
as the Great Bridge, a point where he ex
pected the militiamen to march to
attack him. Being repulsed in a
battle there (Dec. 9, 1775), Dun-
more abandoned his intrenchments
at Norfolk and repaired to his
ships, when, menaced by famine
for the people would not furnish
supplies and annoyed by shots
from some of the houses, he can
nonaded the town (Jan. 1, 1776)
and sent sailors and marines
ashore to set it on fire. The
greater portion of the compact
part of the city was burned while
the cannonade was kept up. The
part of the city which escaped was
presently burned by the Virgin
ians to prevent it from becoming
a shelter to the enemy. Thus perished, a
prey to civil war, the largest and richest
of the rising towns of Virginia. After
committing other depredations on the Vir
ginia coast, he landed on Gwyn s Isl
and, in Chesapeake Bay, with 500 men,
black and white, cast up some intrench



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